Table of Contents
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
Background of the Study
This research work is perceptible on investigating Christians participation in politics and its Biblical counselling intervention. It is pertinent to note what investigating research is all about. “Investigating research is a name given to a collection of techniques and methods used by researchers (including journalists, and social scientists). It is intended to uncover secrets or obscured information that can build more comprehensive picture of the issues under investigation”1. This implies that this research is intended to uncover some hidden issues in Christian’s political participation, subsequently unveiling the picture of what the researcher had in mind to investigate.
Christians need to participate in Nigerian politics because politicians are parliamentarians that formulate laws that govern the people at the national houses of assembly, the senate, the house of representatives, down to the state and local government legislative. The Nigeria legislative system uses the phrase; ‘let the I’s have it’2 for decision making. This implies that, the fewer the Christian representative in the legislative arm, the quicker their bills and decisions are trashed in the dusbin. Bodunrin has affirmed to this that if Christians refused to partake in politics then they will have themselves to blame when the unbelievers took the power and promulgate laws against them. It is not a good reason to get out of the race if somemen have abused its previlege, in fact it’s a challenge to be involved3. The American Presbyterian magazine has also subscribe to this notion; when Christians are rightly informed and motivated, they change the character of political debate. They will bring the moral standards of God’s kingdom into the civic realm of Nigerian politics, and thereby become agents of His common grace for His provision for those who believe as well as those who do not4. This is in line with what the scripture enjoins us that when the righteous rules, the people rejoice and when the wicked rules the people groan5 Instead of groaning against bad governance, Christians need to participate in the political affairs.
Barth had long ago blamed the lack of Christians’ participation in politics; that its root was from the German National socialism-which they held that politics is completely German affairs not Christians affairs; which direct itself to the whole contemporary world6. It is on this ground that the researcher’s concern is to investigate Christian’s participation in Nigerian politics and on its Biblical counselling intervention.
Christians have being silent about the happenings in civic rights, religious crisis, incessant killings, denial of civic benefits, denial of government positions, and pogrom in Nigeria However, the universal church is becoming more aware of these pessimistic results against its body; many have acted on the defensive means to combat the menace but to no avail, though little attention had been given to Christians participation in politics perceiving it as a dirty fixation; making Christians more of a slavery subjects. Kore held on this point that “when the colonial master came to the country (Nigeria), they established schools, but the Muslims would choose to read courses that are more of leadership and they would tell Christians to embrace sciences. This he affirmed that, the Muslims always seek civic position who would rule while Christians always worked under them. Till this day in most tertiary institutions in the northern part of Nigeria, Christians are being denied to read leadership and administration courses. He sums it that the Muslims yearn for power but the Christians neglect such7. The researcher affirms to this that many Christians found sciences more important than participation in politics.
The scripture has not left us blindly on the Christian pacifism of civil responsibility. Apostles Paul and Peter assert that government is ordained by God Himself8. Hence, it call for spiritual qualified men/women to participate in politics in other to shape the terrible mishandling of public trust in Nigeria. Paul gave Christians these basics, by saying that “all human authority is from God and every soul be subjected to the higher authority”9. The scripture did not condemn Christians been involved in politics rather it gives them room to adequately participate. For example, Daniel in Babylon, Joseph in Egypt, and Mordecai and his nice Esther in Babylon worth emulation for Christians. The Old Testament role models that participated in government affairs and brought glory to God. On the same premise, Christians need to participate in the politics instead of stepping aside and groaning of poor leadership. Many Christians have stepped aside because they perceive politics differently. Some think it is only for the unbelievers.
Politics mean different things to different people. To some it could mean the government, to some; drawing others to join a political party, to some its means sharing and looting government resources, to some; exercising power and authority over others while to some it is a civic responsibility, and to some; politics is a dirty game. Recently, how the government affairs are governed is the contemporary born of contention, which is why many Christians look at politics differently. This implies that politicians and politics itself need Biblical counseling since the hope of politics is to settle conflicts. On this note, the concept of counseling, needs to be explained.
Biblical counselling generally has been seen as the provision of solution(s) by a counselor to the counselee whosolves problems. But in a broader sense it has been defined by Iliya et al who cited Akinade (2001) as a set of procedures used in assisting individuals in solving problems that arise in various aspect of human lives or in assisting clients to maximize their overall personal development, so that they could be more useful to the society in which they live10. This implies that politics and politicians need Biblical counselling intervention settles conflicts amongst the populace.
