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COVID-19 pervasive is incessantly contaminating peoples worldwide on accounting of increased incidence, persisting maturation period besides traditional medication insufficiency backbreaking the survivance of civilization from previous year. Thus COVID-19 outburst provoked the international importunity for the purpose of effectual clinical-diagnosis, therapy and alleviation of infection proliferation, to manipulate the incessantly mutating drastic acute respiring disorder (SARS- CoV-2) needs coalesce of formal mechanization accompanies by arising techniques. The prevailing circumstances acknowledged in what manner progressing advancement of Nano medicine as well as Nano-technology can assist combat in opposition to the COVID- novel viruses. In this review, using Nano-technological tools, we present the detection and treatment of COVID-19 and narrate the developmental strategies. And we also describe the vaccine development strategies base on nanoparticles. For future these studies will help to make the nanoparticles-based vaccines as nanoparticles are good in drug delivery and not disrupt other body functions. These studies will help to make the nanoparticles-based vaccines as Nano-architecture particles permit antigens to be appropriately presented to the immune system and guarantees increased thermo-stability to upgrade antibody appropriation and accessibility.
Keywords: COVID-19, Nanotechnology, Computational Tools, Drug delivery, Vaccine Design
Infectious diseases derived from various pathogenic diseases causing agents have become increasingly serious global threats to human health and economy. The first pivotal of the pandemic was Wuhan (China) in December 2019. Epidemic COVID-19 outburst is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). Although commendatory lockdowns and Quarantine, the human race suffers much disastrous situation. A long listing dint is already facing the world economy and if the spread of virus is not controlled, situation will be exacerbated (Chauhan etal., 2020). Some of methods for detection involved the virus RNA is detected through real- time-reverse polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), which target N, S, E and RdPs genes. (Srivastava et al., 2021). Nanoparticles are an advance technology that can be used for detection and fighting against fatal infectious disease COVID-19. Because of some unique characteristics over conventionalmethods these nanoparticles 109 having large surface to volume ratio, having unique light scattering properties and exhibit Plasmon resonance, strength and strong (Kumar Raghav & Mohanty, 2020)reactance with the ability to incorporate into living cells.(Weiss et al., 2020) Various types of nanoparticles like gold based nanostructures graphene and iron oxide NPs and lanthanide-doped polystyrene NP have been used for the diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 with the aid of colorimetric, fluorescence, amperometroc and antimagnetic mediated bio sensing. (Srivastava et al., 2021). Paper based biosensor on nanoparticles are capable of converting signals from pathogens through mechanism to yield on amplifier calorimetric readout and is advantages method for point-of-carrier testing (Nguyen & Kim, 2020) Antibody conjugated graphene sheets can rapidly detect targeted virus by screening. (Kumar Raghav & Mohanty, 2020).
Also, some essays have been discovered to monitor presence of SARS- COV_2 related biomarkers e.g. Biosensors that work by exhaled breath. (Shan et al., 2020).The causative agent behind COVID- 19 pandemic is associated to beta class. (Manish Srivastava et al 2020). Through the detection of high- degree of malleability in the genome of coronavirus, it has been observed that the virus can easily enter into the cell and attach through virus receptor. The attachment of Spike glycoprotein to receptor cause protease cleavage, activation of Spike protein, un-coating of virus when entered into the cell and then start RNA transcription and replication. The major target of the virus has been considered to Angiotensin converting enzyme ll (ACE-2) that provokes its cellular uptake. So, there is a need to design ACE-2-based therapeutics. (Hassanzadeh, 2020a) Some of the methods that involved in detection such as graphene enabled bio sensing involve coating of antibodies of SARS-CoV 2 spike proteins, lanthanide doped polystyrene NPs Bio sensing and Gold Nano structures enabled bio sensing for detection. Some nitric oxide therapies play important role in improvement of vascular system in patient suffering from Corona virus attack by in-activating viral proteins using neutralizing nanoparticles, vaccine, immune modulators and photodynamic therapy. Dexamethasone Nanomedicine has also been used for the treatment. Also, bioinformatics approaches and other therapeutics strategies have been introduced. Nanoparticles have considered delivery of antigens to antigen presenting cells and provide improved immune response. Nanoparticles based drugs have biodegradability and biocompatibility controlled by the manufacturer. Nanoparticles facilitating target capture, detection and amplification in colorimetric detection of pathogens. The larger surface area of Nano materials increases the amount of receptor conjugated on their surface, recognition event and improving the performance of detection. We are using nanoparticles because they easily move from blood without disrupting of other function, they have high surface to volume ratio, quantum size effect, highly absorptive, require very less amount of sample analytes and have low cost. The larger surface area of Nano materials increases the amount of receptor conjugated on their surface, recognition event and improving the performance of detection. In this article, we are describing about nanoparticles which are useful in the detection and treatment of COVID-19 and narrate the cure methods, diagnosis method and therapeutic vaccines which are nanoparticles based.
