Small Scale Labour Market Assessment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Case of Selected WISE Implementing Area


Academic Paper, 2022

63 Pages


Excerpt

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. BACKGROUND OF LABOUR MARKET STUDY
1.2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.2.1. General Objectives of the assessment
1.2.2. Specific Objectives of the assessment
1.4. SCOPE OF THE LMA

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1. THEORETICAL LITERATURE
2.2. ETHIOPIAN ECONOMY AND YOUTH (UN)EMPLOYMENT OF GRADUATES

3. ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND APPROACH
3.1. ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY
3.2 ASSESSMENT APPROACH
3.3ASSESSMENT DESIGN
3.4 SOURCE OF DATA
3.5 SAMPLING DESIGN
3.5.1 Population and sampling frame
3.5.2 Sampling technique and procedure
3.6 DATA COLLECTION METHODS
3.7 KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS (KII)
Table 3.1: Participants in the Labour Market Assessment,
3.7.2 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
3.8 DOCUMENT REVIEW (DESK REVIEW)
3.9 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION METHOD
3.10 METHODS USED TO PRODUCE LMA REPORT
3.11 ABILITY TO TRANSFER KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL (TECHNOLOGY) TO STAKEHOLDERS
3.12 TEAM COMPOSITION AND TASK ASSIGNMENT

4. DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.2 Background on Organization for Women in Self Employment (WISE)
4.7.3 BACKGROUNDS OF THE EMPLOYERS
4.8.2 SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF LABOUR MARKET
4.9 HIRING PRACTICES, LABOUR SKILL AND COMPETENCE PREFERENCES OF EMPLOYERS
4.12 SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR RECRUITMENT
4.13 OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE GENDER IN LABOUR MARKET

5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1. CONCLUSION
5.2. RECOMMENDATIONS

Disclaimer:

This LMA report is a collaborative informational and assessment document and does not necessarily reflect the views of any of the contributing partners in all of its contents. Any errors are the sole responsibility of the authors.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1: Participants in the Labour Market Assessment

Table 4.1: Number and Organization of Staff

Table 4.2: Response rate of the respondents

Table 4.3: Age of the respondents (trainees)

Table 4.4: Job requirement listed (rank) preferred by employers (response from employee)

Table 4.5: jobs available in the labour market in Addis Ababa

Table 4.6: Factor that determine Labour employment

Table 4.7: General employment Readiness (GER) Training Provision by WISE.

Table 4.8: trainee’s benefits from WISE

Table 4.9: staff composition and size

Table 4.10: Level of the quality of training offered by WISE

Table 4.11: Employer organization * Work experience of WISE target groups

Table 4.12: Employability rate of WISE trainees

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 4.1: Technical competencies of TVET graduate

Figure 4.2: Sources of job summary

Figure 4.3: Changing demand for skills is faster than training delivery

Figure 4.4: The essential components of skills needs anticipation

Figure 4.5: The ILO approach to skills needs anticipation

Figure 4.6: Employer organization

Figure 4.7: Frequencies of consistence between training and employability level

ACRONYMS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abstract

The goal of this labor market assessment (LMA) is to gain a better understanding of the vocations and skills in demand in Addis Ababa, as well as the city's major labor receiving firms and industries. The assessment's general goal is to evaluate the present labor market in Addis Ababa, particularly in WISE's working regions. It is attempting to bridge the gap between labor demand and supply in the city. This LMA is a critical step in determining skill profiles, shortages, and surpluses, as well as understanding how skills development efforts can be effectively structured and implemented in Addis Ababa to better satisfy labor market demand and economic potential. In Addis Ababa, the study looked at employment trends and employer demands. Employers in key growth industries were interviewed in Addis Ababa. A number of significant players, including key government entities, businesses, and recruiting agents, were also questioned. In the city, key stakeholder interviews were conducted to examine the current state of employment and working circumstances, as well as the support services provided to job seekers, mostly women and youth. An in-depth desk assessment was also carried out to investigate market and job developments in the city. According to the conclusions of this study, the labor market in Addis Ababa is shifting away from traditional, rural occupations and toward urban-based, industrial manufacturing and service industries. The assessment will also serve as a springboard for further research into the labor market's current and future demands, as well as further skill development programs.

