Management Capabilities and Access to Communication. Selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area


Academic Paper, 2022

60 Pages, Grade: 1.5


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Contents

Abstract

Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8. Limitations of the Study
1.9 Organisation of the Study
1.10 Definition of Operational Terms

Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1.0 Conceptual Review
2.1.1 Marketing capabilities
2.1.2 Innovation capabilities
2.1.3 Technological capabilities
2.1.4. Access to Communication
2.1.5. Relationship between management capabilities on access to communication
2.2 Theoretical Review
2.2.1 Resource-Based Theory (RBT)
2.2.2 Dynamic Capabilities Theory
2.3 Empirical Review
2.3.1 Evidences from Developed Economies
2.3.2 Evidences from Developing Economies
2.3.3 Evidences from Nigeria
2.3.4 Gaps in Literature

Chapter Three: Research Design and Methodology
3.0 Preamble
3.1The Research Design
3.2 The Study Area
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sampling Size and Sampling Technique
3.5 Data Collection Instruments
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments
3.7 Model Specification
3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Findings
4.1 Demographic Variable of Respondents
4.2 Hypothesis Testing
4.2.1 Hypothesis One
4.2.2 Hypothesis Two
4.2.3 Hypothesis Three
4.2.4 Hypothesis Four
4.3 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.0 Preamble
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.2 Conclusion and Implication for Management
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Suggestion for Further Study

Reference

Appendix

DEDICATION

This research project is dedicated to the Almighty God who has been my provider and sustainer all through the course of writing this project. I also dedicate this project to my late father, Mr Aina Abdul-Akeem.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My utmost gratitude goes to the Almighty God for his grace, he has given to me to write this project. I will forever praise Him. I am also grateful to a lot of people and institution that has made this project a reality through their innumerable contribution in one way or the other. I pray that God in his infinite mercy shall continue to guide them in all their undertakings.

My sincere gratitude goes to my amiable, indefatigable supervisor and lecturer Dr. O. A. Ogunkoya (FCA), he carefully and conscientiously guide me throughout the duration of undertaking this project, despite his busy schedule. I am forever grateful sir.

My sincere appreciation goes to all my lecturers from Prof. A. J. Abosede, Dr. M. S. Oladimeji, Dr. M. S. Ogunmuyiwa, Dr. Ik. F. Muo, Dr. B.A Banjo, Mrs. E. A. Adetayo, Mrs.H.A Hassan, Dr. B.A Gege, Dr. O.O. Ariyo, and all other lecturers. Thank you all for your input in my academic pursuit.

My profound gratitude goes to my mother, Mrs. Aina Kudirat Anike, my siblings Aina Raimot Temitope, Aina Olalekan Kazeem, Aina Azeez Babatunde, my nephew Bello Quadri Boluwatife and others for their unflinching support given to me right from my day one on earth till this day.

My sincere appreciation goes to my friend Paseda Ayodeji Gbolahan, Bankole Damilare Alfred, Awodein Sulaimon Adedeji, Akinduro Gideon Taiwo, and my hall mate Mr. Akeula Bariu Abayomi, Gbadebo Oluwatosin. Thank you all and God bless you.

I am grateful to Almighty Allah, the beneficent the merciful, for his grace and his ever present help in time of needs and His abundant grace through my course of study period. I am thanking the institution, Olabisi Onabanjo University that has made this project a reality through their innumerable contribution in one way or the other. I am grateful.

ABSTRACT

This study appraised the impact of management capabilities and access to communication among selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area. The specific objectives were to: determine the impact of marketing capabilities on access to communication; examine the impact of innovation capabilities on access to communication and explore how technological capabilities influences the access to communication in some selected banks in Ijebu North Local Area, Ogun State, Nigeria.

The study was conducted among employees of the selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study adopted survey design. A sample size of one hundred and five (105) respondents were purposively selected from different banks branches in these area. Primary data was employed for this study. A total of 105 copies of questionnaire were distributed to the respondents of the study. Descriptive statistics analysis were employed to analyse the demographic factors of respondents and Multiple Regression Analysis was employed to verify the hypotheses formulated for this study.

Results of this study revealed that marketing capabilities had significant positive impact on access to communication (β = 0.863, p < 0.05): and there was significant positive impact between innovation capabilities on access to communication (β = 0.843, p < 0.05). Also the findings of this study further revealed that technological capabilities had significant positive impact on access to communication (β = 0.568, p < 0.05): and there was significant positive impact between management capabilities on access to communication (β = 0.750, p < 0.05).

Based on the results, it was recommended that organizations need to develop the ability to perceive and communicate new opportunities and potential threats in the environment in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.

Keyword: Management, technology, innovation, marketing, capabilities, access to communication.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the study

The fast rise of digital technologies has changed the business environment and has led to new ways in which firms can do business (Amit & Han, 2017; Massa, Tucci, & Afuah, 2017). There was no beginning that was devoid of communication. Thus, communication facilitates the transformation of human society. New competitors are not necessarily established market players but can even be start-ups that compete against incumbents with different business models (Dushnitsky & Lenox, 2005; Zott & Amit, 2007). Some new business models have significantly changed the rules of the game in certain industries (e.g., Uber and the taxi industry, Netflix and the movie industry, and Airbnb in the accommodation industry) (Teece, 2018).

Organizational communication has been increasingly studied due to the multiple fulfilled roles, which are highlighted by different authors. Communication takes place between two units (individuals, groups and organizations). It involves a sender who transmits a message to a receiver who usually reacts. At times there are interferences between transmission and reception and all this takes place within an environment. Some scholars consider it the most important link of the organizational chain because the organization’s strength or weakness depends on its strength or weakness (Zlate, 2017). Others claim that how an organization conceives or manages its communication says more about its culture than any other process element (Sanchez, Heene, 2017).

According to Wilson, communication can also be seen as a reduction of uncertainty, thus communication is an exchange of meanings. Chen, (2006) pointed out that research is lacking in examining employee satisfaction with the communication process. Therefore, there is need to explore the relationship between organizational communication and worker's performance since communication integrates different units and functions in the organization.

Communication is the human activity that links people together and creates relationships (Duncan & Moriaty, 2015). This means that individuals can relate with each other by using any means of communication. It is the glue that binds people together in an organization. Managers have traditionally spent the majority of their time communicating in one form or another (face-to-face discussion, memos, notice boards, mass meetings, employee handbooks, public lectures, etc.).

On the other hand, management capability is regarded as the capacity to structure, combine, and leverage internal and external resources to create new value for stakeholders and maximize competitive advantage. It is what a firm can do by which individual resources conferred competitive advantages. Capability management distinguishes between operational capabilities, common processes and techniques that can be learned and but cannot be imitated, e.g. the Toyota production system, and dynamic capabilities: hard-to-imitate “signature processes”, routines, and behaviours that are unique to each firm (Stead & Stead, 2015; Teece, 2014.

Kor and Mesko (2013) show that management capabilities contribute to establishing a dominant logic in the firm that takes concrete form in routines, procedures, and capabilities that influence the implementation of strategies and the search for new options for growth and innovation. Research in the last decade obtains empirical evidence of the relationship between management capabilities, strategy, and performance. Another way to think about a capability is that it is an assembly of people, process and technology for a specific purpose (Ric Merrifield, Jack Calhoun and Dennis Stevens, 2008) Management is a process that combines planning, designing, staffing, leading, and organizing actions. The communication process influences not only the way management works but also the way employees understand their role in an organization, the commitment, and the expectations they have. Often each manager has to focus on communication matters concerning crisis management, conflict management, and career management.