2. METHODS FOR DETECTION:
2.1.1 Graphene enabled bio sensing:
Hexagonally thick layer arranged made up of carbon-based atoms graphene make its endowment towards the development of bio sensing dais by peculiar properties withhold high specific area of surface, high electrical and ionic mobility. Alongside these properties so et al. Developed field of transistor based on bio sensing to detect SARS-COV-2. Graphene surface coated with specific antibodies of SARS-COV-2 spike proteins for the preparation of FET. SARS-COV-2 spike proteins measured at the concentration of 1 fg/mL in phosphate buffered saline but 100 fg/mL for universal transport medium (Srivastava et al., 2021).
2.1.2 Magnetic Nanoparticles enabled Bio sensing:
Magnetic Nanoparticles used to develop biosensor for the detection of deadly respiratory viral infections. Nanoparticles are coated with Carboxyl polymer to detect the COVID-19 infection. PCMNPS Nano system display combined properties include lysis of virus and RNA binding in single step, Remoter with the OR- Flab and N gene for the identification of viral RNA. PCMNPS enables RT-PCR based bio sensing to copy 10 sensitive and linearity of 10-105 copies of SARS-COV-2 particles. PCMNPS enabled RNA extraction approaches to be promising alternative to overcome the issues of SARS-COV-2 through PT-PCR based technique. (Srivastava et al., 2021)
2.1.3 Lanthanide-doped polystyrene NPs enabled bio sensing:
Lanthanide having idiomatic electronic configuration that enabled Lanthanide doped NPs immersing optical characteristics have long luminescence, life time, large and sharp emissions bands. By using Lanthanide-doped NPs based biosensor used to detect Anti-SARS- COV-2 lgG in human serum sample. The LFIA could detect the Anti-SARS-COV-2 IgG in human serum sample in 10 minutes. Chen et al. Compare the results of LFIA with RT-PCR technique are approximately same. Srivastava et al., 2021).
