The Importance of Music in Child Development

Bachelor Thesis, 2014

50 Pages, Grade: 1,7

Manu Jink (Author)


Table of contents

1 Introduction

2 Music
2.1 Definition music
2.2 The importance of music in children's everyday lives
2.3 The processing of music in the brain
2.4 The influence of music on the brain

3 Music and child development
3.1 The effect of music on children's areas of development
3.2 Criticism of studies on the effects of music on children's areas of development

4 Music in a living environment context
4.1 The importance of socialization and cultural context
4.2 The importance of socio-economic factors
4.3 The importance of the parental home
4.4 The importance of new media
4.5 The importance of leisure activities

5 Music and education
5.1 Musical activities and their educational relevance
5.2 Music in primary school

6 Music in Social Work
6.1 Understanding Music in Social Work
6.2 Practical example of making music with Boomwhackers
6.3 Research design and research process

7 Conclusion


1 Introduction

Probably at no time has music lessons and musical offerings received as much attention and attention in the public debate as is the case in our days. The so-called "transfer effects" of music are often highlighted in research work and the media. In this context, studies try to prove that increased musical offerings, for example, have a positive effect on the different areas of development of children and adolescents (cf. e.B. Bastian, 2003 or Rauscher et al., 1993). Due to this still current public discussion, the present work deals with the importance of music for children in their development and in their life-world context. The topic is deliberately limited to the importance of music for primary school children aged about 6- 12 years, since no age restriction would significantly exceed the scope of this work. First, it is explained what is meant by music and what role this plays in the everyday life of children. Subsequently, the processing of music in the brain and the influences of music on the brain are examined in more detail. The focus of the present work is the consideration and examination of the effect of music on the child's development areas. With the help of fundamental literature research and the examination of scientific and empirical studies,.B such as the Bastian study (2000), a critical examination and discussion will take place about how music in particular can affect the areas of child development and child education. The aim here is to work out which scientific findings already exist about the effect of music on the child's development, and to use them to illuminate whether music can actually have a supportive and accompanying effect in certain areas of children's lives. The aim is to take into account the context on which the effect of the music can depend. Consequently, the consideration of the life-world context of children follows on from the previous chapters. This consideration will be made primarily on the basis of the MediKuS study (cf. Grigc / Züchner, 2013). The connection between music and education is explained below. It is clarified whether musical activities include educational processes. In addition, the use of music in primary school and social work is considered. Due to the fact that social work can make a contribution to giving musical stimulation in the life-worldly context of children and thus enabling uncomplicated access to music, the present work is rounded off with a practical example from social work. This example was empirically investigated on the basis of a participating observation and forms a further focus of this work. Finally, a summary of the results is presented in the conclusion.

2 Music

2.1 Definition music

Originally, music originated from the Greek musiké and means "... die musikalische Gesamtdarstellung des Menschen in Wort, Ton und Bewegung" (Orff, 1985, p. 9). The everyday definition of music describes the "... Art of arranging sounds in certain (historically conditioned) regularity with regard to rhythm, melody, harmony into a group of sounds and into a stylistically independent composition..."(zit. Bibliographisches Institut GmbH, 2014, p. 1). Hartogh and Wickel expand this understanding of music to the effect that music is music when it occurs to the individual as music and means something to him. Music is therefore a subjective phenomenon that is not exclusively accessible to the trained musician or trained animator. Music is experienced individually by people. Thus, e.B improvisations are expressed differently or listening musical processes are modeled differently. Consequently, in relation to music, there are diverse degrees of expression of talents that present themselves in different degrees of complexity (cf. Hartogh and Wickel, 2004, p. 45). Bruhn shares this definition of music. For him, "... every acoustic event is musically capable of - the only thing that matters is that a musician or a listener regards the event as music" (zit. Bruhn, 2000, p. 22).