Biblical counselling can offer a great elucidation in resolving conflicts among the political cycles. A man or woman who is vested with a political authority needs to be counselled on how to govern and how to use the national, State, and Local government resources appropriately. Biblical counselling offers Christian politicians services to create more acceptable desire than to perceive it as a dirty game. Biblical Counselors look at a man/woman psychologically, socially, and spiritually unique, so it can check and counsel Christian politicians on how to govern well without corrupt attitude during and after occupying a political office. Many homes are broken after a couple has occupied a political office. It has been noticed that many people, become miserable after been involved in politics. It is believed by some politicians that those who participate in politics must arm themselves with charms else will be dethroned or killed by their political opponents or colleaques, all these pointed on the need of Bibilcal counseling intervention in the political cycle which the researcher yearns for.
The Jos metropolis which is the focus of this work was established in 1915. The tin transportation camp and its early history were closely linked to the prosperity of the mining industry. It became the capital of the defunct Benue-Plateau State and was transformed into the capital city of Plateau State in 1975. It became an important administrative and commercial centre. Jos remains one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Nigeria and was adjudged the ‘home of peace and tourism’ and the safest place to live in Nigeria11. The Jos metropolis covers Jos-North local government area situated in its heart, also covers a little part of Jos-South, Bassa, and Jos east local government areas. Jos north local government area has Jos town as its council headquarters. It covers an area of 291km, with a population of 429,300 based on 2006 national census and has 20 electoral ward12. Its population include both Muslims and Christians.
Statement of the Problem
The interest of this study focuses on “the participation of Christians in politics” and the “intervention of Biblical counselling in Nigeria politics” arising as a result of seeking for effective and God fearing leadership in our decaying and corrupt society, Nigeria. But the researcher is concerned with the question of how many Christians live a life that replicates scriptural values to serve humanity and to glorify God? In this manner, the scripture enjoined us that ‘when the righteous rules the people rejoice, but when the wicked rule the people groan’.13 Perhaps, the people are groaning as the political leaders perpetually change seats.
The researcher is concerned with the problem of non particiaption of Christians in politics as Doster would hold, When Christians wash their hands and turn away from politics who speaks for the poor and the powerless14. Doster’s concerns concur with what interests the researcher to work at this research, because the Nigerian Christians always groan and receive the consequence of their refusal to participate in the civic exercises. This is true because, Christians ethics and values are denied, resulting to insurgent killings of Christians, Churches being bunt and demolished without questioning its perpetrators. Furthermore, Christian girls are forced to marriage, some are converted to Islamic religion forcefully while their parents have nothing to say or do anything on it. Christians have being denied employment opportunities they are qualified for, Christian students are not admitted into certain universities, and denial of worship among other disfranchised rights.
Another contemporary problem arising due to lack of Christian participation in Nigerian politics is the move for legalization of same sex marriage. The Christians are always affected as a result of ‘legislative minority syndrome’. Sarma affirms to this that; Christians are experiencing silent persecution and death, because they have refused to join politics and consider it as evil. According to him, the greatest hindrance to advance God’s kingdom here on earth is that the people of God have refused to lead in the public square.15 I concur with Sarma on this note, because Christian’s refusal to participate in the civic roles; laws would be imposed on them, whether positively or negatively. For example, a bill was passed in 2016 in the national house of representative and on a second reading to enact ‘Sharia law’16 to be a ‘criminal law’17 in the country18.
Plateau state is not left out from the above stated problem for instance, Muslims in Jos claim that Jos, is a Muslim State19. Christians are always left on lamented side of the coin for lack of participation in politics. On this note, ‘ECWA’20 president lamented on greatly thus:
…it was necessary to cry out and let the world know the injustices and pogrom being committed against Christians in the Northern Nigeria despite efforts of the Church in providing education, sound medical care and other benefits to the entire region without discrimination. Besides the pogrom targeted at Christian communities in the North, churches have suffered demolition, confiscation of property, abduction, forceful marriage and conversion to Islam of young Christian girls, and discriminatory employment against indigenous Christians. The Church has also been denied renewal of expired land titles in many northern states with threats by the government to recover the land which the Church had occupied for over 60 years.21
Lack of financial support and unity among the Christians are part of the political participation impedements. Christians who would want to participate in the political career would lack financial support from their Christian counterpart, brothers and friends. Beside that, failure of Christians to stand for the Church while holding political posts are the problems the researcher hopes to address by the intervention of Biblical counselling intervention in the political career.