Key terms: Labour market assessment, employability, skill gaps, self-promotion, job specific knowledge

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND OF LABOUR MARKET STUDY

Labour Market Assessment (LMA) is a research activity that looks at the restrictions, capacities, and potentials for expanding labor possibilities in the local market system. It entails assessing a vulnerable community's current labor realities and economic coping techniques, as well as developing solutions to recover, strengthen, and extend viable labor options (Save the Children and International Rescue Committee, 2015).

LMA refers to a network of producers, suppliers, processors, traders, buyers, laborers, and consumers who are involved in the production, exchange, and consumption of a specific item or service (s). To put it another way, it's a location where sellers (supply) and purchasers (demand) interact. This can take the shape of a formal or informal arrangement, such as a physical market place with market stalls, or a market for public goods such as water, energy, sanitation, health care, financial services, and education (Mercy Corps' Labour Market Assessment Top Sheets, 2015).

Promoting productive and acceptable work is, in fact, a difficult undertaking, especially for young unemployed women, for a variety of reasons. Ethiopia's urban unemployment rate is 19.1%, according to the 2018 World Bank Enterprise Survey Ethiopia (WBESE). Women have a 26.4 percent unemployment rate, which is more than double that of men (12.2 percent ). In a similar vein, young women and men have jobless rates of 30.9 percent and 19.0 percent, respectively. A recent study on adolescent self-employment in Ethiopia found the similar pattern, with women in metropolitan areas experiencing nearly double the unemployment rate as men (28.1%). (14.4 percent). According to the study, as people get older, the gap widens. Only a small percentage of women work full-time.

Only 27.8% of working women were engaged in permanent, full-time positions in 2018, according to the World Bank report, and 27.6% were full-time production employees. The percentage of full-time non-production employment held by women stayed at 33.9 percent. According to a 2019 analysis by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) on the same topic, women quit the labor market at a faster rate than men and end up limited to the home, where they have a variety of obligations.

According to Ethiopian studies, the growing youth labor force, rising internal migration, literacy rate, mediocre to modest macroeconomic performance, low job creation, and low aggregate demand in the economy are all probable reasons of unemployment in urban Ethiopia (Getinet, 2003, WB, 2017). Furthermore, research demonstrated that consistent policy directives in Ethiopia prohibit any type of gender-based discrimination and ensure equal rights and obligations for both sexes. In reality, large gender differences persist in a variety of areas, including employment patterns, labor participation, and business participation.

The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MoLSA) is responsible for inspecting labor administration, including working conditions, Occupational Safety and Health (OSH), the work environment, industrial relations, and employment services, as well as supporting financial and human resources and participating in the tripartite Labour Advisory Board. The new Labour Proclamation (1156/2019) updated these tasks to enhance and clarify the powers and responsibilities of the government body in charge. In addition, in 2018, the Jobs Creation Commission was founded, which sets the executive organs' powers and responsibilities. The commission was given the authority to drive the job creation agenda, coordinate stakeholders, and monitor and assess performance, according to the regulation.

Because they represent the appropriate ministries, representatives of the government in tripartite forums have the authority to carry out the decision reached in consensus on a given instance. However, there isn't always agreement. Furthermore, due to a lack of personnel and funding, the government is unable to adequately enforce applicable labor market legislation. The Bureaus of Labour and Social Affairs (BoLSAs) and the two city administrations in Addis Ababa are in charge of labour administration at the regional level. These organizations are in charge of labor inspection in each region or city, a job that is frequently delegated to Zonal and District offices. The Central Statistical Agency conducts essential national labour force surveys that provide the most up-to-date information on the workforce's status and development. The Central Statistical Agency delivers important national labour force surveys which provide the latest data on the status and development of the workforce (Ibrahim Worqu, 2019).