2.2 The importance of music in children's everyday lives

Bastian claims: "Every person is musical, whether he knows it and wants to be or not! In every child it plays music from birth, every human being is born for music" (zit. Bastian, 2002). Every child is musical, whether they are aware of it or not, whether they are encouraged or not. Musicality can be observed in almost all children, e.B. how they conduct with sounding bars or try out different rhythms on everyday objects (cf. Bastian, 2002). Dancing and movement to music are important forms of musical life, especially for children between the age of five and ten. Most children immediately convert heard music into their own movements. This motor participation extends not only to the toner-generating organs, such as the voice.B, but to the entire body (cf. Gembris, 2002, p. 333). Children experience music holistically, with several senses of their body. However, in the course of their musical socialization, they learn to control their natural movements to music in early childhood and to pursue their movements to music only when they are socially desirable (cf. Gembris, 2002, p. 333). Children between the age of six and 13 begin to orient themselves to the music of adults. Dhe phase in which "children's music" is heard by children ends approximately at the time of school entry. Afterwards, a reorientation of the music genre takes place. In most cases, children now fall back on the range of offers mediated, which is also preferred by adults (cf. Weber et. al, 1999, p. 111). From a socialization-theoretical perspective, the life-worldly context of children is important, since parents, media, associations, music schools, children's institutions, etc. influence the musical socialization and musical development of primary school children (cf. Grigc, 2013, p. 51 f.). From puberty onwards, this influence is usually replaced by the influence and high importance of peer groups.

2.3 The processing of music in the brain

Altenmüller regards music as "... a complex auditory stimulus. In its basic elements it consists of individual sounds, which are characterized by pitch, duration, volume and timbre" (zit. Altenmüller 2006a).

Auditory patterns arise when sounds are played one after the other. In auditory memory, these are integrated over time and stored in long-term memory (cf. Altenmüller 2006a). The sound waves captured by the ear are translated into electrical stimuli, then passed through the auditory nerve through the brain stem and thalamus - which is a brain structure also known as the gate to the cerebral cortex - and finally reach the auditory cortex of the temporal lobe. Here, a division of labor takes place between the two temporal lobe coils in the brain. The rapid temporal analysis of tones and sounds takes place in the left temporal lobe, the processing of the pitches in the right. From the thalamus, data are also transmitted via direct connections to the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. These are both the essential brain regions in which the emotional evaluations take place (cf. Altenmüller 2002, p. 19 ff.). When a piece of music is heard for the first time, the brain opposes the sensory impressions of already stored patterns and tries to bring order and structure into what is heard. Uncertainty is reduced by recognizing structure and order. Recognizing similarities contributes to understanding the world. This is an essential prerequisite for being able to adapt to the constantly changing living conditions. Thus, by listening to music and making music, the memory is trained for acoustic information. Memory makes it possible to orient oneself in the chaos of the sounds and patterns flowing in. Brain researchers have found out that the processing of music takes place in slightly different brain areas in each individual and depends on the personal auditory learning biography (cf. Altenmüller, 2001, p. 25).

2.4 The influence of music on the brain

Music has an influence on the brain and personality development of those who actively and intensively deal with music. A feeling for music is given to the human brain very early on. Accordingly, the former head of the Max Planck Research Group "Neurocognition of Music": "... Everyone is musical, even very musical" (zit. Koelsch 2010). The fact that music is created by the performance of several brain areas in our head and thus different areas are addressed by them makes it all the more interesting for researchers to find out what influence music actually has on the human brain. The investigations are proving difficult because the human brain is very complex and still not fully researched. So far, it has not been clearly proven that listening to music and actively making music has specific positive effects on the human brain. The experiment by psychologist Rauscher and her colleagues, which became famous under the name "Mozart Effect", was extensively disputed. The hypothesis that active listening in particular to the music of Wolfang Amadeus Mozart, which improves cognitive performance, could not be clearly substantiated. However, in this context music is able to lead to a good mood and at least to increase the performance in the short term (cf. Schuhmacher, 2006, p. 5). The opinions of the researchers are more consistent with regard to the effects of music in active music making. In this way, active music-making changes the structure of the brain. Depending on the intensity and frequency, pronounced anatomical changes occur in various areas of the brain. The corpus callosum - the bar that connects both halves of the brain - is more strongly developed in adults who have been making music since childhood than in non-music-making persons. Intensive music-making therefore seems to have a positive influence on communication and exchange between the two hemispheres of the brain. According to Jäncke (2008), people who had participated in music lessons were found to have better verbal and sometimes better visual memory performance. Likewise, a simplified meta-analysis of the larger studies carried out up to 1994 by Klaus Ernst Behne (1995) shows that intensive music teaching has a positive influence on the social behavior and motivation of students. Instrumental lessons are also suitable for positively influencing attention and endurance behaviour (cf. Altenmüller, 2006b, p.63 ff).