However, Biblical counselling on the other hand has been neglected in the Nigeria Christian political career. If Biblical counselling were to be offered to the Christians before and after occupying the political office, its effectiveness would bring great revival in the political succession. In addition, Biblical counselling in the christendom has been percieved amongst pastors as a normal routen Bible studies that is offered in the church and crusade places. But Biblical counselling is more than that—it is offered in designated offices and services are rendered by trained counsellors.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is to investigate the Christians participation in Nigerian politics and the Biblical counselling intervention in Jos Metropolis of Plateau state. The following are the specific purpose of this study.
1.3.1. To investigate reasons why Christians in Jos Metropolis detaste participation in Nigeria politics.
1.3.2 To investigate the Christian ethics in participating in Nigeria politics
1.3.3 To find the challenges Christians face in participating in Nigeria politics
1.3.4 To find ways Plateau State politics can be done based on Biblical virtures.
The researcher formulate the following research questions to serve as template of this study and would be addressed in the course of this work:
1.4.1 What are the possible factors why Christians in Jos metropolis refuse to participate in Nigeria politics?
1.4.2 What are the negative implications for Christians detesting participation in Nigeria politics in Jos metroplolis?
1.4.3 What are the Biblical counselling strategies to help the Christians participation in politics in Jos Metropolis?
1.4.4 What are the importance of Christians to participate in politics in Jos Metropolis?
Significance of the Study
The significance of this research would be relevant to her stakeholders. The church will learn where she has failed and will correct such failures. The researcher anticipates that Christians in Jos metropolis will participate in politics and to appreciate its goodness in considering it as God’s gift to propagate His kingdom here on earth.
Consequently, Christians who are involved in Nigeria politics will understand their roles as Christian leaders, promoting Christian values in the society, no matter the great influence of material gains its brings. In this regard, Apostle Paul gave this charge to his contemporary counterpart, Timothy that Godliness with contentment is a great gain.22 This is because Christians are called to serve not to be served.23 This research hopes to clarify the necessary cause(s) when Christians perceive Nigeria politics, its civic roles as harmful and the consequence of such negligence on them.
Pastors of denominations on the other hand would benefit from the findings of this study because it would support and fasten their roles as teachers of the gospel, thereby promoting God’s kingdom here on earth. They will use it to encourage their members to participate in political roles without hesitation. On this note, they will be pleased about Biblical counselling intervention in the world of Nigeria politics to reduce the menace of domestic violence, crises, and corruption in the Christendom and the society at large; emanating due to lack of Christian participation in Nigeria politics.
The government also would benefit from this study, because there will be proper management of economc resources, effective leadership, sanity, economic rejuvination. Political leaders would make healthy laws and faithful implementation. There will be poverty aleviation, employment, peace, and development.
Biblical counsellors on their parlance would find this work helpful because it would create an awairness on counselling politians in general and Christian politicians in particular according to the Biblical injunctions. They would know that politics and politicians themselves need Biblical counselling.
Seminaries and seminarians on the other hand would benefit from this work. They would train and encourage pastors/Christian teachers who come to the seminary to study, on the importane of Christian’s participation in politics. The seminarians in turn would become Biblical counsellors that would counsel politicans.
The researcher empolys a qualitative research method for this study. Qualitative research, according to Claire et al is a research that uses qualifying words or descriptions to record aspects of the world24. More so the research is a social research; based on both the basic social and applied social research. The basic social research is based on increasing human understanding on a particular aspect of society. While the applied social research primarily aimed at solving a particular problem of a particular group of people.25 According to Claire et al, both the basic and applied social research are classified as the qualitative research. Yisa has it that qualitative research includes observations and conduct of interviews that would enable the researcher find points of agreement among the members of focuse group, and to present their situation, experience, and interpret their their responses.26 On this note the researcher will not conduct interviews but use structured questionaires only.
However, the researcher will administer questionnaires within the Jos metropolis in particular some selected Churches in Jos north local government area. This will be done in all intent and purposes that the casual processes are understood as the variables will be managed to reflect on the implications of such research purposes. Such data that are gathered will be used for analysis in chapter four.