2.1.4 Gold Nano structures enabled Bio sensing:
Gold Nano-structure generally used for biomedical applications. Gold Nano structures impose as a signal transducer in view of. Optical signal amplifier, current amplifier and resonance light scattering to fabricate biosensors for detection of virus. By using Gold NPs, Lateral flow immunoassay which helps to detect the immunoglobin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies of SARS-COV-2 testing strips prepared by used the NC numbers, in which anti-human-IgM, anti-human-IgG and anti-rabbit-IgG cripple at 3 different test lines. Afterwards, conjugated pad sprayed with gold NPs - COVID-19 recombinant antigen conjugate with AuNPs rabbit IgG. This detects the SARS-COV-2 within 15 minutes. (Srivastava et al., 2021)
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3. Methods for treatment:
3.1.1 NO (Nitric Oxide) therapies for improvement of vascular system:
For resolving the complications related to vascular system in COVID-19, nanoparticlesare helpful. Nature based nanomaterial IFMC (integrated functional mineral crystal) can solve the vascular complications of COVID-19, nanomaterial designed on the base of nitric oxide therapy. In studies it shows that; when a living body contact with nature-based nanomaterial which carry the nitric oxide improve the vascular system. By nitric oxide therapy vasodilation, body temperature and blood flow rate increase. By nitric oxide therapy vasodilation, body temperature and blood flow rate increase. In this methodnitric oxide intravascular increase and vassal's diameter increase (Akiyama et al., 2020)
3.1.2 Bi-dimensional graphene for COVID-19 treatment:
As graphene-based nanoparticles are successful for treatment of COVID-19. Graphene contains the antiviral ability; graphene and graphene derived compounds detects the virus protein and take action by antiviral ability and are able to destroyvirus particles (Fig-5). Graphene oxide (heparin) binds on the corona spike protein and changes the virus conformation; this will help in first therapeutic response. Graphene is carbon-based nanoparticles when carbon dots combine with natural antimicrobial polyphenol cur cumin; it gives effective results against COVID-19. (Palmieri & Papi, 2020)
3.1.3 Dendrimers, liposomes, micelles and Nano-capsules for treating viralinfection:
Nanoparticles are design on Nano scale and nanoparticles as small as virus; easily move inour blood flow without distributing any other function. Above mentioned nanoparticles (dendrimers, liposomes.. .etc.) having the antiviral properties and are useful in COVID-19treatment (Fig-5). When nanoparticles bind the virus then electromagnetic radiations apply which disrupt the corona virus. By this way; we can treat the COVID-19 by nanoparticles without disrupting the other body functions. (Brahmanandam et al., 2020)
3.1.4 Bio Nano-sensors method:
In this method different kinds of nanoparticles used like silver nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles. They move in the blood stream and detect the virus and destroy it.
126.96.36.199 Silver nanoparticles having the integral antiviral properties and when nanoparticles modify with (PEG) poly ethylene glycol it improves the functionalization.
Gold nanoparticles having the ability to attach with virus and when specific type of infrared wavelength applies it destroy the virus. (Brahmanandam et al., 2020)
188.8.131.52 Method to inactivate viral particles:
- By using the neutralizing nanoparticles, we can inactivate the virus SARS- CoV-2 (Fig-1). With help of Nano-materials, neutralization of the virus (COVID-19) particles occurs then virus systematically inactivate.
- By use of vaccine and immune modulators which consist on the nanoparticles help us in preventing from covid-19 and also can increase the immune response during the infection.
- By PDT (photodynamic therapy); it helps in the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2. With this therapy virus nucleic acid, proteins and lipids can be destroyed. It's a light-based method produce the reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Fig-2) (Weiss et al., 2020).
“Pathway of NPs in COVID-19 inhibition”
- Dexamethasone nano medicine for COVID-19:
In sever condition of disease this Nano medicine is useful. In sever condition the low dose of dexamethasone for suppressing the high inflammatory in COVID-19. (Hassanzadeh, 2020). This is useful for every phase patient of COVID-19 ithaving the targeting properties, anti-swelling properties and anti-fibrotic properties.
(A) It shows by using nanomaterial's-based masks can prevent the entrance of virus.
(B) NPs can inhibit the cellular binding virus particles.
4. Bioinformatics and Vaccine Development:
Correlation of an agreement SARS-CoV-2 protein succession to groupings of SARS- CoV, bat- SARS-like CoV, and MERS-CoV uncovered a serious level of likeness betweenSARS-CoV and bat- SARS-like CoV. This is as opposed to the low comparability to MERS-CoV. Taken together, the restricted data with respect to SARS-CoV-2 and the similitude between the two infections/ viruses (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) prompted the objective improvement of immunizations for SARS-CoV-2 dependent on the generally accessible information on the Beta coronavirus correlations.
Editor's note: This image was removed due to copyright reasons.