However, the positive influence of music education has not yet been clearly demonstrated. In their explanations and documentation of their results, scientists repeatedly point out that the supposedly positive effect of music can only be associated with intensive and regular practice in the long term, if at all. It is agreed that learning changes the brain. As a logical consequence of this, the fact appears that active music-making, i.e. learning a musical instrument, brings about structural changes in the brain. At the present time, however, it is not yet possible to make a clear representative assessment of which changes in the brain are specifically caused by music and which cannot also be caused in a similar or identical way by the learning of other activities.

3 Music and child development

3.1 The effect of music on children's areas of development

The opinions of the researchers are more consistent with regard to the effects of music in active music making. Therefore, various results of various studies on the effects of music on the various areas of development of children will be examined in more detail and then critically questioned. The classification of the areas of child development is based on the areas of development described by Michaelis and Niemann (cf. Michaelis/ Niemann, 1999, p. 62). These areas of development can be found in a similar form in many concepts of primary schools, as well as in the Berlin education program under the educational areas (cf. Ramseger , et al., 2009, p. 22). In the present work, these are divided as follows: The social development area, the cognitive development area, the linguistic development area, the emotional development area and the musical-creative development area. Only the area of motor development is not mentioned in the present work, since only few or no significant findings can be found. In particular, the Bastian study (2000) is to be examined closely, as this study attracted great public interest and is one of the most important studies with regard to the research of the effect of music on child development in this country. The aforementioned long-term study investigated the influence of extended music education on the general and individual development of primary school children. During the study, Bastian and his research team accompanied primary school children in model classes who took part in an extended weekly two-hour music lesson, additionally learned an instrument and played in an ensemble. The development of the children from the model classes was compared with children from so-called control groups, i.e. primary school classes without this extended music lessons. With a total of 170 children, this study was conducted. Of these, 130 children in the model groups and 40 children in the control groups. The study took place over a six-year period from 1992 to 1998 (see Bastian, 2001, p. 103). The study was based on the thesis:

"... that the learning of an instrument, making music in the ensemble and music lessons can advantageously influence and promote the cognitive (intellectual), creative, aesthetic, musical, social and psychomotor abilities (talents) of children, as well as motivational and emotional dispositions such as willingness to learn and perform, concentration, commitment, independence, resilience and perseverance, foreign and self-criticism, etc.m" (zit. Bastian, 2001, p. 101f.).

3.1.1 The impact of music on social development

The Frankfurt professor of pedagogy Hans Günther Bastian claims in an interview with Spahn that music is one of the most social media (cf. Spahn 2000). People can come together through music. Thus, during making music together, for example.B in an orchestra or in a small ensemble, one is dependent on each other in order to achieve the common goal, Bastian describes further. After all, in addition to influencing the brain, music can also have a supportive effect on the promotion of social skills and non-musical knowledge. With social competence, the individual attitudes and skills, which "... are necessary for a satisfactory coexistence..." (zit. Jugert et al., 2009, p. 11). Making music together in a group requires that the individual child must learn to integrate into the group, to pay attention to the others and to listen literally to them. Ideally, the child sees himself as a permanent member of the group and thus experiences a feeling of togetherness. According to the music and dance teacher Christiane Wieblitz, children acquire the following social skills in dealing with music: Children learn to take the initiative in the music group and thus to lead a group. The cooperation is strengthened and listening to each other is trained. Another important acquisition of non-musical skills is mutual recognition. This is practiced by also saying it. Tolerant and respectful interaction should distinguish the community among themselves. Making music together cultivates interpersonal relationships and by actively making music and being part of this music group, the self-confidence and self-confidence of children is strengthened (cf. Wieblitz, 2007, p.22). In addition, according to Bastian, active music-making or extended music lessons have an effect on the social skills of children in such a way that joint music-making significantly corrects the rejection behavior of children downwards and pupils feel socially, emotionally and performance-motivated more integrated in their classes than students without this music education (cf. Bastian, 2001, p. 58). Likewise, the antipathies of the students among themselves in non-music-making classes are essential, even twice as high, as in music-making classes. Accordingly, in the classes with extended music lessons, there are less often excluded pupils (cf. Bastian, 2001, p. 52 ff.).