Scope and Delemitation of the Study
This research will cover the entire city of Jos which make up the Jos metropolis as the scope of this study. Jos metropolis is dominated by both the Christians and Muslims settlers with Jos north local government area as its capital city. The Jos North local government constitutes twenty (20) electoral wards and is bounded by Jos East, Jos South, and Bassa local government areas. Denominations that are situated within the Jos metropolis include, Evangelical Church Winning all (ECWA), Church of Christ in Nations (COCIN), New Life Church, Deeper Life Bible Church, Redeemed People’s Mission (RPM) church, The Apostolic Church, New Apostolic Church, Roman Catholic Church, Anglican Church, the Redeemer’s Ministries, God of Now, Now, Assemblies of God Church, Living Faith Church (aka Winner’s Chapel), Mountain of fire and Miracles Ministries, Christ Embassy, Dunamis international Gospel ministries, Grace Dimension Ministries, and The Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG). The researcher choose five (5) churches as sample churches that cut-accross evangelicals and pentecostal denominations. However, this sampled churches cover the study area.
Operational Defination of Terms
The operational definition of terms deal with the way concepts are measured or observed. This definition of certain term is based on the observable characteristics of concepts or term27 The researcher in this case define the following terms operationally as they are relevant in this research.
Investigating research is a name given to a collection of techniques and methods used by researchers in social scientific research. It is intended to unearth (uncover) secrets hidden or obscured information that can build more comprehensive picture of the issues under investigation28. This is what this research seeks to address in investigating Christian’s participation in Nigeria politics and its Biblical intervention in Jos metropolis of Platea State.
The concept of Christian is a person who believes in Jesus Christ as his personal Lord and savior, who redeemed him from eternal death.29 Literally it denotes that the ‘person’ believes in Jesus Christ and obeys Him. Obeying Jesus Christ doesn’t end in the square corners of the church but also in public square.
Politics has been percieved and defined differently. Yamsat defined politics in more simple words. According to him, politics is to discover first, in what mode of life man’s happiness consists; then by form of government through social institutions such mode of life can be secured.30 Here Yamsat is suggesting that man’s happiness can be found in political institutions. Stott also gave a narrow definition of the as the life of the city (polis) and the responsibility of the citizens (polite).31 Stott in this sense conceptualized politics as the people’s responsibility concerning their lives. His definition gives more acceptable operational concept of politics; by saying that it’s “people’s responsibility concerning their lives”. This is in line with what Aristotle has said “man is by nature a political animal”32
Biblical Counseling is a set of principles used in assisting individuals in solving human problems that arise in various aspect of their lives or in assisting them to maximize their overall personal development, so that they could be more useful to the society in which they live.33 The counselor in this sense will assist the Christian politicians, pastors and the church in maximizing their overall personal development so as to be useful to themselves and the society. But not just assisting the clients for their personal development, but also to the whole society. In regard to this Paul et al said that the term counselling, refer to helping people with more common problems.34 On this note, we see politics as having a perpetual common problem that need holistic Biblical counselling approaches by the counsellor.
The term metropolis has been understood to be a capital of a region or chief city of a country, state, and or local government where economic and social activities take place. The term in some instance is used interchangably with urbanisation, city, and developed area but they are not the same. “it is a unique type of city that serves as a reference point for global urban system. It is regarded as the potential role model—a center and symbol of times.”35 The term orinally define a relationship between various settlements and a certain city.36
The term intervention is understood to be an action intentionally taken to be involved in a difficult situation in order to bring a solution to it or prevent it from getting worse. Plantinga defines the term in the context of theology. He argued that the term is a divine action of God in the world, God acting in the world He has created including human beings, because He has affection over His creation and is all knowing, all powerfull and all present.37 The reaearcher is more comfortable with Plantinga’s definition of the term, because Biblical counselling intervention is employed—where all its counselling strategies are drawn from the Bible.
The researcher employed theology of politics as the theoretical framework for this study. Theology of politics theory has been used interchangebly with ‘political theology’ therefore both constructs are used in this research. Political theology is often used to denote religious thought about political principles. Wikipedia encyclopedia defined it as the investigating the ways in which theology concepts or ways of thinking theology relates to politics, society, and economics. Schmitt used political theology to denote religious concepts that were secularized and thus became key political concepts.
Furthermore, Brown described political theology as the religious thought on the classical question of "the good form of government," which is arguably at the center of classical secular political philosophy38 Schmitt viewed political theology in two lenses such as a matter of theology forms of political theology springs from secularization39. According to him, whether theology is used to mask politics or politics is used to mask theology both are secularized, but political theology is a religious concepts that are secularized.