Despite the numerous advantages of effective communication and management capabilities businesses all over the world today find these challenging. Similarly, organizations in Nigeria have been faced with a similar problem that seem to be a barrier to the growth and development of any organization such as recruitment and selection related problems, blurred line of communication, mismanagement of funds and resources, poor leadership skills, low level of real income, etc.

It is in this context that this study examines the impact of management capabilities on access to communication, using Some Selected Banks in Ago – Iwoye, Ogun State as a study.

1.2. Statement of the problem

Capabilities can achieve greater profits (Castanias and Helfat, 2001) and competitive advantages for their organizations (Carmeli and Tishler, 2004). Management remains key to delivering the performance needed from the determined strategic intentions. A firm's organizational capabilities are of paramount importance for increasing customer value creation. Human capital knowledge management capability is reflected by a firm’s success in developing and retaining competent and committed human capital and by its efforts to promote the sharing of tacit knowledge amongst employees. Through application of their tacit knowledge, employees provide an organization with capabilities that competitors cannot easily copy (Teece, 2000).

Organizational capabilities are the ability of an organization to perform a coordinated set of tasks, utilizing organizational resources, for the purpose of achieving a particular end result (Helfat & Peteraf, 2003, p. 999). Research in the last decade provides empirical evidence of the relationship between management capabilities, strategy, and performance (e.g., Adner and Helfat, 2003; Barbero , 2011; Carmeli and Tishler, 2004; Castanias and Helfat, 2001; Kearney, 2014; Sirmon and Hitt, 2009). Managers should therefore focus on developing the capabilities that view the customer as a key component, in order to create maximum customer value.

According to Phillips (2010), effective communication is a prerequisite in order to collaborate properly and build a career path in an organization. Organizations must develop relationships of trust and teamwork. This cultivates the commitment as well as creates alliances and feelings of involvement in an organization. Seitel (2004) cites a Fortune Magazine report in which it is shown that the 200 most admired companies spent more than half of their communication budgets on internal communication. This was three times more than the 200 least admired companies spent. Colvin (2006), cited by Barling, Cooper (2008), states that the best 100 companies share the belief according to which efficient two-way communication underlies the employees’ motivation and the organizational success.

Communication involves a sender who transmits a message to a receiver who usually reacts. At times there are interferences between transmission and reception and all this takes place within an environment. The process involves the sender, the message, medium or channel, the receiver, feedback and the environment. Communication requires a spirit of mutual understanding and it must flow freely and fully. At times however it breaks down owing t various factors that preclude it from performing optimally.

Organizational communication has been increasingly studied due to the multiple fulfilled roles, which are highlighted by different authors. Thus, some consider it the most important link of the organizational chain because the organization’s strength or weakness depends on its strength or weakness (Zlate, 2008). Others claim that how an organization conceives or manages its communication says more about its culture than any other process element (Sanchez, Heene, 2007).

However, few studies have been done to uncover the impact of management capabilities on access to communication in Nigeria and some Selected Banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Ogun State. Therefore, this study focuses on the impact of management capabilities on access to communication.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to determine the impact of management capabilities on access to communication. Other specific objectives are to:

i. Determine the impact of marketing capabilities on access to communication?
ii. Examine the impact of innovation capabilities on access to communication?
iii. Examine how technological capabilities influences the access to communication?
iv. Explore the impact of management capabilities on access to communication?

1.4. Research Questions

The research questions for this study will cover the following in line with the Research objectives:

i. What is the impact of marketing capabilities on access to communication?
ii. What is the impact of innovation capabilities on access to communication?
iii. In what ways does technological capabilities affect access to communication?
iv. What is the impact of management capabilities on access to communication?

1.5. Research Hypotheses

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between marketing capabilities on access to communication.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between innovation capabilities on access to communication.

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between technological capabilities on access to communication.

Ho4: There is no significant relationship between Management capabilities on access to communication.

1.6. Significance of the Study

This study is relevant in that it seeks to identify the impact of management capabilities on access to communication in achieving organizational goals and objectives. The study tries to expose the impact of marketing capabilities on access to communication, and its influence on technology capabilities in an organization.

The study will serve as a guide to the bank under examination and the entire banking industry in Nigeria by giving them an insight on ways in which planning and execution of management capabilities on access to communication can be achieved to increase organization performance. It will furnish the government and the general public on information on the impact management capabilities on access to communication. The findings and recommendations will be relevant to all banks in the banking industry.

Finally, it will benefit all corporate bodies, institutions of high leaning and public servant and will add to existing stock of knowledge in management science research and will equally help other researchers that may want to research further on the subject matter.

1.7. Scope of the Study

The study will involve a review of impact of management capabilities on access to communication with emphasis on Some Selected Banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Ogun State. The study will further cover the impact of management capabilities on access to communication within the period 2017 to 2020.

1.8. Limitations of the Study

Despite a relatively small research sample, the research yielded important findings that can be generalized, with certain caution, and are transferable into other areas of research to be analyzed and supported by a more detailed research endeavour.

1.9 Organisation of the Study

The study contains five interrelated chapters. Chapter one deals with introduction which considers background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, scope of the study, significant of the study, and definitions of operational terms. Chapter two is literature review which considers conceptual framework, theoretical framework and empirical studies. Chapter three deals with methodology which considers research design, study area, scope of the study, data type and sources, model specification, variables identification, evaluation criteria and method of data analysis. Chapter four deals with data presentation, analyses and interpretation. Chapter five deals with summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.

1.10. Definition of Terms

i. Management Capabilities: This can be defined as the capabilities of a manager to construct, integrate and reconfigure the organization’s resources and competences (Adner and Helfast, 2003).
ii. Communication: Communication is the human activity that links people together and creates relationships (Duncan & Moriaty, 2015).
iii. Management: Management is the art of getting things done through people (M.P Folliet).
iv. Resources: This can be defined as the productive asset owned by the firm (Ulaga & Reinartz, 2011). It refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants (Wikipedia).
v. Innovation Capability: Innovation capability is defined asa firm's ability to identify new ideas and transform them into new/improved products, services or processes that benefit the firm. (Tidd, 2012)
vi. Technological Capabilities: These are the information, technical-skills, managerial and institutional resources that allow business enterprises to utilize equipment and technology efficiently.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter contains the review of related literature on management capabilities and access to communication. The chapter is conducted under three sections which are conceptual review, theoretical review and empirical review.

2.1.0 Conceptual Review

2.1.1 Marketing capabilities

Marketing capability can help firms sense and respond to market changes such as competitors’ moves, technological evolution and revolution, enable firm organizations to leverage the capabilities and resources of partners for value creation, facilitate firms to foretell and anticipate customer explicit and latent needs. Marketing capabilities reflect a firm's ability to generate and disseminate information and respond effectively to current and potential customer needs (Su, Peng, Shen, & Xiao, 2013).

Marketing capability is the ability to design and run processes effectively to a programme that drives profitable growth. Marketing capabilities can be deliberately focused on generating market orientation by researching the environment for a degree of differentiation towards the service processes, needs, logistics impact, services´ needs, cultural adaptation, costs, customer advice, and image- of the company level (Kadic-Maglajlic, Miocevic, 2020). Marketing capability generates sales by improving the firm’s understanding of markets and customers (i.e., by working on the firm), or by increasing customers’ willingness to pay for the firm’s products (i.e., by working on the customers). In both cases marketing capability boosts sales for the company (Morgan, 2005).

Marketing capabilities enable firms to sense and meet market demand and create durable relationships with customers, channel members, and suppliers through such activities as advertising and promotion, pricing, personal sales, product communication, and market information management (Morgan, 2005). Marketing capabilities assist organization in proper understanding of the market, centred on market research, customer relations, and cross-management capabilities.