Different sorts of urban settings are marked by significant variability. Larger cities, like as Addis Ababa, have lower employment rates and higher unemployment. Smaller cities' economies are also more geared towards the primary sector, and are more interwoven with the surrounding rural areas, which are characterized by greater employment rates, therefore differences between urban areas partly reflect distinct economic structures. Changes in vocational education and training (VET) overlap with social, economic, and labor market policy, affecting both employed and jobless young people and adults. Through formal and non-formal learning, governments around the world develop conversation and cooperation with a wide range of stakeholders in order to react to the different demands of these groups.

Understanding the labor market and company opportunities is critical for connecting job searchers to the workplace. As a result, the purpose of this survey was to evaluate the small-scale labor market in Addis Ababa's Lideta and Akaki sub-cities. The study's findings will include (a) a detailed description of the main characteristics of Addis Ababa's labor market, including women's, men's, and returnees. (a) The study will detail the structure and trends of employment and unemployment in Addis Ababa, with a focus on women and men who are unemployed. (c) Will serve as a foundation for future programming in various intervention areas and will aid knowledge of critical aspects of the broader labor market situation, ranging from skill areas with market demand to the types of jobs available (d) The study aimed to identify key inputs for designing WISE initiatives in the labor market, capacity building, poverty reduction, and future employment, as well as an assessment of economic, social, and technical market growth factors. Finally, (e) WISE expects the findings to serve as the cornerstone for the creation of market-relevant skill training provisions.

1.2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.2.1. General Objectives of the assessment

The overall goal of the labor market assessment survey is to assess the current labor market in Addis Ababa's WISE implementation region.

1.2.2. Specific Objectives of the assessment

The study has the following specific objectives:

- To provide a reliable overview of current labour market trends and a snapshot of business, as well as an overview assessment of economic, social, and technical drivers of market growth
- To determine the relevance of skills training courses offered in WISE to market needs
- To assess immediate needs of unemployed youth and/or graduate

1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LMA

The outcomes of the assessment are expected to form the basis for future advancements in relevant market demand skill training delivery. The outcomes of the evaluations serve as a foundation for future programming in various interventions and help people understand crucial aspects of the larger labor market, such as skill areas and market demand, as well as the types of jobs and employment prospects accessible. Finally, connecting job searchers with the world of employment requires an awareness of the labor market and business opportunities.

1.4. SCOPE OF THE LMA

The consultant’s work covers:

Conduct an exploratory and rapid labor survey assessment, a desk review to learn about the program, and a desk review to learn about the program. Collect data using a series of Key Informant Interviews (KII) and questionnaires with the help of two research assistants on the ground in each area of interest, with the goal of defining the complex multilayered issues in relation to the labor market and providing a way out for unemployed youth and/or graduates, primarily women.

In accordance with WISE program objectives, the report deliverable will comprise 1) an assessment of the labor market survey in Addis Ababa, particularly in the WISE implementation region in Addis Ababa; 2) Determinants of future employment; and 3) prospective areas for intervention.

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1. THEORETICAL LITERATURE

There is an increasing requirement for understanding market dynamics and employer demands across a number of policy-making domains and development aid programs, in order to align job promotion measures accordingly. These interventions must be demand-driven and market-driven in order to be successful.

The term "unemployment rate" refers to the percentage of the population who is unemployed in comparison to the total labor force. The rate indicates the number of people who are willing to work in the production of goods and services despite their inability to find work. The unemployment rate is calculated by dividing the total number of economically active people by the number of people who are unemployed.

Labour market assessments (LMAs) have become a critical component in guiding policy and programming. LMAs assist in gaining a better understanding of labor market dynamics and effectively responding to market demands. How can you pick the best form of assessment for your requirements and circumstances? This compendium discusses these options and the various issues that come with using them.