3.1.2 The effect of music on cognitive development

Under certain conditions, advanced music education not only promotes social skills but also has a positive effect on the cognitive development of children. The evaluation of the data from the Bastian study showed that music makes children smarter. According to the Bastian study, there is a monotonously increasing connection between musical talent and intelligence. If the musicality value is high, the intelligence value (IQ) is also high. If the musicality value increases, the intelligence value also increases. In the longer term, after four years, students with advanced music education showed a pronounced IQ gain. It was found that children who had already achieved above-average IQ values before the project were able to significantly increase their cognitive aptitude advantage again. Likewise, it was possible for socially disadvantaged children, who were less encouraged in their cognitive development, to continuously improve their intelligence values. In the case of children without a music-accented upbringing, this could not be assessed (cf. Bastian, 2001, p. 81). Bastian, suspects a positive effect of music on intelligence. Active music-making requires fast and simultaneous processing of information in extreme abundance and density. Abstract and complex thinking is claimed. In no other activity does a child have to make so many decisions at the same time and work through them continuously over a period of time. It follows that playing an instrument is a very complex activity. Even with simpler songs, abilities of intellect, gross and fine motor skills, as well as emotion and other senses are claimed (cf. Bastian 2002). more Studies show that the entire brain is involved in making music.

"If someone makes music, it is (...) often his whole body " thereby ". It is therefore not surprising that recent studies on the representation of music in the brain have shown that practically the entire brain contributes to music" (zit. Spitzer, 2002, p. 212).

In this way, children making music promote their ability to concentrate and absorb through the complexity of their performance. The Bastian study on the positive or negative effects of making music on the concentration of children does not have any clear research results. Nevertheless, children from the model classes of the Bastian study showed less weak concentration performance in all school subjects than children from the control groups. From this, the researchers of the Bastian study conclude that music making and music education can prevent significantly weak concentration performance of children (cf. Bastian, 2003, p. 99). Further results of the studies of e.B. Weber et al. (1993) and Costa-Giomi (1999) also indicate that music teaching has a positive effect on general cognitive abilities, but is neither highly pronounced nor permanently persisted (cf. Schumacher, 2006, p. 48). Schellenberg draws attention to this in her studies (2003 / 2006),

"... that the duration of music lessons in childhood correlates significantly positively with IQ as well as with academic or academic performance in childhood and young adulthood, and that although these correlations are not strongly pronounced, they generally affect all cognitive performance and are permanent" (zit. Schumacher, 2006, p. 48).

However, although the measured effects are statistically significant, they are so minimal that these results should not be regarded as indicators of significant performance increases (see Schumacher, 2006, p.48). Some studies of z.B. Brochard et al. (2004), Gromke/ Poorman (1998) point out that skills in the spatial visual field are positively promoted by music lessons. The meta-analysis of 15 independent studies carried out by Hetland (2000) agrees with these results, according to which there is a small but stable positive effect of musical activity on the spatial-visual abilities of children. Nevertheless, in view of the structure of the control groups, it cannot be ruled out in many studies that the measured results are not exclusively specific for music lessons. Instead, the same results can also be achieved through teaching in other areas of content. Furthermore, in some surveys, no positive effects of active music-making can be shown for spatial visual performance. Further surveys therefore need to be carried out. These must be methodologically improved in such a way that selection effects, as well as the possibility that positive effects are only achieved as a result of the additional lessons, are excluded (cf. Schumacher, 2006, p. 36). Similar to the cognitive performance described earlier, some correlation studies carried out so far indicate only slightly pronounced, yet stable correlations between musical talent and mathematical performance. Here, too, selection effects that lead to these results cannot be ruled out, since the influence of the socio-economic situation of the parents on the performance of the children is not sufficiently taken into account. Furthermore, the results cannot be interpreted as clear evidence of the specific effects of music lessons on mathematical performance, since the children in the control groups do not receive additional instruction in another area of content. Therefore, improved investigations are also necessary with regard to mathematical performance (cf. Schumacher, 2006, p. 41). In summary, clearer empirical results must be available before it can be claimed that music education significantly increases overall intelligence.