Marketing capability also involves the exchange and dissemination of information within the organization. It allows the engagement of internal and external processes around the organization. This allows us to have greater knowledge management, which contributes to generate strategic learning and to create absorptive capacity (Vorhies & Morgan: 2005). In other words, the sellers' skills are focused on defining the goal of the organization towards positioning it in the new environment. Moreover, the marketing capabilities help the management to improve their aptitudes and skills because it can apprehend the market strategies (Stokburger-Sauer: 2016). In concert, it helps sellers to identify the characteristics of the customers' needs or requirements by offering products to satisfy them at that moment and time. Marketing capabilities can be sources of competitive advantage for firms (Hsu 2009, Fang and Zou, 2009, Kaleka, 2011, AnnaKaleka, 2017)).

Marketing capabilities such as market sensing, partner linking, customer capabilities, functional capabilities, networking capabilities have been linked to various positive organizational outcomes (Mitrega, Stephan C. Henneberg, C. Ramos., 2011). Such capabilities can either be used to form a marketing strategy that would lead to superior performance or may be of tactical or operational use, thus contributing to the value chain. In a study performed by (Nath, Nachiappan Subramanian, Ramanathan Ramakrishnan, 2010) the goal was to determine the influence of a firm’s functional capabilities (marketing and operations) and diversification approaches (product/ service and international diversification) on overall financial performance. The results indicated that marketing capability is the fundamental determinant for superior financial performance and also that market-driven firms are likely to have much better business performance than a firm focusing entirely on operational capabilities (Nath. Nachiappan Subramanian, Ramanathan Ramakrishnan 2010). The relationship between the marketing competencies of a company and their entrepreneurial vision and international marketing-oriented awareness has been established (Kanibir, Reha Saydan, Sima Nart, 2014).

Developed sense making capability also expands the potential range of strategic responses and, finally, enhances customer-based performance (Neil, Daryl McKee,Gregory M. Rose, 2006). For example, product development capability (PDC) impacts the launch strategy for a durable product that is sequentially developed over time in a market where consumers have heterogeneous valuations for quality (Nalcaci, 2014). The results indicated that that looking through firms’ resource use up to their marketing capabilities, use of informational and economic resource combines with administration and consumer relations capabilities (Nalcaci, 2014).Marketing and research and development (R and D) capabilities as well as degree of internationalization were linked to the innovation performance of SMEs. The results indicated that internationalization has a positive impact on innovation performance when R andD capability of SMEs’ or marketing capability is high (Ren, Andreas B. Eisingerich,Hueiting Tsai, 2014).

2.1.2 Innovation capabilities

The influence of organizational innovation on the likeliness of introducing successful technological innovations is still under research. Some studies have found a positive effect of implementing organizational innovations on the generation of process innovations, while also identifying insufficient evidence to sustain the existence of an effect on the realization of product innovations (Cozzarin, 2017). Innovation capability is defined asa firm's ability to identify new ideas and transform them into new and improved products, services or processes that benefit the firm. (Tidd, 2012) .

Literature distinguishes different types of innovation and researchers have explored its classification in different ways (Kim, 2012). Innovation is one of the factors which can be seen by companies that will become competitive or will lose in competition (Porter, 1990). Some studies examined a single type of innovation such as process innovation (Abrunhosa and Moura E Sá, 2008) or product innovation (Prajogo and Sohal, 2004), whereas others explored both process and product innovation (Feng, 2008).

Product innovation is associated with either the creation of new markets or the enhancement of existing products (Chang 2012, Deloitte 2012, and Deloitte 2017). It is a difficult process driven by advancing technologies, changing customer needs, shortening product life cycles and increasing global competition (Gunday, Ulusoy, Lutfihak, and Kemal 2011). Process innovation “is the introduction of new and enhanced method of production or service delivery (Expósito & Sanchis-Llopis, 2019) by an enterprise that includes significant changes in techniques, equipment, and tool and machine” (Obeng & Boachie, 2018;OECD, 2005). For product innovation to occur, the business will have to change the way it runs, and this could lead to the breaking down of relationships between the business and its customers, suppliers and business partners. In addition, changing too much of a business's product could lead to the business gaining a less reputable image due to a loss of credibility and consistency (Faizah ., 2016).

According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development (OECD 2005), a process innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved production or delivery method. This includes significant changes in techniques, equipment and/or software. Process innovations can be intended to decrease unit costs of production or delivery, to increase quality, or to produce or deliver new or significantly improved products. The innovation process refers to the transformation process in an innovation trajectory. Process innovation means the implementation of a new or significantly improved production or delivery method (including significant changes in techniques, equipment and/or software) (Nurulhasanah 2016, Abubakar and Kamariah Ismail, 2014). Minor changes or improvements, an increase in production or service capabilities through the addition of manufacturing or logistical systems which are very similar to those already in use, ceasing to use a process, simple capital replacement or extension, changes resulting purely from changes in factor prices, customisation, regular seasonal and other cyclical changes, trading of new or significantly improved products are not considered innovations (Daniela, 2015).

A key outcome of innovation is innovation performance. An ideal definition of innovation performance would include both linear and holistic approaches (Edquist, 2018), and include all determinants of the development and diffusion of innovations which lead to superior innovative firm performance or market success. Innovation performance is a result of multiple influencing factors and represents all achievements and results derived from innovation. Extant conceptions rely on input-output relationships to describe innovation performance (Linton, 2009), defining it as the outcome resulting from an innovation process comprising the development and implementation of innovation activities (Chen & Huang, 2009). The successful transformation of innovation resources and capabilities, into innovation activities, leads to innovative market success (Abdulai, 2019; Edquist 2018). To gain an edge in the hypercompetitive business landscape, innovative capabilities aid in differentiating a firm from its competitors (Kaur & Mehta, 2017). Firms with higher innovative capabilities outperform competitors, are more profitable, and report higher survival probabilities (Adeniran & Johnston, 2012).

Management innovation is argued to be very ambiguous and hard to replicate, and hence is more likely to lead to sustainable competitive advantage (Lin, Su and Higgins, 2016). Management innovation constitutes the rules and routines by which work gets done inside an organization's boundaries (Birkinshaw, 2008). Generally speaking, firms can achieve management innovation by changing organizational structures, processes, and information technology (IT) applications. Specifically, changes in organizational structures (e.g., from hierarchical to horizontal structures) can increase the productivity of labour in the production process. Changes in organizational processes (e.g., just-in-time inventory and lean production) can reduce the amount of capital needed to support in-progress work (Edquist, Hommen, & McKelvey, 2001).

Saunila (2017) defines innovation capability through aspects influencing an organization’s capability to manage innovation. These aspects include participatory leadership culture, ideation and organizing structures, work climate and well-being, know-how development, regeneration, external knowledge and individual activity. According to Sulistyo (2016), empowerment significantly influences innovation capabilities and performance. The better the empowerment in terms of decision-making authority, access to information, providing positive impact and following the planning process will encourage innovation capabilities and the performance. This supports the findings by Çakar and Ertürk (2010; cited by Sulistyo 2016) who conclude that empowerment directly affects innovation capabilities. According to Drucker (1954; cited by Cavusgil. 2003), innovation capabilities are critical to achieving superior innovation performance. This is because markets are characterized by short products life cycle and a high rate of new product introduction. A firm with a great innovation capability will enjoy a high innovation performance Further study of how management capabilities affect innovation performance in organization may be conditioned by their greater administrative flexibility and the strong participation of the top management team in all of the firm’s processes and activities (Escribá-Esteve, 2009).We believe that a top management team one that is responsible for strategic or critical decisions for the firm’s development (Collins and Clark, 2003; Papadakis and Barwise, 2002) and whose composition favours a climate of cooperation, communication, generation of ideas, and creativity-is a relevant factor in explaining how management capabilities lead to greater innovation performance. For example, it has been shown that organizational cultures are more oriented to values such as flexibility, creativity, autonomy, or connection with the organization positively encourage product and process innovations (Naranjo-Valencia, 2012). Prior studies like that by Kearney (2014) suggest that small firms’ management capabilities sustain development of innovations because these capabilities encourage interaction and use of resources, as well as development of a culture that fosters collaboration among workers and innovation.