The theology of politics on the other hand starts from an explicitly theological framework. Gray’s argument agreed with Schmitt’s view that theological framework can be either natural or revelatory theology.40 41
I agree with Galadima who argues that, theology must be situated within the context of the theologian. He argues that, political theology is liberation theology. He buttressed that must theologians misunderstood liberal theology to be liberation theology. He further argues that liberal theologians are against the tenets of evangelicals, they don’t believe in apostolic screed and miracles. On the other hand, liberation theology believed in freeing the society and the oppressed, the goodness of the people; this is part of the gospel Jesus brought.42 Gutierrez also affirmed to this that political theology is a theology of liberation and is a theological reflection born of experience of shared efforts to aborlish the current unjust situation to build a different society, freer and more human.43
The freer and the more human society he talked about is for the goodness and liberation of the oppressed that is not against the word of God, “it is rather to let ourselves to be judged by the word of the Lord, to think through our faith, to strengthen our love, and to give reasons for our hope”44 This is where the researcher based his attention and employed political theology; doing politics in the context of theology that serves as a guide to this research work.
This chapter reviewed some theoretical framework of research study on investigating christain particiaption in politics and the Biblical intervention in Jos metropolis. In investigation of christians particiaption in politics, some personalities and social literatures were reviewed. The chapter specically reviewed the literatures under the following topics:
- The Nigerian Civic Right in Participation in Politics
- Biblical Perspective for Christian’s Participation In Politics
- The Early Church and Their Participation In Politics
- The Importance of Christians Participation in Nigerian Politics
- Christian Ethics in Politics Participation
- The Role of the Chruch in Nigerian Politics
- The Factors Hindering Christians Participation in Nigerian Politics
- The Counselling Strategies in Politics
- The Importance of Counselling in Christians Participation in Nigerian Politics
THE NIGERIAN CIVIC RIGHT IN PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS
Nigeria as a country, has millions of inhabitants; the most populous of Africa. In Nigeria, “there are over 490 groups of different laguages and tribes,”45 and has 36 states, 744 Local governments, with two major religions; Christianity and Islam. These 36 states have ‘six geo-political zones’46 these geo-political zones present ninety (90) senators at the natioanal house of assembly, 360 members at the national house of representative. Participation in politics in Nigeria is irrespective of sex, tribe, and or religion affiliation.
According to Florida International University (FIU), Political participation encompasses the many activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. It derives from the freedom to speak out, assemble and associate; the ability to take part in the conduct of public affairs; and the opportunity to register as a candidate, to campaign, to be elected and to hold office at all levels of government.47 Political participation extends beyond party politics, however; individuals can also become involved in certain aspects of the electoral process through independent action particularly at the local level and by joining civil society organizations, and the media all provide avenues for political participation48.
The essence of political participation in any society, either primitive or civilized is to seek control of power, acquisition of power and dispensing power to organize society, harness and distribute resources and to influence decision-making in line with organized or individual interests. Political participation as one of the tenets of democracy is found to be liberal and unrestrictive and is “freedom of expression, association, right to free flow of communication, right to influence decision-making process and right to social justice, health services, better working condition and opportunity for franchise”49.The constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria spell that: “Every person shall be entitled to assemble freely and associate with other persons, and in particular he may form or belong to any political party, trade union or any other association for the protection of his interests: Provided that the provisions of this section shall not derogate from the powers conferred by this Constitution on the Independent National Electoral Commission with respect to political parties to which that Commission does not accord recognition”50.
As spelled out by the Nigerian constitution on participation in politics; every citizen of the country is franchised to participate in politics; Christians and non-Christians alike have the right to participate; have the right to vote and be voted for irrespective of tribe, sex, and religion affiliation.
BIBLICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR CHRISTIAN’S PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS.
Christians are both citenzens of state and citizens of heaven. The only dividing line is what the Bible has said concerning how they would live in the world, minding their ultimate citizenship in heaven; they are to live a life with a difference (John 17: 16; Matt. 5:13-16; 22:21). Kato in his premise exhorts the Word of God does teaches that our true citizenship is in heaven (Phil. 3:20) but does that mean Christians have no responsibility to fulfill in the earthly land we live?51 Gaius in the same plight asserts, “our citizenship in the kingdom of God entails moral obligations for our citizenship in the kingdom of men-Ipeter 3:11-13.”52
1 Public interest investigation powerbase: http://powerbase.info/index.php?title=Investigative_Research&action=edit (no page) cited on the 3rd April, 2017.
