Communication as an employee management tool in nursing professions

Research Paper (undergraduate), 2003

30 Pages, Grade: 1


Table of contents

1 Introduction

2 Definition of communication

3 Communication skills

4 Forms of communication
4.1 Verbal communication
4.2 Nonverbal communication

5 Theoretical foundations of communication
5.1 The theory of Paul Watzlawick,
5.2 The theses of Friedemann Schulz von Thun

6 Trend-setting basics
6.1 Fundamentals of human history
6.2 Ethical view
6.3 Views from the Bible

7 Communication disorders
7.1 Reasons and causes and possible solutions

8 Expectations in the communication culture of employees

9 Communication in connection with employee management

10 Definition of lead

11 Leadership style:
11.1 Finding your own leadership style
11.2 Cooperative leadership style
11.3 3.1 Authoritarian leadership style
11.4 Charitable leadership style
11.5 Laissez fair leadership style
11.6 Patriarchal leadership style
11.7 The best leadership style

12 Communication in management positions
12.1 Conversation
12.2 Employee appraisals:
12.2.1 An employee appraisal
12.2.2 In the funding discussion
12.2.3 During the assessment interview
12.2.4 The target agreement discussion
12.3 Listening properly
12.4 Critical discussions

13 Conclusion

14 Bibliography
14.1 Primary literature:

1 Introduction

I chose my topic for the specialist work because communication has always been very important to me in my profession as a nurse in connection with nursing.

I have been working in outpatient care for over ten years. The development and progression of quality assurance during this time have constantly accompanied me. More and more administrative activities were added over time and to this day the care compensates more and more in administered services. That's why I see in the two topics "Communication" and the "Leadership" important points for me and my work as a nursing service manager.

Interpersonal skills are often neglected or not trained at all. For example, many specialists sooner or later assume a team leadership or leadership function. However, very few of them have received interpersonal know-how or leadership knowledge in training or at university. For my understanding, it is a knowledge that everyone needs, today as well as tomorrow. In some cases, the results in the company are not achieved efficiently or not at all, despite all the expertise, because the interpersonal basis of the parties involved was not in balance.

In outpatient care, many clients live alone. During the visits, a good communication structure is the basis with which I can make many people's lethargy entertaining. They have no speech and become lonely without talking to a partner.

Communication in dealing with Employees are subject to other principles. Here are good knowledge of human nature and a corresponding Leadership in demand. Basic psychological knowledge offers only advantages to the manager. It can show empathy through this way and give a fair leadership style the necessary authority.

For the sake of simplicity, I have limited myself to the term employee, although the employees are also meant.

My thesis entitled

" Communication as an employee management tool in nursing professions”

I chose out of my interest in a good communication culture with the employees.

It is given to all men,

to recognize oneself and to be wise."

(Greek wisdom of Heraclitus)

2 Definition of communication

- Communicato = Latin = connection, message, conversation, 1
- Communio= to do together, to live together,
- Communis= jointly ready for duty, co-obliged
- Word meaning: "I connect with others,"

"I'm sharing something,"

Communication is the mutual understanding between two or more individuals. These include all kinds of Verbal Messages, i.e. everything that people speak or write, as well as the so-called Nonverbal communication.

With non-verbal communication, we explain all messages that are not sent or recorded via language, but via the body (posture, voice, facial expression, facial expressions) or via feeling. The basis2 of interpersonal communication are the five senses of man: Seeing(visually), hearing (auditory), smelling (olfactory), tasting (gustatory) and touching (tactile). In non-verbal communication, the perception of external stimuli, such as light, sun, darkness is an important feature. In many people, perception is disturbed.

3 Communication skills

Communication skills are the willingness and ability of the individual, conscious and self-congruent3 by communicating by communicating to others as clearly and distinctly as possible (self-revelation), listening consciously to others, knowing how to distinguish the essential from the insignificant, responding to the needs of others and paying attention to non-verbal signals

The principles of communication are:

- All communication is subject to interpretation
- Communication can be analogue or digital
- The relationship level determines the content level

"The concept of communication ability can also be found in the definition of the concept of "interaction", in which "Interaction" is understood." 4 As a general and comprehensive relationship for each kind of mutual conditionality, e.g. in social behaviour, where two or more people can influence each other through communication. Just as the common behavior can be seen as a result of the interaction. In his book "Leading through the Word", Dr. Rupert Lay writes: "The communicative aspect is therefore undoubtedly central to verbal social interaction, to every speech." Without language, communication between people is lost, no interaction can take place. The individual is isolated without the linguistic togetherness. Verbal communication almost always takes place on the social level. That's why it's interesting to include the non-verbal aspects.

4 Forms of communication

Human communication takes place in different structures. We distinguish between verbal and non-verbal communication.

4.1 Verbal communication

Verbal communication is accompanied by a learning process! A toddler expresses himself in spoken language and yet is understood by his parents. Later, the sounds joined together develop into words. Due to the gradual mental development, a linguistically understandable communication is possible.

In verbal communication, information ("I" and "you" messages) is exchanged between sender and receiver. The aspects of the messages influence the content

An example from practice, should not encourage imitation:

Mrs. B., for 2 weeks in the care of our outpatient nursing service, says to Sr. Katja during her last visit during the service:

Sister They haven't given me my tablets yet."

Irritated, sister Katja answered: "Are you or am I here the

"Sister?" and leaves the room door-knocking.