2.1.3. Technological capabilities

Technology is transforming the twenty-first century out of all recognition, with its value increasing day by day (Sushil 2020). Technological advances in science are radically transforming the market and entrepreneurship world (Jahanshahi, 2018). Technology is not only penetrating a variety of aspects of our personal, day-to-day lives.

It also has the potential to modernise and build business structures, inventive concepts, goods and services, and address dynamic problems in producing new outcomes for the massive growth of entrepreneurship (Sushil 2019). With AI (artificial intelligence), entrepreneurship spreads, where knowledge is the fundamental basis of development to better understand the whole entrepreneurial situation, and it becomes necessary to analyse the entrepreneurship process in a new light (Wright and Schultz 2018; Polas, 2019). Since this era is based on globalization and the knowledge society, most companies in different regions are struggling to be more innovative and competitive. Technological changes, economic shocks, and market demands have forced many organizations to rethink their business models (Evans, 2018).

Technological capability has been defined as ‘a body of knowledge, skills, routines and abilities that lead to technological change (innovation) in order that the firm exceeds its competitors.’ (Tello-Gamarra and Zawislak, 2013). Technological capability has been described as the firm’s ability to design and develop new process, product and upgrade knowledge and skills about the physical environment in unique way, and transforming the knowledge into instructions and designs for efficient creation of desired performance (Wang 2006, Yakubu Salisu, Lily Julienti Abu Bakar, 2019). Technological capability entails not only technical mastery capability, but also the capacity to expand and deploy the firm’s core capabilities, and effectively combine the different streams of technologies and mobilize technological resources throughout the firms (Reichert, 2012).

Furthermore, technological capability comprises the body of practical and theoretical knowledge, procedures, experience, methods and physical equipment and devices (Ahmad, N., Othman, S. N., & Mad Lazim, H., 2014).Technological capability represents a firm’s superior and heterogeneous technical resources which meticulously related to the design technologies, product technologies, information and process technologies, sourcing and integration of external knowledge (Bergek, Tell, Berggren, & Watson, 2008).These components of technological capabilities are responsible for significant positive variation in firm’s performance (Bergek, Tell, Berggren, & Watson, 2008).

Technological capability plays a crucial role in the attainment of firm’s efficiency in innovativeness and production process. It is generally associated with the knowledge and skills necessary for a business firm to develop, use, adapt, absorb and transfer technologies (Mori, Batalha, & Alfranca, 2016).Firm’s technology can be regarded as part of the extensive body of knowledge, techniques, system and tools available for the generation, distribution and the usage of goods and services by the final destination. A firm’s technological change can be appreciated as a continuing process to generate and absorb technologies that enable the firm to competitively produce and offer valuable product to the market.Wang . (2006)opined that the positive impacts of technological capability on firm’s performance demonstrated the potential of this capability to stimulate mediating variables such as firm’s learning.

Information and technology (IT) capability refers to an organization’s ability to identify information technology meetingneeds, to deploy IT to improvebusiness processin a cost-effective manner, and to provide long-term maintenance and support for IT-based systems (Karimi., 2007). It is the abilities to leverage different IT resource for intangible benefits. Technological capabilityis the ability of the company to execute any relevant technical function, including the ability to develop new products, processes, andtechnologicalknowledge in order to obtain higher levels of organizational efficiency (Tsai, 2004). Technological capability is a positive predictor of product innovation (Renko, Carsrud & Brännback, 2009), however high levels of technological capability may prevent the product from generating innovation (Zhou & Wu, 2010). To minimize this impact, investors should look for markets that demonstrate technological expansion potential (the biotech industry, for example) and market innovation (Renko, Carsrud & Brännback, 2009) through firm internationalization (Garcia, Avella & Fernandez, 2012).

According to Afuah (2002) and Zhou and Wu (2010) when a firm builds its technological capability, it invests substantial resources in research and development (R&D), which involves the discovery of new products, the accumulation of knowledge stores, and the training of technical personnel. A firm’s technological capability is developed over time and accumulated through its past experience. Baark, Lau, Lo, and Sharif (2011) survey of 200 manufacturing firms in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region found out that internal sources constitute a major source of innovations that firms use to build technological innovation capabilities.

Khalaji (2014) researched on “The Analysis of Technological Capabilities in Sugarcane Industries. A study of Salman Farsi Cultivation and Industry Company” in India. A survey method was used and statistical population was composed of 32 senior experts having at least 6 years of job experience at technology units of Salman Farsi Company. Data was collected through questionnaires. According to research results; implementation and absorption of technology had a score of 39.69 % and technology strategy had a score of 52.71 %. The research concluded that of all the factors contributing to achieving better competitive position, technological developments play the most prominent role.

2.1.4. Access to Communication

Communication in the workplace occurs for a number of direct and indirect reasons. Primarily, it is necessary for passing information between people working in the same organization and between their organization and others. In the workplace, a person’s ability to communicate is reflected by the quality and range of one’s communication skills. Communication is commonly described as a process of sending messages through different platforms and it is normally comprised of verbal or nonverbal sentiments (Al-Tokhais, A. 2016).

According Otoo (2016), most effective leaders or mangers are those that clearly understand the different aspects of communication and its general impact on the organization’s setting or structure. Possession of knowledge on the relevance of business communication enables managers to improve the nature of communication in the organization which in the long run yields positive results most especially concerning employee’s productivity performance. Open communication can be generally viewed as an instrument of increasing the motivation to work. Osborne (2002) denotes the meaningfulness, importance and usefulness of performed work as the key determinants of job satisfaction. Without clear communication and open access to information, employees are frequently not able to perceive them.

Communication considerably influences the innovation process in every organisation. Many other studies have indicated that the heart of numerous problems occurring during innovation processes is in the ineffective or unreliable communication, especially between different functional departments of the organisations involved in the process. It is therefore important that organisations put emphasis on the development of open and quality communication (Potkany, 2018). Effective communication is therefore one of the essential goals of organisations (Hitka, 2018).

Management of an organisation seeks to create the environment encouraging creativity and innovation, the fundamental tasks include the creation of a clear and open communication system applicable in the entire organisation. This statement can be confirmed by the outcomes by Ye, jha, Desouza, (2015), according to which the effectiveness of communication can determine the success or failure of an innovation project. The competence of employees to communicate effectively is currently considered to be a great advantage. It is also confirmed by a research conducted by Urbancová (2016), according to which the most desirable competence in identifying a talented employee is their ability to communicate.

2.1.5. Relationship between management capabilities on access to communication

Organizational capabilities are the ability of an organization to perform a coordinated set of tasks, utilizing organizational resources, for the purpose of achieving a particular end result (Helfat & Peteraf, 2003). Research in the last decade provides empirical evidence of the relationship between management capabilities, strategy, and performance (Adner and Helfat, 2003; Barbero, 2011). According to Phillips (2010), effective communication is a prerequisite in order to collaborate properly and build a career path in an organization. Organizations must develop relationships of trust and teamwork.