3.1.3 The effect of music on linguistic development

In some studies e.B. by Magne et al., (2003 / 2006) and Thompson et al., (2004) it could be shown that the processing processes of musical structure and linguistic syntax have a variety of similarities and these take place in comparable brain regions. In addition, some of these studies have shown that musical training is the processing of prosody. positively influenced. Prosodic properties of a language include Emphasis, rhythm and speech melody. Jentschke and Koelsch have found out in an experiment with children between 4 and 11 years that children with musical training, even after only a few years of musical training, have acquired more specific representations of musical syntax than children without musical training. The musical syntax includes e.B. detailed knowledge of the harmonic laws on which Western tonal music is based. This result is not particularly surprising, since musical training logically promotes musical skills. However, these children also showed an earlier and better developed processing of linguistic syntax, i.e. sentence theory. From these results, Jentschke and Koelsch conclude that musical training not only causes the change in the processing processes in music perception, but also supports processes of syntax processing in the linguistic field (cf. Jentschke/ Koelsch 2007). Furthermore, come vdifferent correlation studies e.B. by Barwick et al., (1989) or Wang and MC Caskill (1989) to the conclusion that the reading ability correlates positively with musical abilities (cf. Schumacher, 2006, p. 24 f.). Likewise, several independent quasi-experimental studies indicate that music lessons have a positive effect on linguistic memory. The effects are small, but stable. Experimental studies found that music lessons have a positive effect on reading and writing. The meta-analysis carried out by Butzlaff (2000) comes to the conclusion that musical children can read better. This result therefore indicates that music lessons have a positive effect on reading ability. However, the experimental studies do not show a stable effect on the influence of music teaching on reading ability. It must be noted that it is largely unclear which cognitive mechanisms cause the positive effects of musical activity on linguistic abilities and whether specific effects can also be achieved through additional teaching in other areas.B such as art or sport (cf. Schumacher, 2006, p. 31 et d.).

3.1.4 The effect of music on emotional development

Anxiety and lability are an essential aspect of emotional development. Fear is thereby called

"... agonizing restlessness because of an impending or feared disaster... (Webster 1956) or as [...] unpleasant emotional state, which is clearly distinguishable from other emotional states and has physiological side effects (Ruebush, 1963)..." (zit. Bastian, 2000, p. 355).

understood. The Bastian study used various methods,.B such as the hamster test and the Hamburg neuroticism and extraversion scale for children and adolescents, as well as various teacher/ parent surveys and student interviews, to determine that most children from the music-oriented model classes were able to reduce their fears during their primary school years and were able to cope with their everyday school life calmly. Both general and specific fears decreased significantly over time compared to the children from the control groups (cf. Bastian, 2000, p. 377).

3.1.5 The effect of music on artistic and creative development

In detail, the Bastian study examined the abilities for learning songs, rhythmic reproduction, maintaining a meter of music in movement, as well as the musical talent as a whole (cf. Bastian, 2000, p. 378). Active music-making and extended music lessons at school and outside have a positive effect on the artistic and creative development. Children with increased music-accented teaching showed better performance in musical aptitude, performance and creativity tests over a longer period of time than children who, for.B example, very rarely had the opportunity to experience music in a professional manner (cf. Bastian, 2000, pp. 387, 397).

3.2 Criticism of studies on the effects of music on children's areas of development

In summary, the Bastian study states that extended music education and music education have a positive effect on the cognitive, social, emotional and musical-creative development of children. The aim of the research team around the Bastian study was, among other things, to convince cultural, educational and school policy that music lessons must be given more relevance again (cf. Bastian, 2003, pp.7, 103 et d.). After publication, the study was controversially discussed. Bastian commented on this in his reply "After a long silence: Zur Kritik an der Langzeitstudie "Musikerziehung und ihre Wirkung" (2000), persönlich Stellung. This is the basis for his methods, his approach and his results. The major point of criticism of the Bastian study, as well as of the partly other studies carried out, was that it has not yet been clarified whether the measured results in the various areas of development are specific for music teaching, or whether these can also be achieved through additional teaching in other areas,.B such as art or sport (cf. Schumacher, 2006, p.31 f.). At the moment there is no doubtless evidence whether the results of the various studies under different conditions are equally prominent or not. Altenmüller is rather critical of the results of studies with model and control groups in schools. He believes that the results are influenced by certain factors. Students who, for example.B, act in a model group of a study, for example, can only be motivated by this fact to achieve above-average performance. Teaching a model group can also lead to above-average commitment and more interest in the students among teachers. This is called the "Pygmalion effect". The mere fact that children have more lessons through extended music lessons and therefore receive more attention can have a beneficial effect on the results. It does not matter what is taught, e.B. music, sports, art, etc. For this reason, Altenmüller is extremely critical of the results of the Bastian study. He is of the opinion that specific and lasting transfer effects for linguistic, logical mathematical and spatial intelligence cannot be proven. Although he agrees with the transfer effects of the social intelligences, he also sees them as fluctuating rather than unambiguous. He even goes so far as to describe the study as flawed, because a real control group, which in an additional other subject, such as.B painting or works receives an extended additional instruction, is missing. As a result, no connection can be made between the extended music lessons and the observed effects. Thus, it remains unclear whether the increased attention in the model group is decisive for the improvement of social behavior. Altenmüller also points out that, in view of the positive results, the commitment of the teachers involved in the model classes plays a role that should not be underestimated (cf. Altenmüller, 2006b, p. 66 f.). Not infrequently, when evaluating the results of various studies investigating the effect of active musical activity, one comes across in the literature that the results are not clear enough. Likewise, it is pointed out in various relevant studies that the survey methods must be improved in such a way that selection effects, as well as the possibility that positive effects are achieved only as a result of the additional teaching, are excluded (cf. Schumacher, 2006, p.36, 48).