Figure-4: Bioinformatics could be used to predict the similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS- CoV2. N-proteins and S-proteins are potential antigenic epitopes.
Among the SARS- CoV-2 proteins, different examinations recommend that the S and N auxiliary proteins are the most encouraging focuses for antibody plan. (Fig-4) Since S protein intervenes the infection passage into have cells, it is the fundamental objective of killing antibodies upon contamination. The N protein is a profoundly immunogenic and plentifully communicated protein during contamination of SARS-CoV. Also, T cell reactions against the S, M and N proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 have been accounted for to be among the most predominant and durable. Various SARS-CoV epitope successions have been characterized and contrasted with the SARS-CoV-2 arrangement, a large portion of them being gotten from N and S proteins. Various SARS-CoV epitope successions have been characterized and contrasted with the SARS-CoV-2 arrangement, a large portion of them being gotten from N and S proteins. Over the world, much exploration bunches tended to a few B and T cell epitopes, predominantly utilizing bioinformatics instruments (Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR) or The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) (Campos et al., 2020).
5. Nanotechnology and COVID-19:
Nanotechnology apparatuses could be obliging in settling COVID-19 emergency. Restorative turn of events and difficulties against SARS-CoV-2 contamination are not all that different, quite the same as different irresistible illnesses just as oncology research. Similarly, the antibody improvement holds critical shared characteristics with procedures investigated against recently known SARS, MERS COVIDS. (Chauhan et al., 2020) Our point is to plan "repurposed nanotechnology" to quick track the flow research.
6. Nano-medicine Approach for COVID-19 Therapeutics (Rational Selection of Drug-Nano- carrier Combination):-
A wide scope of dynamic moieties including antivirals, nucleic acids and biologics can be stacked and conveyed by Nano carriers. Associating the correct helpful contender to the privilege Nano carrier, focused on a specific/particular infection condition, is pivotal for the business accomplishment of Nano medicine against the SARS-CoV-2 infection. This Nano medicine approach needs to manage reformulating affirmed just as under preliminarymedication contender to improve the "therapeutic index" (TI), dominatingly by tending to the impediments related with the medication particle and alleviating the toxic harmfulness or results. (Florin do et al., 2020). Better discriminating and comprehension of medication explicit results is the "initial phase" in this development/improvement cycle. The "second step" in this cycle is to investigate and choose an exceptionally essential Nano-strategy to amplify the effect of Nano-medicine on the medication's TI. Nano delivery of biologics additionally requires savvy Nano-carrier plans grasping procedures as like the prodrug step/approach. To sustainthis methodology, key rules proposed for the advancement of antiviral/anticancer Nano medicines are of high significance, underlining the correct zones and exact instruments to quick track the COVID-19 Nano medicine research. (Ruiz- Hitzky et al., 2020).
Strategy1. Nano-carrier Selection to Bypass the Conventional Limitations of a Drug Candidate:
For instance, moderately safe immunizer drug forms of exceptionally harmful auristatins are affirmed for the therapy of hematological tumors. A significant restriction for utilization of these forms is the low passable medication payloads. To tackle this issue, polymeric nanoparticles were created with a high and improved auristatins payload to accomplish proficient and safe tumor concealment. (Qi Ruogu. et al 2017). Lipid-covered mesoporous silica nanoparticles, are used to convey a profoundly hydrophilic and insecure antiviral atom ML336 (substance inhibitor of Venezuelan equine encephalitis infection), indicated upgraded flow time and biocompatibility of the ML336 in vivo. (LaBauve Annette E. et al 2018). Nano carriers are utilized to forestall the fundamental immunotoxicity of the protein-based medications and advance/improve immunooncology therapeutics. (Hassanzadeh, 2020b)
Strategy2. Synthetically Alter/ (Re)-engineer Drugs:
Lipid bilayer (liposomes) Nano carriers are favored Nano carriers for pH inclination based distant stacking of amphiphilic and ionizable medications. The hydrophobic properties of doxorubicin were synthetically altered to build its similarity with poly (lactic-co-glycolic corrosive) nanoparticles. The in vivo pharmacokinetic concentrates in rhesus macaques and mice uncovered fundamentally improved adequacy of cabotegravir, demonstrating delayed medication discharge and pharmacokinetic boundaries. Wei and collaborators have announced the utilization of Chol-HCQ (cholesterol-adjusted hydroxychloroquine) stacked liposomes that brought down the portion and toxic effects of HCQ and furthermore repressed the expansion of fibroblasts of rodent lung, in this manner, diminishing pneumonic fibrosis. This procedure can be received to have double advantages in SAR-COV-2 patients, which show viral burden and aspiratory fibrosis. (Sivasankarapillai et al., 2020)
Strategy3. Nano medicine for Combination Drug Therapeutics:
Mix drug treatment is another opportunity for treatment of COVID-19, offering a few points of interest, for example, lower doses of the individual medications causing less results, accomplishing different and commending remedial targets, and diminishing the probability of obstruction improvement. A few such mixes for novel COVID treatment are archived in the WHO scene data. Nano carriers are likewise inherently exceptionally helpful for the conveyance of numerous medications with various physicochemical properties promising the maximum capacity of mix treatments. A liposomal Nano formulation (Vyxeos) coupled with a fixed blend of anticancer medications cytarabine and daunorubicin was as of late endorsed by US-FDA to treat intense myeloid leukemia in grown-ups. Multidrug-stacked (antiretroviral, inertness reactivating specialists, and medication misuse rival) pegylated-magneto-liposomal (ML-PEG) Nano formulations have showed up in vivo and in vitro BBB migration with remarkable anti-HIV development in fundamental CNS cells. This multifunctioning nontherapeutic methodology can be administered to specifically target SARS-COV-2 that has moved to the CNS. Although, drug blend regimens are a norm of care for a wide scope of therapeutics, however improving their Nano formulations is a tough assignment. Nano medicine researchers should exploit progressed drug advancement instruments, screening innovations, bioinformatics, and creature models, and so on to explore and approve nanoparticle blend therapeutics. (Sivasankarapillai et al., 2020)
7. Nanoparticles as transporter frameworks for grouped routinely interspaced short palindromic rehashes (CRISPR):
CRISPR is a quality altering method with high accuracy and potential to be utilized in quality treatment. Primarily, CRISPR/Cas9 is embedded into the cells as plasmids, ribonucleotide proteins or mRNA which can be utilized by Nano carrier frameworks to expand the transfection of cells. What's more, CRISPR-based frameworks have additionally been featured as a choice to be investigated in the quest for control of SARS- CoV-2. Promising outcomes were gotten, with degradation of the RNA of the groupings of SARS-CoV-2. This is an imaginative and quick methodology. The framework, utilizing explicit guide RNA and a particular single-abandoned oligodideoxynucleotide (ssODN), actuated point changes in the locale of the human ACE2 quality associated with authoritative of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, debilitating that. As ACE2 is additionally engaged with the change of angiotensin 2 to control pulse, the conformational sequences/structure of this area has been safeguarded so as not to cause injurious consequences for its capacities. (Parajuli et al., 2020).
Nano medicine Approach for COVID-19 Vaccine:
Vaccination is the best way to deal with irresistible sicknesses counteraction and control. Presently, there are no particular vaccines or immunizations against SARS-CoV-2. The best methodology for a compelling vaccine is having equilibrium of antibody and T cell reactions. Nano-architecture particles permit antigens to be appropriately presentedto the invulnerable framework, to be shielded from proteases and nucleases, or to connect with different mixes with adjuvant action. (Ruiz-Hitzky. et al 2009). Nano technological arrangements are additionally material to immunizations to guarantee high thermo stability to upgrade antibody appropriation and accessibility.