The efficiency of an organization is increased by utilizing a minimal quantity of resources to produce quality products for customers. This would include the right mix of “soft” and “hard” information gathering. According to Barney (1991), a resource that contributes towards improving an organization’s efficiency and effectiveness in satisfying customer needs should be identified as a source of competitive advantage (Le Roux and Oosthuizen, 2010). Good organizational communication, particularly interpersonal communication, is, in turn, vital to efficiently utilizing human and raw material resources.

Communication or its lack can either drive or stall innovative and creative solutions within an organization. Research conducted by Gilley, Dixon, and Gilley (2008) examine the skills and behaviour of leadership and management with respect to change and innovation. In particular, they investigate whether the leaders were able to effectively implement change within their organizations by asking employees to evaluate how frequently leaders coached, rewarded, communicated, motivated, and encouraged teamwork and collaboration among employees. The results of the study confirm that the inability to communicate and motivate were the primary causes of organizational failure. The research also shows that the ability to communicate interpersonally appropriately and motivate others influences a leader’s ability to effectively implement change and drive innovation. In order to be viable in a highly competitive environment, organizations should be able to anticipate, adapt, and execute change successfully.

2.2 Theoretical Review

This study is anchored on two theories. They are resource-based theory propounded by Wernerfelt (1984) and dynamic theory capabilities theory by Teece (1997).

2.2.1 Resource-Based Theory (RBT)

Based on the resource-based theory (RBT), authors such as Wernerfelt (1984) and Barney (1991) proposed that the crucial research question concerns what kinds of corporate resources lead to sustainable competitive advantages. Following these arguments, the types of employee knowledge, skills, and abilities have been considered critical resources for the improvement of existing products and services or for the generation of new ones (innovations). The resource-based theory of the firm (RBT) suggests that a firm can sustain its competitive advantage if it is able to generate sustainable economic rent through its ability to identify, develop, deploy, and preserve particular resources and distinguish these from its rivals. As compared to tangible resources, intangible resources such as know-how, skills, knowledge, perceptions, product reputation, culture and network that are heterogeneous and immobile in nature have received a lot of attention as to its impact on organizations performance Wernerfelt (1984).

The resource-based theory (RBT) regards the firm as a bundle of resources and capabilities, and assumes a heterogeneous distribution of these resources and capabilities across firms that persists over time (Ambrosini and Bowman, 2009). Taking this assumption, academics suggest that when firms have resources and capabilities which are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable (VRIN), they can use them to implement value creation strategies that can lead to a sustainable competitive advantage (Barney, 1991; Peteraf & Barney, 2003). Thus, a firm's resources and capabilities can lead to value creation through the development of a competitive advantage (Ireland, Hitt, & Sirmon, 2003). Nevertheless, merely possessing these resources and capabilities does not guarantee the creation of value nor the development of a competitive advantage (Priem & Butler, 2001).

Resource-based theory of competitive advantage argues that innovations achieve sustainable competitive advantage by accumulating and using resources to serve consumer interests in ways that are hard to substitute for or imitate. It states that successful innovations are determined not just by the innovation. Success is also the result of the people involved, the organizations behind the innovation, contextual factors surrounding its implementation and dissemination, and the innovation’s benefits to stakeholders and the firm (Eloranta V, Turunen T, 2015).

Firms must therefore accumulate, combine and exploit their resources to create value (Sirmon & Hitt, 2003). However, very few studies examine how firms and managers should transform their resources to create value (Priem & Butler, 2001). One of the few studies that analyses the processes that take place in the development of capabilities to create customer value (Sirmon , 2007) identifies the role of the capabilities' configuration design (the so-called mobilizing process), which requires an understanding of the markets and customer needs; the integration of capabilities to generate new configurations (the coordinating process); and the use of the configuration of the capabilities (the deploying process).

In many of the early Resource Based Theory studies, the accepted premise was that the ability related to the possession of new technologies and access to technological innovation, can deliver competitive advantage for a firm (e.g. Katz, 1984). On the basis of this research it was argued that ‘firms that have developed technological capabilities increase their chances of success in relation to those with weak technological capability.’ (Tello-Gamarra and Zawislak, 2013, p. 3). More recent studies have also confirmed a positive relationship between this particular type of capability and an organisation’s ability to innovate or perform innovatively (e.g. Coombs and Bierly, 2006; Reichert, 2011).

2.2.2 Dynamic Capabilities Theory

Dynamic capabilities, which are underpinned by organizational routines and managerial skills, arethe firm's ability to integrate, build, and reconfigure internal competences to address, or in some cases to bring about, changes in the business environment (Teece , 1997, Teece, 2007).

Since their inception dynamic capabilities have become a key explanation for how firms sustain their survival in dynamic environments (Schilke, Hu, & Helfat, 2018). The dynamic capabilities provide a holistic understanding of this process, rather than offering narrow or isolated insights (Teece, 2014). Much of this literature, however, focuses on the role of managers in harnessing dynamic capabilities (Adner & Helfat, 2003; Helfat & Peteraf, 2015; Martin, 2011), exploring the individual underpinnings such as managerial cognition, social capital, and human capital (Helfat & Martin, 2015) that enable managers to enact dynamic capabilities (Rodrigo-Alarcon, García-Villaverde, & Ruiz-Ortega, 2018).

Organization and management research have promoted different and partly non-overlapping definitions of dynamic capabilities. Previous research (Ambrosini & Bowman., 2009) exposed the confusion in the understanding of the concept. In keeping with the “increasing convergence among definitions of the dynamic capabilities construct [toward] the more recent integrative definition by Helfat (2007)” (Schilke, 2018, p. 399), we define dynamic capabilities as “the capacity of an organization to purposefully create, extend, or modify its resource base” (Helfat , 2007, p. 1). This concept provides a holistic framework for explaining the foundations of sustained competitive advantage in dynamic environments based on a firm's abilities to sense opportunities and threats, to seize these opportunities by mobilizing resources and routines, and to reconfigure its base of resources (Jantunen, Ellonen, & Johansson, 2012; Teece, 2014). This definition also puts forward an understanding of dynamic capabilities as being based on strategic flexibility in problem solving (e.g., Li & Liu, 2014), rather than a domain-specific capacity (e.g., Schilke, 2014).

Teece states that, for analytical purposes, “dynamic capabilities can be disaggregated into the capacity to sense and shape opportunities and threats, to seize opportunities, and to maintain competitiveness through enhancing, combining, protecting, and, when necessary, reconfiguring the business enterprise’s intangible and tangible assets.” (2007, p. 1319). Sensing capabilities is essentially about gathering relevant market intelligence. That involves being aware of the business environment and understanding markets and (potential) customers, competitors, and identifying business opportunities Teece (2007). These capabilities involve scanning, interpreting, learning, and creating activities Teece (2007), and are critical in developing innovative value propositions. The firm must constantly search, scan, and explore the full gamut of markets and technologies to identify opportunities and threats, and to understand latent demand (Helfat, 2009). Seizing capabilities is about disseminating market intelligence; that is to say, addressing the identified business opportunity through an innovative value proposition Teece (2007).

Basically, dynamic capabilities are needed to link organizational internal resource configurations with the surrounding environment as stated by Teece (1997). Reconfiguring capabilities are associated with preventing organizational inertia through managing threats and reconfiguring assets and organizational structure (Teece, 2009). Managers use their reconfiguring capabilities after sensing and seizing an opportunity in order to exploit such opportunity through reconfiguring their resources. Lee and Kelly (2008) argued that reconfiguring activities involve the integration of know-how within and outside the organization and devising new ways to assemble and integrate organizational resources. In addition to emphasizing resource reconfiguration, Teece (2009) argued that reconfiguring capabilities demand setting procedures for integrating and sharing knowledge and proper learning in a collaborative setting. Accordingly, we may argue that dynamic capabilities may contribute to clear identification of organizational internal strengths and weaknesses that lead to anticipating external opportunities and threats.