As a result, a Labour Market Assessment (LMA) is a type of research that looks at the restrictions, capabilities, and potential for growing labor opportunities in a local market system. Examining the existing labor realities and economic coping methods of a crisis-affected community, as well as developing approaches to recover, enhance, and increase viable labor options for this population, are all examples of this in humanitarian situations. As a result, LMAs can inform the design and execution of livelihoods initiatives by providing conflict-sensitive and market-driven insights.

Many commentators argue that the current growth of high-level business services, global financial markets, new information technologies, and the "knowledge economy" is linked to a rediscovery of cities, owing to their specialized labor forces and support services, higher education institutions, and access to high-quality transportation and telecommunications infrastructure (for reviews of the arguments, see Amin and Graham, 1997; Cheshire, 1995; Lever and Champion, 1996). Others have linked the expansion of cultural industries, media, entertainment, and other consumption-based activities to a revival or even a "renaissance" of cities, citing their high density, social diversity, strong interactions, vibrancy, and overall "richness" (see, for example, Comedia and Demos, 1997; Montgomery, 1995).

More recently, the OECD, the European Commission, and the World Bank, through their joint "Faces of Joblessness" project, have shifted attention to the intersectionality of characteristics linked to vulnerability, as well as the central role that people's position in (or out of) the labor market may play in this, by developing a methodology to identify groups of individuals with various sets of characteristics who face various barriers to employment and have overall weak or nonexhaustive job prospects, by developing a methodology to identify groups of individuals with (Fernandez et al, 2016; Sundaram et al, 2014). Vulnerability is thus defined primarily in relation to a variety of pre-established job barriers, rather than solely on the basis of fixed and exogenously acquired traits (e.g., female, elderly, migrant).

The latter includes both enabling and disenabling characteristics, i.e., characteristics that allow individuals to detach themselves from the labor market (e.g., availability of 'high' non-labour incomes and 'high' earnings replacement) and those that prevent them from doing so (e.g., low education or skills, health limitations, care responsibilities); as well as individual characteristics (e.g., limited/no work experience) (e.g., scarce job opportunities). A number of 'profiles,' or groups, have been created as a result of these, identifying individuals with certain features and vulnerabilities. Low-skilled economically inactive women receiving assistance; well-educated mothers with working spouses; discouraged young adults with minimal work experience; skilled/experienced older-age males with restricting health conditions; and so on.

Such intersectionalities are usually investigated in the larger literature on labor market exclusion and vulnerability by looking at labor market outcomes (e.g., unemployment, inactivity, non-standard employment) for specific groups that are known to have a high prevalence of, or significant barriers to, labor market attachment. This primarily affects (a) women, (b) young adults, (c) people with limited education, (d) people in their senior years, (e) migrants, and (f) those in homes with increased caring obligations (e.g., large number of dependents or family members with poor health).

Discrimination against senior workers has also been discovered (Cheung et al, 2011; Ahmed et al, 2012). Problems of labor market exclusion and vulnerability, on the other hand, frequently overlap with issues of health and skills for them. Indeed, data suggests that technological development hastens the deskilling of older employee generations (Peng et al, 2017), notably in terms of 'hard skills,' which are thought to be more important for older workers (Van Dalen et al, 2010). Aside from the effect that individual ill-health has on this, health hazards and potential occupational health risks are also a prominent force in the separation of older people from the labor market (Jones et al, 2013). (Schuring et al, 2013).

With the crisis, the issue of NEET youths (not in employment, education, or training) has gotten a lot of attention from policymakers, and it's sparked a lot of research into how youth employment opportunities respond to business cycle fluctuations, with evidence of increased precariousness (involuntary part-time and temporary jobs) and labor market exclusion (inactivity, under-employment) during times of recession and increased job competition (see, inter-alia, Bell and Blanchflower, 2015; Dolado et al, 2013; Kelly and McGuinness, 2015; and Quintano et al, 2018).