Strategy1. Antigen-Dependent Nano carrier Selection:
Stacking antigens inside or on the outside of Nano carriers is reliant on a few elements including the antigen's physicochemical attributes, organic dependability, target locales, and required immunogen discharge rate. Antigens having amphoteric properties are generally reasonable for adsorption or surface immoveable on Nano carriers, for example, dextran and chitosan sulfate-based polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and inorganic nanoparticles, (for example, AuNPs).
Nucleic acid-based antibodies: The mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination is now under clinical preliminary utilizing LNPs as a Nano carrier. Exposed mRNAs are delicate to the debasement by extracellular RNases; consequently planning its conveyance vehicle is fundamental. LNPs are small as virus, measured (80-200 nm) particles incorporated by the self-get together of an ionizable lipid (cationic).They have the capacity to convey mRNA proficiently into the cytoplasm, as shown by a several investigations. Supported delivery energy of mRNA articulation and consequently protein interpretation can be accomplished by selecting intramuscular and intradermal courses, giving elevated antibody titers, and both B cells and T cells safe reactions. (Kanasty, R. et al 2013). Aside from LNPs, other mRNA Nano carriers incorporate protamine (cationic peptide) Nano liposomes (~ 100 nm), emphatically charged oil-in-water (O/W) cationic Nano emulsion (~120 nm), PEG-lipid nanoparticles (~200 nm), polyethyleniminenanoparticles (100-300 nm), and chitosan nanoparticles (300-600 nm). (Pardi, N. et al 2015). Like mRNA, (chromatin) naked DNA additionally encounters foundational debasement by nucleases and fragmented conveyance to particular immune cells. Nano carriers dependent on cationic lipids (very like as mRNA deliver), engineered and characteristic polymers, and inorganic molecules are prepared for DNA-based vaccine preparations. To improve the conveyance of mRNA/DNA over the cell and core film (nuclear membrane), technologies, for example, the gene-gun method and electroporation are being investigated. A progressing clinical preliminary (NCT04336410) is utilizing a DNA plasmid encoding S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 as an antibody possibility for intradermal organization utilizing an electroporation gadget. (Chauhan et al., 2020)
Strategy2. Vaccine Adjuvant Nanoparticles:
Vaccine adjuvants nanoparticles (VANs) are observed to enhance the general adequacy and safety of the produced immune reaction. Especially in COVID-19 pandemic circumstance, vaccine adjuvants are basic to diminishing the necessary antigen (dose- sparing), allowing the creation of more units and assuring it accessible to bigger population.NVX-CoV2373, a nanoparticle immunization or vaccine (recombinant SARS- CoV-2 glycoprotein based) having an adjuvant (grid M) is presently expected to moving into clinical preliminaries soon. Adjuvants improving wellbeing give a sort of counter- administrative sign educating the immune system to build up a capacity to bear approaching antigens. VANs can either go about as a Nano carrier for sub-atomic adjuvants or have an inborn physicochemical property to animate supportive of or against insusceptibility pathway. (Polymeric nanoparticles containing little molecules are utilized F or lymphoid organ-specific conveyance with controlled presentation. Dose-sparing impact is accounted for antigen and cyclic dinucleotide (adjuvant; agonist of INF gene trigger) combined liposomal nanoparticles indicating safe and positive insusceptible reactions. Synergized stimulation of APCs and delayed counter acting agent reaction was seen with the combined delivery of TLR4 and TLR7 little particle adjuvants utilizing PLGA nanoparticles Vans (containing PLGA, AuNPs) are additionally utilized to co- deliver selfantigens or immunoregulatory drugs as adjuvants to prompt antigen-specific resistance of auto reactive T cells and stop any auto-immune system reaction.). Nanoparticles on account of their characteristic adjuvant city (by enacting supplement framework, inciting autophagy and starting inflammasome) are additionally considered as VANs. (Antigen formed alumina nanoparticles have been accounted for to improve cell and humoral safe reactions because of autophagy acceptance in DCs, cultivating antigen cross-introduction to T cells. VANs have been utilized to expand the effectiveness and theneutralizer reactions of antibodies in the elderly. They contain the most weak gatherings of the population and have the most noteworthy case-casualty pace of the COVID-19 sickness. Squalene-based oil in H2O/W emulsion adjuvants AS03 and MF59 have been authorized for influenza vaccines implied for the old. (Chauhan et al., 2020)
Subunit Vaccines: Subunit antibody competitors comprise insignificant basic parts of SARS-CoV-2 that can prime defensive resistant reactions in the host when controlledwith atomic adjuvants for improved immunogenicity. For instance, contemporary SARS- CoV-2 subunit immunization up-and- comers are preparation of S1/S2 subunits or full- length S protein with adjuvants.