It should be noted that the findings regarding the positive effect of music-making on different areas of development are partly ambiguous and that there is not too much scientifically sound evidence for the transfer of music education and music-making to different areas of development of children. However, a responsible approach to music, be it active music-making or committed music lessons, is extremely likely to have a positive effect on the body and mind of children. The more intensively and consciously the interaction is experienced, the higher the effects of the music will be heard. However, this does not mean that children can experience the same or similar effects through other diverse activities, leisure activities or lessons with different content focuses.

4 Music in a living environment context

4.1 The importance of socialization and cultural context

The basis of socialization theories is the assumption that human behaviors and abilities, including musical ones, are mainly shaped by the milieu and the environment. Musical behaviour and the corresponding attitudes, as well as preferences, are thus shaped by the family, school, extracurricular organizations, peers and media (cf. Hoffmann/Schmidt 2008). Already philosophy represents, in the empiricist epistemology and in the machanistic models of man, the understanding that man is born as tabula rasa and subsequently shaped by environmental impressions. Man will therefore born with a completely pure soul, which is then shaped by the milieu and the environment. Hippolyte Taine, a French historian and art theorist, has already translated this basic idea into his theory of the development of art and artists. According to Taine, even the milieu is the essential explanation for the development of art and artistic personalities (cf. Gembris, 2002, p.185). In a way, Gembris shares this understanding. According to him, one can feel under musical socialization

"... to present a (learning) process in which the individual grows into a musical culture, developing and adjusting his musical abilities, activities, experiences and values in correlation with the social, cultural, and material environment" (zit Gembris, 2002, p. 185).

This learning process takes place above all through imitation, as well as through positive and negative reinforcement (cf. Gembris, 2002, p. 185). "It is embedded in overarching regional, social, cultural and contemporary historical contexts" (zit. Gembris, 2002, p. 185). Accordingly, on the one hand,

"... the musical development of the individual is always tied to a musical culture and a historical context. On the other hand, through his musical development as a musician or composer, man himself can contribute to the change of musical culture" (Gembris, 2008, p. 164).

4.2 The importance of socio-economic factors

The socioeconomic factors also influence the musical development of a child. Thus, the results of some studies show that there are clearly recognizable relationships between the number of musical instruments in the parental home and the performance in various musicality tests. This is not surprising, since the possession of musical instruments can be understood as an indication of musical interest and musical activity. Money is the basic requirement for the possession of various musical instruments. So it is not surprising that children from better socio-economic backgrounds in particular are given the opportunity to have an instrument and receive instruction. There tends to be a more diverse range of music on offer in better-off households (cf. Gembris, 2002, p. 192). This was also shown by the results of the World Vision study, according to which children from the upper class are significantly more often institutionally involved (cf. Leven/ Schneekloth 2010, p. 102 ff.). On the basis of the DJI children's panel, Betz also proved that cinemas, theatres, music schools, etc. are less frequently attended by children from capital-poor milieus (cf. Betz, 2008, p. 277 f.). Children from families with fewer capitals are much less likely to be socialized in and through organized cultural offerings (cf. Grigc, 2013, p. 57).


Excerpt out of 50 pages


The Importance of Music in Child Development
Alice Salomon University of Applied Sciences Berlin AS
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child development, early childhood, music, primary school
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Manu Jink (Author), 2014, The Importance of Music in Child Development, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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