2.2. ETHIOPIAN ECONOMY AND YOUTH (UN)EMPLOYMENT OF GRADUATES

According to empirical research, Africa's youth population is quickly increasing, with projections that it will double to nearly 830 million by 2050. (AfDB 2016). Over the next decade, 1 billion additional young people are expected to enter the labor market, according to projections (Kilimani 2017). These calls for state and non-state actors to grow social and economic sectors and give youngsters with progressive job options (Gebremariam 2017). Private enterprises invest more proportionally and are more responsive to changes in investment possibilities than public firms in industrialized countries such as the United States and Japan (UNCTAD 2017). In emerging nations like Ethiopia, however, public sector investment is dominating, and private investment's relative role in economic growth is still in its infancy (Melese 2012).

Ethiopia has had a spectacular economic success in recent years, with annual GDP growth averaging 10.3% per year from 2005 to 2015. Ethiopia seeks to achieve middle-income status by 2025 (FDRE 2016) and to maintain present economic growth through its second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP II), a 10-year strategic plan, and a home-grown growth strategy plan.

Ethiopia is proud of its double-digit economic growth during the last ten years (FDRE 2016). However, this expansion has not gone far enough to alleviate the problem of unemployment. While unemployment has decreased from 20.4 percent in 2010 to 16.8 percent in 2016, it remains high, with youth unemployment being significantly higher (Wossen and Ayele, this IDS Bulletin; World Bank 2018).

Despite the important role that the private sector may play in driving economic growth and thereby eradicating poverty (World Bank 2018), youth absorption through employment in Ethiopia is shown to be poor (Yizengaw 2016). The terms "youth bulge" and "demographic dividend" have also become popular in discussions about youth and employment policy (Ayele et al. 2017). While the term 'youth bulge' refers to a situation in which a substantial proportion of the population is made up of children and young adults, the term 'demographic dividend' refers to the ability of the youth to promote social and economic progress (ibid.). Along with these storylines, there are worries about 'risky behaviors' among unemployed and underemployed youth, who are frequently subjected to unprotected sex, abuse of authority, and other forms of violence.

In addition, Ethiopia has one of the highest rates of graduate youth unemployment in East Africa (Addis Standard 2017). For example, a 2015 tracer study of Bahir Dar University (BDU) shows that out of the 1,301 young engineers included in the study, 35.4 per cent were unemployed (BDU forthcoming, 2018). While data on graduate (un)employment are anecdotal, some studies (e.g. Mncayi 2016 and Salmi et al. 2017) suggest that graduate engineers are among the growing number of unemployed youth.

The adverse consequences of youth unemployment on families and society at large is evident; for example, partly triggered by the youth unemployment crisis, Ethiopia has recently experienced major political unrest, which led the government to impose two states of emergencies (Addis Standard 2017; BBC 2018). Though the initial spark for these unrests was potential land-grabbing, one of the causes admitted by the government was youth unemployment (Africa Renewal 2017). Besides, regional inequalities in infrastructure provision, poor performance of flagship projects (such as hospitals), unlawful displacement of farmers, lack of rule of law, absence of civil society fora, and lack of vibrant media have all contributed to the flaring up of public disappointment and hence the unrest (Addis Standard 2017). The government also took what appears to be a knee-jerk solution to curb the unrest and allocated 10 billion birr (around US$400 million) to create job opportunities, particularly for young people (ibid.).

Researchers such as Gebremariam (2017) and Gebru (2017) advocate for an overhaul of the economy and greater job chances for the country's unemployed youths and women graduates. Otherwise, if the problem is left to chance, a mismatch between training and employer expectations in Ethiopia could have serious long-term consequences – especially since Ethiopia is Africa's second most populous country, with over 70% of the population under 30 and over 150,000 graduates each year (Africa Renewal 2013; Korpela 2017).

In light of the key role youth are expected to play in the sustained political and economic stability of the country, and the importance of taking a closer look at the plight of the youth and possible solutions to the chronic problem of youth unemployment, there are complaints heard from employers in Ethiopia that their expectations are not met in finding proper graduates of college /TVET training institute who are both competent in theoretical knowledge and also able to practise it efficiently (Salmi et al. 2017).