Peptide-based Vaccines: A significant thought for vaccine configuration is safety. Numerous immunizations depend on immunological introduction of entire basic motifs, for instance, full-length S protein, which introduces a huge collection of powerful epitopes prompting an expansive range of neutralizer and cell reactions. Notwithstanding, prior investigations on SARS and MERS vaccine competitors have highlighted dangers of counter action of ADE (antibody-dependent enhancement) of infection. In the previous, existence of non-neutralizing antibodies adds to expanded infections while, the last can prompt hazardous unfavorably susceptible irritations. While there is no accurate proof yet, immunological information from patients may highlight conceivable ADE for SARS- CoV-2, proposing that high IgG titers connect with more awful results. (Along these lines, creating peptide epitope antibody procedures focusing on the S-protein of SARS- CoV-2 may yield a more secure vaccine. Peptide-based vaccines can be planned as peptides in addition to adjuvant combinations or peptides can be conveyed by a proper Nano carrier or encoded with nucleic-acid antibody formulations. (Fig 5.) (Sivasankarapillai et al., 2020)
Editor’s note: This image was removed due to copyright reasons.
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Figure 5: Action of Nanoparticles based vaccines and fusion inhibitors on different parts of the antigens. Antigens from different sources are processed by APC and gets mRNA, which is translatedand then presented by MHC-I and MHC-II leading to production of CD+8T cells or CD4+T helper cells, which further processed for production of antibodies
8. Future Strategies:
8.1 Carbon Quantom Dots:
The extent of nanotechnology using in therapeutics and vaccine research for COVID-19, isn't restricted to traditional therapy and vaccine plans. A few different methodologies including progressed nanomaterial and biomimetic methodologies speak to great possible use in a COVID-19- like episode. Szunerits and colleagues examined the possibility of functionalized carbon quantum dabs (CQDs) to hinder the human COVID (HCoV-229E) disease.
8.2 Cell-Membrane-Mimicking Nano decoys:
Cell-membrane-mimicking Nano decoys are a fascinating decision to trick and trap microorganisms. These biomimetic Nano decoys incorporate cell-membrane nanoparticles, liposomes and reconstituted lipoproteins.
The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak is claiming severs health concern for our society. Currently, thereis no obvious technique is available to cure this contagious infection. So, COVID-19 pandemic influences the research to make attempts for the development of highly effective and specific diagnostic kit to cure this disease. For this purpose, nanotechnology play a key role for the treatment and development of vaccine system. Various types of nanostructures like that graphene, gold, silver nanoparticles, dendrimers, micelles and nano-capsules could be implemented for the development of up to-date techniques of bio-sensing. These methods diagnose the SARS-COV-2 within refer time and very easy to use. Some strategies also have the concern for the development of vaccine. In these strategies Nano medicines and Nano carrier-based vaccines are developed in which, antigens are presented appropriately to the immune system by using nanotechnology-based particles. It also ensures the high accessibility of antibodies. Since, we are in the very preliminary stage of nanomaterial's-basedbio sensing technique. So, in future we put considerable efforts to advance this approach to conflict this battle against COVID-19 outbreak. Some future strategies (CQDs, Nano decoys) are also under consideration which will also help to work with more efficacy and specificity.
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