2.3 Empirical Review

This section considers the empirical studies previously carried out on management capabilities and communication in three dimensions; the developed economies, developing and Nigeria.

2.3.1 Evidences from Developed Economies

A research was conducted on the impact of knowledge management capabilities and organizational risk-taking for business model innovation in SMEs in Germany (Marianne, Cheng-Feng Cheng, 2019).The research examined the impact internal and external on knowledge management capabilities have on business model innovation and how these effects are moderated by its risk-taking tolerance. A sample of 197 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Germany were used in the study. The results indicate that particularly external knowledge management capabilities stimulate business model innovation. This relationship is strengthened for firms with a high risk-taking tolerance. Internal knowledge is only effective for firms with a low risk-taking tolerance.

A study was also, conducted to explore the impact of effective communication strategies within an organization and determine how managers used these strategies to increase employee engagement, productivity, and organizational effectiveness. Data were collected from organizational documents, observations, and semi structured interviews with 6 managers of a corporations located in the Midwestern United States. The results of this study shows that managers with knowledge about employee engagement strategies used to improve productivity and organizational effectiveness within the industry. Community relationships could also improve as a result of effective communication (Dr. Cad W. Shannon, 2018).

A research conducted in Germany on the influence of dynamic capabilities and employee participation. The results shows that employee participation is positively related to the dynamic capabilities of a firm. Furthermore, the study indicate that managers can facilitate employee participation through both trust in formal and informal control of subordinates. The findings also suggest a positive relationship between informal control and dynamic capabilities, and point to employee participation as a mediator in the relationship between trust and dynamic capabilities (Veit Wohlgemuth, Matthias Wenze, 2019).

2.3.2 Evidences from Developing Economies

Fawwaz Awamleh and Ahmet Ertugan (2021) examined the relationship between information technology capabilities, organizational intelligence, and competitive advantage. This study aimed to identify the mediating role of organizational intelligence between information technology capabilities and competitive advantage. The data were collected from a sample of 224 employees of various managerial positions in e-commerce companies in Jordan. The study concluded that information technology capabilities and organizational intelligence play an essential role in raising and improving competitive advantage and responding to business environmental changes.

Ruiz-Jiménez and Fuentes-Fuentes (2015) analyses the influence of management capabilities on the innovation performance of technology-based SMEs and the role that gender diversity in the top management team plays in this relationship. The study use a sample of 205 Spanish SMEs from technology sectors. The results of the work confirm that management capabilities affect both product and process innovation positively. In addition, gender diversity in the top management team moderates this relationship positively. In other words, management capabilities have a greater influence on both product and process innovation when the management team is more balanced in number of men and women. The study contributes to better understanding of the factors that explain how management capabilities translate into greater organizational achievements and argues the need to analyze the role of top management teams and their composition more extensively, especially in the context of technologies. The study also contributes new evidence to the small number of studies that analyze the effect of gender diversity in top management teams on innovation.

Empirical evidence on the role of quality management capabilities in developing market-based organisational learning capabilities a study of four Indian business process outsourcing firms. This work addresses an unexplored theoretical gap of developing market-based organisational learning capabilities in business process outsourcing firms. The findings suggest that effective knowledge transfer, diffusion and the development of market-based organisational learning capabilities are contingent upon the strength of a firm's quality management capabilities. The study points to some key marketing capabilities, which high-tech service organisations can benefit from. By employing quality management tools, human resource and marketing practitioners can engage in evidence-based practice (Ashish Malik, Ashish Sinha, Stephen Blumenfeld, 2011).

Osman Yildirim (2014) conducted a study on the impact of organizational communication on organizational citizenship behaviour in Turkey. In this study, among the organizational communication dimensions, only the dimension of communication with managers is significantly correlated with altruism and civic virtue dimensions of organizational citizenship behaviour.

2.3.3 Evidences from Nigeria

A study was conducted on the phenomenological analysis of managerial capability in SMEs in Nigeria. The study adopt the use of an inductive approach using the philosophical paradigm of constructivism and semi-structured interviews for data collection. The study’s key findings shows that managerial capability has the highest percentage and seems to be the ultimate foundation of Organisational Health. It further shows that connectivity and relationship exist between dimensions of Organisational Health especially capability and leadership on the one hand and accountability and reporting structure on the other hand which all have influence on the growth of SMEs. However, capability and accountability are found to have stronger influence on SMEs' growth compared to leadership and reporting structure. This study reveals that the successes of SMEs are closely tied to socio-psychological processes and not only to financing support (Alaa Soliman,Gift U. Roman,Martin Samy,2016).

Olowoporoku, Asikhia, O. and Makinde, (2021), investigated the role of organisational capabilities in the competitiveness of selected hotels in South-west Nigeria. The study adopted cross-sectional survey research design. The population was 2,750 management and supervisory staff of 37 selected hotels in Southwest Nigeria. The sample size of 450 was determined using the Slovin sampling formula. The study concluded that corporate culture, managerial knowledge, human capacity and innovation management are key resources for driving competitiveness of hotels in Southwest Nigeria. The study concluded that corporate culture, managerial knowledge, human capacity and innovation management are key resources for driving competitiveness of hotels in Southwest Nigeria.

Asamu (2014), examine the significant relationship between communication and workers’ performance in some selected organisations in Lagos State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected through questionnaire with sample population of 120 respondents. The result of the study reveals that a relationship exists between effective communication and workers’ performance, productivity and commitment. The study recommended that managers will need to communicate with employees regularly to improve workers commitment and performance .

A study was conducted a research to investigate the relationship between information technology capability and market share as well as the moderating effect of organisational culture on the performance of oil and gas marketing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study employed survey research design. The target population comprised 515 oil and gas marketing and retail outlets operating in Lagos State, Nigeria. A total enumeration technique was adopted for data analysis of the research instrument. Findings revealed that there is a significant and positive relationship between information technology capability and market share and also organisational culture significantly moderate the relationship between information technology capability and market share of oil and gas marketing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study concludes that there is relationship between information technology capability and market share. Also, organisational culture moderates the relationship between information technology capability and market share (Arokodare, Asikhia, Makinde, 2020).

2.4 Gaps in Literature

Recent studies on management capabilities and access to communication most focus employee’s performance. Olowoporoku, Asikhia, O. and Makinde, (2021), examined the role of organisational capabilities in the competitiveness of selected hotels in South-west Nigeria. Arokodare, Asikhia (2020), conducted a research to investigate the relationship between information technology capability and market share as well as the moderating effect of organisational culture on the performance of oil and gas marketing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

Fawwaz Awamleh and Ahmet Ertugan (2021), examined the relationship between information technology capabilities, organizational intelligence, and competitive advantage. This study aimed to identify the mediating role of organizational intelligence between information technology capabilities and competitive advantage. Also, Veit Wohlgemuth, Matthias Wenze, (2019), conducted a research in Germany on the influence of dynamic capabilities and employee participation. The results shows that employee participation is positively related to the dynamic capabilities of a firm.

However, few studies have been done to uncover the impact of management capabilities on access to communication in Nigeria. Therefore, this study sought to address the gap by examining the impact of management capabilities on access to communication in some Selected Banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Ogun State.