The broader literature suggests that volatile economic growth accompanied by a poorly educated workforce and skills shortages risks the employability of graduates (World Economic Forum 2014).

Further, Aring (2012) underlined that skills gaps are caused by two major factors: (1) a qualitative skills mismatch where employers do not find tranees with employable skills even when they have the right qualifications on paper, and (2) a quantitative mismatch where not enough graduates are educated and trained at the required levels, or they out-migrate to countries where they can earn higher wages.

McGuinness et al. (2017) further refer to ‘vertical mismatch’ – measured in terms of over-education, under-education, or over-skilling and under-skilling – and skills gaps – measured in terms of unfilled and hard-to-fill vacancies. Based on the above theoretical background, this article thus discusses the causes of skills gaps and mismatches.

3. ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY AND APPROACH

3.1. ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY

The LMA takes a market-driven as well as a community-led strategy. WISE's market-driven approach is founded on the idea that it should first identify prospective economic growth sectors and local job prospects. The next step was to assess the existing skills gaps between the current labor force and the skills sought by employers. WISE ensures that the project is well informed about the market dynamics that impact vulnerable youth unemployed, particularly women, in their pursuit of sustainable livelihoods by conducting such a study and gap analysis. WISE works to ensure that its interventions are rooted in the city's economic reality in all subsequent activities.

3.2 ASSESSMENT APPROACH

Researchers used a combination of approaches to meet the specified goals (both qualitative and quantitative approach). The employment of blended approaches, according to Creswell et al., (2003), helps to overcome the shortcomings of employing single methods and increases the trustworthiness and dependability of the assessment's outcome. The objective for employing a qualitative study design is to investigate the participants' perceptions, practices, and reactions in greater depth, whereas the quantitative technique is used to back up the findings with empirical evidence. In addition, mixed studies are thought to be successful, powerful, and useful for triangulating data.

3.3 ASSESSMENT DESIGN

The assessment design for this study is both descriptive and exploratory. It is descriptive mainly due to the fact that the assessment has focused on describing labour market status, trends and practices. On the other hand, it is exploratory, because the assessment was focused on gaining insights and familiarity for later investigation or undertaken when assessment problems are in a preliminary stage of investigation.

3.4 SOURCE OF DATA

Data for the assessment was gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The key data sources were TVET graduates who were not yet unemployed or employed, with an emphasis on women and youth. Secondary sources were obtained by desk analysis of related WISE documents such as service plans, reports, training curriculum, TVET strategic plan, woreda level visits, government policy, proclamations, and strategies.

3.5 SAMPLING DESIGN

3.5.1 Population and sampling frame

Obviously, in rapid assessment, it is difficult to obtain a perfect sample. There is rarely be a pre-existing sampling frame; population size may not be known; there may be few easily identifiable clustering’s within the population and the size of these may not be known; pre-existing information about means and standard deviations of critical variables are unlikely to be known. Any ways the selection of the participants were from the assessment area.

3.5.2 Sampling technique and procedure

Purposive sampling approach, namely the snowball sampling method, was utilized in the evaluations. Purposive sampling is a strategic sample strategy that tries to build strong correlation between the study objectives and sampling. Snowball sampling, also known as chain-referral sampling, is a non-probability sampling approach in which the samples have features that are difficult to come by. This is a technique for recruiting samples for a research project in which existing individuals refer new subjects. To that purpose, the study participants will be chosen based on their prior experiences and in-depth understanding of the topic under investigation.

The following methods and procedures will be used to determine the representative sample sizes for the study. The simplified formula developed by Kothari (2004) to determine proportionate sample sizes will be employed. The following assumptions were made in this formula: a 95% confidence level and P = 0.5. The following is a representation of the equation:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Where, n= sample size

Z= Values of standard variant at 95% confidence interval, (Z = 1.96).

P = Estimated proportion of households affected because of rapid industrialization.