The analysis of this process is:

Mrs B. may have conveyed the following aspects in her message:

"I haven't gotten my tablets yet." (Factual content)

"I don't know why that is." (Self-revelation)

"Tell me why that is." (Appeal)

"As a sister, you must have an explanation for this." (Relationship)

All four aspects of interpretation depend on the recipient's perception.

In my opinion, in this day and age, less and less emphasis is placed on the clarity of communication. Friedemann Schulz von Thun5 describes it as:

- Uniqueness, i.e. clarity, in communication is a four-dimensional matter
- There are many messages in the same message. At the same time, it can be quarrel and yet wrong.
- All sides of the message square are of equal length. The four aspects of communication are to be regarded as equivalent. The overemphasization of the factual aspects is insufficient.

Most people see communication as a conversation. Others are discussing what is meant by this. Talking about a topic is an art in itself. Often people do not talk to each other at all, but argue about trivial things. Dispute is a type of communication, but always associated with a conflict. However, this is a far-reaching issue that I will not go into here.

It is part of the art of oratory to present one's point of view clearly and unmissably understandable. The fact that emotions and attitudes of the speaker and the listener play a role is all too often forgotten. The result is, at best, yawning boredom on the part of the listeners, if not rejection or anger. So talking well means representing representational things and relationships. It is especially important to pay attention to negative sensations, to show them and to express them. Only then is the way clear for an objective dissent.

4.2 Nonverbal communication

Non-verbal communication is the oldest form of interpersonal understanding. Even our ancestors were able to communicate long before man had uttered the first word. Newborns communicate with the mother immediately after birth through skin contact and caressing. Through human development, non-verbal communication is gaining in importance.

Approximately. 85% of all communication 6 runs on non-verbal channels. Here, body language plays a major role in facial expressions and gestures. Our viewing direction signals dominance to the interlocutor, while non-existent eye contact shows uncertainty and guilt-consciousness. A sign of tension (frowns, clenched fists, cramped sitting and significant change in posture) in oneself and the interlocutor also indicate this.

Another form is communication through objects (professional clothing, car, etc.m) and by spatial distance.

Non-verbal understanding will be after Paul Watzlawick7 also called "Digital", i.e. communication based purely on signs. Opposite it is the Verbal or even "analogous" Communication, the demarcation of which is not quite so easy, since analogous communication can be done in many different ways.

Analog signals are direct, pictorial, or represent an analogy, while digital signals are symbolic, abstract, and often complicated. Watzlawick quotes a well-known theorem by Bateson and Jackson for clarification8: "The number "five" has nothing particularly five-like about it, and the word "table" has nothing particularly table-like about it."

5 Theoretical foundations of communication

Origins of communication research can already be found in Sigmund Freud (psychoanalyst): I, Super-I and It. From his theory of psychoanalysis, communication science developed in its present form.

The first models of communication structures can be found in Shannon and Weaver (1949), who documented a purely technical signal transfer. As a communication model, however, this was unsuitable. For Karl Bühler (1934), communication means an "organon model" named after him.9

Another model with a sociological point of view was created by Bernhard Badura10 named. He sees his processes of communication in the

- Level of information (what knowledge can I assume from him?)
- in the communication situation (what is relevant for the participants in the communication?)
- in the interest (what do the dialogue partners want to achieve?)
- and the emotive horizon of experience (what do they feel in the concrete situation?)11

The German-Jewish Ruth Cohn,*1912 (founder of the TZI: topic-centered interaction; "Es, ich, wir- Globe", group dynamic processes)12, who is a pioneer for the theories of F. Schulz von Thun.

After the most important basics of communication, I will limit myself to the two great communication scientists of today and their theories.

5.1 The theory of Paul Watzlawick,

Paul Watzlawick (*1921, Villach/ Carinthia; Philosopher and psychotherapist, professor in Palo Alto)13 has established in his theory five rules of communication:

- "It is impossible not to communicate" ( since everything like behavior, gestures, facial expressions, etc. means communication)
- "Every communication has a content and relationship aspect"( man takes the speech here as envy or admiration)
- "From the different points of view of different partners, each communication contains a structure that appears as an outline of a sequence." ( Contents of the words: what is said relationship and expression: how something is said)
- "Human communication makes use of analogue and digital modalities"( analog relationship level, digital content level)
- "The processes of interpersonal communication are either symmetrical or complementary, depending on whether the relationship of the partners is based on equality or difference." (1. I myself gain by using my power to reach the goal and the other experiences negative feelings, 2. I lose myself and then have negative feelings.)


1 Source: Langenscheidts Großes Schulwörterbuch-Lateinisch-German, pp. 223/224

2 Script from the seminar "Communication"

3 Self-congruent: Correspondence of words and gestures

4 Source: Internet:

5 Source:

6 Source:

7 österr. Physicist and communication scientist, *1921

8 Source:

9 Source:

10 Source: ibid. Footnote 9

11Source: Internet:

12Source: Liliane Juchli, "Pflegepraxis und Theorie", 8th ed. Thieme Verlag

13 Source:ibid. Footnote 11

Excerpt out of 30 pages


Communication as an employee management tool in nursing professions
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ISBN (eBook)
communication, employee management, nursing, care, leadership style
Quote paper
Marlies Gursky (Author), 2003, Communication as an employee management tool in nursing professions, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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