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

3.0 Preamble

This chapter intends to give a clear description of the method and procedures involved in carrying out this study and ways by which information on the subject matter of this research are collected and organized for proper analysis.

3.1 The Research Design

This study employed survey design. The design helped the researcher to describe the event in question using the resulting data to explain and predict the given relationship between the variables of the study. This method was also adopted by researchers such as: Marcel Pikhart (2020), Jason F. Cohen and Karen Olsen (2014). This technique enables the collection of data based on the concept of defined objectives, questions and hypothesis to be tested on the impact of management capabilities on access to communication.

3.2 The Study Area

The study area in this research comprise of some selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The reason for choosing this study area was because the banking industries in this area are subjected to continuous technological developments and are thus, highly innovative.

3.3 Population of the Study

The population of the study consists of all employees of the selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Ogun State, Nigeria. The population are the employees in the selected banks which are Access Bank, First Continental Monuments Banks (FCMB), Guaranty Trust Bank (GTB), Zenith Bank, Olabisi Onabanjo University (O.O.U.) Micro-finance Bank, Wema Bank and Apple Microfinance Bank. . The above named organization refused to disclose their total number of staffs as it was tagged confidential.

3.4 Sampling Size and Sampling Technique

A sample size of one hundred and five (105) respondents were purposively selected from different bank branches. This was obtained from the selected banks by use of random sampling technique. This technique was employed in order to avoid a deliberate selection of a particular employee and also to give all the employees equal chance to be selected.

3.5 Data Collection Instruments

The researcher made used of a well-structured questionnaire adapted from study. Primary data was employed for this study and structured questionnaire was employed as research instrument. The questionnaire items were designed by the researcher. Closed ended type of questionnaire was used for the study.

The questionnaire was structured to contain two sections. Section A., contained items on demographic variables of respondents. Section B., contained items on marketing capabilities, innovation capabilities, technological capabilities, management capabilities on access to communication. Five-point Likert scale was used to code the questionnaire responses and the codes used are stated as follows: SA = Strongly Agree; A = Agree; UD= Undecided; D = Disagree and SD = Strongly Disagree.

3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments

To enhance the validity of the instrument, a pre-testing was conducted on a population similar to the target population. The researcher select a pilot study of 50 to test the reliability of the research instrument. This study uses the Cronbach Alpha technique to determine the internal consistency of the variable. The reliability of the scale requires the value of Cronbach’s alpha to be equal or greater than 0.7 (Taheerdoost, 2016).

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3.7 Model Specification

Below is the model specification that depicts the relationship existing among the variables of the research study.

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3.8 Method of Data Analysis

The retrieved copies of questionnaire were analyzed using regression analysis. The analysis will be done with the software known as Statistical Package Social and Management Sciences (SPSS). This statistical tool was selected by the researcher because of its simplicity and relevance to the research work.

CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

This chapter presents the results of data analysis and discussion of findings. Also, the results are discussed in line with the findings of previous studies. This chapter is structured to contain three sections which are presentation and analysis of demographic variable of respondents, and analysis of research hypothesis and discussion of findings.

4.1 Demographic Variable of Respondents

The personal variables of respondents are analyzed and presented in this section. Data collected on the personal data through the administration of the questionnaire were presented on table 4.1 to 4.5 followed by analysis of the items using simple percentage analysis.

Table 4.1 Distribution of Respondents by Gender

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Analysis of table 4.1 revealed the demographic distribution of respondents by gender. According to the result of the analysis, 43.8% (46) of the respondents were male, while 56.2% (59) were female, the findings of the study revealed that majority of the respondents in the study were female. This implied that the study was not gender bias as both genders participated in the study.

Table 4.2 Distribution of Respondents by Age

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In table 4.2 above, present the age distribution of the respondents. The results revealed that 58.1% (61) of the respondents were between 21-35 years, 39% (41) of the respondents were between age 36-50 years and 2.9% (3) of the respondents are below 20 years old. This analysis reveals that majority of the respondents in this study are between 21-35 years old. This implied that all respondents in this study are in the working population.

Table 4.3 Distribution of Respondents by Management Level

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Table 4.3 present the distribution of respondents by management level. According to the results of the analysis 81% (85) of the respondents were Middle level manager, while 18.1% (19) of the respondents were Low level manager and only 1% (1) of the respondents are Top level manager. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents are Middle manager with 81% of the respondents.

Table 4.4 Distribution of Respondent by Educational Qualification

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Table 4.4 above, revealed the distribution of respondents by their educational qualification. The results of the analysis shows that 16.2% (17) of the respondents are O’level holder, 2.9% (3) of have OND/NCE, and 2.9% (3) are HND holders, 76.2% (80) of the respondents have B.Sc. and 2.9% of the respondents are Master degree holders. The analysis shows that majority of the respondents are Bachelor’s degree holder with 76.2% (80). This implied the respondents in this study are educated and they have contributed to the study accordingly.

Table 4.5 Distribution of Respondent by Working Experience

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Table 4.5 above, revealed the demographic distribution of the respondent by their working experience. The analysis of the study revealed that 60% (63) of the respondents have less than 10 years of working experience, while 40% (42) of the respondents are between 11-20 years. The findings shows that majority of the respondent have below 10 years working experience with 63% of the study.

4.2 Hypotheses Testing

This study formulated four hypotheses. The hypotheses were analyzed using multiple regression at 5% level of significance.

4.2.1 Hypothesis One

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between marketing capabilities on access to communication.

Table 4.6

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The result on the table 4.6 revealed the significant impact of marketing capabilities on access to communication. The result shows a coefficient and probability value of β = 0.863, p < 0.05. The coefficient of determination (R) of 0.744 indicated that, 74.4% of the variation or change in marketing capabilities in the selected banks is attributable to access to communication and the remaining 23.6% is due to other factors not captured in the model. The coefficient value showed that, a change in marketing capabilities will lead to 0.863 (86.3%) change on access to communication. This implies a strong relationship among the variables. Thus, we reject the null hypothesis. As a result, this study concluded that marketing capabilities had significant positive effect on access to communication in some selected banks in Nigeria.

4.2.2 Hypothesis Two

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between innovation capabilities on access to communication.

Table 4.7

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The result on the table 4.7 revealed the significant impact of innovation capabilities on access to communication. The result shows a coefficient and probability value of β = 0.843, p < 0.05. The coefficient of determination (R) of 0.711 indicated that, 71.1% of the variation or change in innovation capabilities in the selected banks is attributable to access to communication and the remaining 28.9% is due to other factors not captured in the model. The coefficient value showed that, a change in innovation capabilities will lead to 0.843(84.3%) change on access to communication. This implies a strong relationship among the variables. Thus, we reject the null hypothesis. As a result, this study concluded that innovation capabilities had significant positive effect on access to communication in some selected banks in Nigeria.

4.2.3 Hypothesis Three

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between technological capabilities on access to communication.

Table 4.8

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The result on the table 4.8 revealed the significant impact of technological capabilities on access to communication. The result shows a coefficient and probability value of β = 0.568, p < 0.05. The coefficient of determination (R) of 0.322 indicated that, 32.2% of the variation or change in technological capabilities in the selected banks is attributable to access to communication and the remaining 67.8% is due to other factors not captured in the model. The coefficient value showed that, a change in technological capabilities will lead to 0.568 (57%) change on access to communication. This implies there is positive relationship among the variables. Thus, we reject the null hypothesis. As a result, this study concluded that technological capabilities had significant effect on access to communication in some selected banks in Nigeria.

4.2.4 Hypothesis Four

Ho4: There is no significant relationship between Management capabilities on access to communication.