In this case, as the proportion is not known, therefore, 0.5 will be used at a ‘P’ values to obtain maximum number of sample size, e = Standard error (acceptable error) which is 0.05

Thus, actual sample size will be calculated as follows:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The sample size calculated using the general formula above is obtained regardless of the size of the total assessment population. Therefore, in order to find out the actual sample size for this assessment, an additional step will be taken based on the formula developed by Yamane, (1967) to further refine the proportionate sample sizes suggested for finite study population and is as follows:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Accordingly, sample size will consist of 148 respondents would be fixed for the survey.

3.6 DATA COLLECTION METHODS

Despite its complicated and hard task, data collection is primarily an essential component to conduct any type of study including labour market assessment. Above all, the data collection method can directly determine the effectiveness of the possible findings and recommendations. To this end, data collection procedures and methods will be carried out in the way that suite the integration of both quantitative and qualitative approach and the stated objectives. The consultant used Key Informant Interviews (KII’s) to collect qualitative primary data whereas survey questionnaire was used to collect quantitative primary data mainly from selected respondents.

3.7 KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS (KII)

The goal of key-informant interviews is to gain specialized expertise on a specific topic, however it's crucial to keep in mind that the data can be skewed (Mikkelsen 2005). In light of this information, unstructured interview guides from the employer and authorities were used to conduct interviews with key informants on the labor market, with a focus on unemployed women and youth. In the instance of a structured interview, the consultant created the interview's content depending on the individual or group in question. The following are some of the potential KII participants in the study area (see Table 3.1):

Table 3.1: Participants in the Labour Market Assessment,

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: consultant own construction, 2021

3.7.2 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

The purpose of this tool is to record local job seekers' perceptions in order to determine employment options and placement (the aim is to identify high potential growth sector). Respondents will be asked to compare their current skills and traits to the skills and qualities most desired by employers (including soft and technical skills). A self-administered questionnaire (with both open and closed items) was created to be administered to a random sample of women from the two sub-cities. Participants could be TVET graduates who are working, self-employed, or looking for work. The questionnaire was designed to conduct a sample survey with a predetermined sample size. All basic data and valuable information were thoroughly incorporated into the questionnaire's components.

3.8 DOCUMENT REVIEW (DESK REVIEW)

The desk study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the job environment in Addis Ababa, as well as the prospects available to young men and women in the city. There were few records that provided particular details at a lower level, it was clear. However, a desk study of secondary data was conducted, which included government policies, strategies, project documents, WISE reports, assessments, evaluations, and past labor market reviews, as well as empirical literature.

3.9 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION METHOD

The collected data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The data collected through questionnaires will be edited, coded and encoded in to statistical software (SPSS latest version) and analysed using descriptive statistics. While, the data collected via KII, observation and document review a presented and analysed using explorative methods (content and thematic analysis)

3.10 METHODS USED TO PRODUCE LMA REPORT

Right after signing of an agreement the output expected of consultant is inception report. In order to produce this report, the team systematically plan and developed arrangement to obtain relevant data required for assessing existing situations. With this regard, making a KII with concerned persons, reviewing documents and observing the existing situation demands basic attention. Then after the final draft report is produced and submitted to WISE. Finally, the report on performance of the assignment submitted.

[...]

Excerpt out of 63 pages

Details

Title
Small Scale Labour Market Assessment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Case of Selected WISE Implementing Area
College
Haramaya University  (Peace and Development Studies)
Authors
Year
2022
Pages
63
Catalog Number
V1168750
ISBN (Book)
9783346593184
Language
English
Tags
small, scale, labour, market, assessment, addis, ababa, ethiopia, case, selected, wise, implementing, area
Quote paper
Mr Megersa Tolera (Author)Dr. Chala Dechasa (Author), 2022, Small Scale Labour Market Assessment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Case of Selected WISE Implementing Area, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1168750

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Small Scale Labour Market Assessment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The Case of Selected WISE Implementing Area



Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free