Table 4.9

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The result on the table 4.9 revealed the significant impact of management capabilities on access to communication. The result shows a coefficient and probability value of β = 0.750, p < 0.05. The coefficient of determination (R) of 0.563 indicated that, 56.3% of the variation or change in management capabilities in the selected banks is attributable to access to communication and the remaining 43.7% is due to other factors not captured in the model. The coefficient value showed that, a change in management capabilities will lead to 0.750(75%) change on access to communication. This implies a strong relationship among the variables. Thus, we reject the null hypothesis. As a result, this study concluded that management capabilities had significant effect on access to communication in some selected banks in Nigeria.

4.3 Discussion of Findings

This study was designed to appraise the effect of management capabilities on access to communication in some selected banks in Ago-Iwoye. This study was guided by four objectives which are to: investigate the impact of marketing capabilities on access to communication, examine the impact of innovation capabilities on access to communication, examine how technological capabilities influences the access to communication and to determine the impact of management capabilities on access to communication. Four research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and tested using multiple regression and analysis of variance at 5% significant level.

Analysis of the first hypothesis revealed that there was significant (positive) impact of marketing capabilities on access to communication. This result support the view of Kadic-Maglajlic and Miocevic (2020), that marketing capabilities can be deliberately focused on generating market orientation by researching the environment for a degree of differentiation towards the service processes, needs, logistics impact, services´ needs, cultural adaptation, costs, customer advice, and image- of the company level. It also support the view of Stokburger-Sauer (2016), that marketing capabilities help the management to improve their aptitudes and skills because it can apprehend the market strategies.

Analysis of the second hypothesis revealed that there was significant (positive) impact of innovation capabilities on access to communication. This support the claim of Sulistyo (2016), that the better the empowerment in terms of decision-making authority, access to information, providing positive impact and following the planning process will encourage innovation capabilities and the performance.

Analysis of the third hypothesis shows that that there was significant (positive) impact of technological capabilities on access to communication. This support the findings of Fawwaz Awamleh and Ahmet Ertugan (2021), that information technology capabilities and organizational intelligence play an essential role in raising and improving competitive advantage and responding to business environmental changes.

The analysis of fourth hypothesis, indicate that there was significant (positive) impact of management capabilities on access to communication. This support the view of Ruiz-Jiménez and Fuentes-Fuentes (2015, that management capabilities translate into greater organizational achievements and argues the need to analyze the role of top management teams and their composition more extensively, especially in the context of technologies. It also support the view of Ashish Malik, Ashish Sinha, Stephen Blumenfeld (2011), that effective knowledge transfer, diffusion and the development of market-based organizational learning capabilities are contingent upon the strength of a firm's quality management capabilities.

CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter is the concluding section of this study. The chapter contains three sections which are summary of findings, conclusion and implication for management and recommendations.

5.1 Summary of Findings

This main purpose for which this study was conducted was to determine the impact of management capabilities on access to communication with special attention to some selected banks in Ago-Iwoye. In order to achieve this purpose, four (4) research objectives were formulated to provide necessary guide for this study. The objectives were: (i) determining the impact of marketing capabilities on access to communication (ii) examining the impact of innovation capabilities on access to communication (iii) examining how technological capabilities influences the access to communication (iv) investigating the impact of management capabilities on access to communication.

The results of the first hypothesis shows the significant impact of marketing capabilities on access to communication. The result shows a coefficient and probability value of β = 0.863, p < 0.05, which indicate a change in marketing capabilities will lead to 0.863 (86.3%) change on access to communication. We reject the null hypothesis. As a result, this study concluded that marketing capabilities had significant positive effect on access to communication in some selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

The second hypothesis revealed the significant impact of innovation capabilities on access to communication. The result shows a coefficient and probability value of β = 0.843, p < 0.05, which indicate a change in innovation capabilities will lead to 0.843(84.3%) change on access to communication. This implies a strong relationship among the variables. Thus, we reject the null hypothesis. As a result, this study concluded that innovation capabilities had significant positive effect on access to communication in some selected banks in Nigeria.

The analysis of the third hypothesis revealed the significant impact of technological capabilities on access to communication. The result shows a coefficient and probability value of β = 0.568, p < 0.05, which indicate a change in technological capabilities will lead to 0.568 (57%) change on access to communication. This implies there is positive relationship among the variables.

As a result, this study concluded that technological capabilities had significant effect on access to communication in some selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

The fourth hypothesis shows the significant impact of management capabilities on access to communication. The result shows a coefficient and probability value of β = 0.750, p < 0.05 which indicate a change in management capabilities will lead to 0.750 (75%) change on access to communication. This implies a strong relationship among the variables. As a result, this study concluded that management capabilities had significant effect on access to communication in some selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

5.2 Conclusion and Implication for Management

From the presentation of chapter four and summary above, the study indicate that there exists a significant relationship between marketing capabilities on access to communication, while also revealing that innovation capabilities have a strong impact on access to communication of an organization. This implied that an organization can develop the ability to use market information and ideas that may contribute to the firm's existing product markets to achieve a competitive advantage in the dynamic environment.

This study further concludes that there exists a significant relationship between technological capabilities on access to communication, while also revealing that management capabilities have strong effect on access to communication. This implied that an organization can use technology to upgrade their products according to market demand and expand their present customer base with the help of technology.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that:

(i) Organizations need to develop the ability to perceive new opportunities and potential threats in the environment in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.
(ii) Organizations need to recognize that customers require a certain degree and configuration of interactional, sourcing, experience utilization, internal organizational, and innovation capabilities if they are to realize the promised performance.
(iii) Organizational capabilities only develop over a long period of time and meaningful capability improvements might not be achievable within limited duration.

5.4 Suggestion for Further Study

In view of the limitations of the research, the following suggestions are recommended for further study:

(i) The research was conducted based on the opinion survey of 105 employees that constituted the respondents for the enquiry and this are few participants used for the study. Number of participants will be very important factor to a new study.
(ii) Future study should explore whether certain management capabilities or lack of it might have different consequences for other performance outcomes.
(iii) Further research should analyze how diversity in the top management affects innovation through other capabilities of the firm.
(iv) Future research could consequently cross-validate the results of this study from the customer perspective, exploring whether they agree with them about the relative importance of the four key capability sets identified in this study.

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APPENDIX

QUESTIONNAIRE

I am a student of Olabisi Onabanjo University carrying out a research on The Impact of Management Capabilities on Access to Communication.

This questionnaire is meant for academic research purposes only. The information you provide in this questionnaire will be handled as confidential and will only be used for the above-stated purpose. You are requested to provide the necessary information with truthfulness to the best of your knowledge.

Thanks in advance.

Section A

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1. Gender: Male [ ] Female [ ]
2. Level: Top level manager [ ] Middle level [ ] Low level manager [ ]
3. Age: Below 20 years [ ] 21-35 years [ ] 36-50 years [ ] Others [ ]
4. Educational Qualification: O’level[ ] OND/NCE[ ] HND[ ] B.Sc.[ ] M.Sc.[ ] Others[ ]
5. Working Experience: Below 10years [ ] 11-20years [ ] 20 years and above [ ]

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Details

Title
Management Capabilities and Access to Communication. Selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area
College
Olabisi Onabanjo University
Grade
1.5
Author
Year
2022
Pages
60
Catalog Number
V1176844
ISBN (Book)
9783346609069
Language
English
Keywords
management, capabilities, access, communication, selected, ijebu, north, local, government, area
Quote paper
Aina Ganiu (Author), 2022, Management Capabilities and Access to Communication. Selected banks in Ijebu North Local Government Area, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1176844

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