2 In Nigeria this denotes; the majority carry the vote. And the law stands and binds on its populace.
3 Bodunrin J. A.: Christians and politics (Biblical guiddline). Lacrome press, Osoro Yaba Lagos, Nigeria. 1986, 3-5.
4 American Presbyterian magazine: http://byfaithonline.com/politics-why-christians-must-be-involved-2 accessed on the 3rd april, 2017.
5 This is paraphrased from: Proverbs. 29:2
6 Karl Barth, the church and the political problem of our day. Zollikon, Switzerland. 1939, 22-28.
7 Danfuni Kore: Class lecture session on “integration of Psychology and Theology” ECWA Theological Seminary, Jos. Feb. 13th 2017
8 That can be seen in; Romans 13:1-4; Titus 3:1-2; IPeter 2:13-17.
9 That can be seen in; Romans 13:1-4 (NIV).
10 Hannatu G. Iliya, Damian Z. Rimfat, Rosearine T. Sekuk, Mallam Adamu Mohammed: Guidance and Counseling for university and colleges. Wais printing press, Jos Plateau State, Nigeria. 2009, 2-3.
11 Aliyu Ahmad Aliyu et al, Framework Development on the Effect of Intangible
Location Attributes on the Values of Residential Properties in Jos,
Nigeria. Available at http://www.iiste.org/journals/: (p.8) accessed on the 6th April, 2017.
12 Agbo H. Abigail, Envuladu E. Anwazzi, Adah U Gabriel,
Zoakah A. Ibrahim: An assessment of toilet facilities in secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area of Plateau State; Greener Journal of Educational Research ISSN: 2276-7789 Vol. 2 (4), pp. 091 - 094, November 2012. Available at htt: //www.gjournals.org (p.92). Accessed on 10th April, 2017.
13 That can be seen in Proverbs 29:2;cf; Psalms125:3;Proverbs 28:15;Isaiah 1:23;10:1; 3:14; Ezekiel 22:27.
14 Richard Doster: American Presbyterian magazine “why Christians must be involved in politics” (no page) Cited on 3rd april, 2017.
15 Bitrus Sarma: paper presented to the ECWA Theological seminary, Jos at Chapel session “the state of our nation: a Bibical respond to Islamic Terrorism in Nigeria. June 13th, 2016.
16 Sharia law, also known as Islamic law, is the law that is used in predominantly Muslims parts part of Nigeria. Sharia means ‘path’ or ‘way’ in religious way of Muslim.( Sourced from Wikipedia: cited March, 2017).
17 Criminal Law is a body of rules and statutes set and constituted by the government of Nigeria. (Legal dictionary.com), cited March 2017.
18 The nation paper,Nigeria, 27th May,2016; “bill on sharia Law passes second reading without debate.”
19 This claim goes by a publisher, Muhammad Sani Adam Modibbo according to him, “The Plateau Peace Conference held in 2004officially recognized 54 ethnic nationalities (indigenes) plus a number of other majority Nigerian ethnic nationalities resident in the state; i.e. “Settlers.” So the classification of some people as ‘settlers’ and some as ‘indigenes’ has economic and social consequences and is much more contested particularly by the Fulani and Hausa communities of the Jos area, who have resided there for generations but are still treated as settlers.” (Muhammad Sani Adam Modibbo, Survey of Muslims groups in Plateau state, Nigeria. Nigeria research network, Oxford department of international Development, Queen Elizabeth’s House, University of Oxford, 2012, 4-5)
20 ECWA here stands for Evangelical Church Wining All. It is an international denomination with its headquarters in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
21, Jeremiah Gado: This was giving by the ECWA president at a press briefing in Jos, Nigeria http://scannewsnigeria.com/featured-post/ecwa-accuses-presidency-kaduna-govt-of-culpability-in-southern-kaduna/ . (n.p). Accessed on 12th, April, 2017.
22 That can be seen in I Thimothy6:6; Psalms 62:10
23 That can be seen in John 13:17; Mark 9:35; I peter 4:10
24 Claire Bless, Craig Higson-Smith, Ashraf Kagee: Fundamentals of social research methods an African perspective (4th Ed.), juta and co. ltd, mercury crescent wetton,7780 cape town, south Africa. 2006, 43.
25 Claire et al; Fundamentals of social research methods, 2006,43
26 Joshua Yisa Usman: Dissertation, “Exploring the possibilities of a HIV and AIDS Counselling programme for senior secondary learners in a Nigerian School context.” 2016, 13
27 Claire et al; Fundamentals of social research methods, 2006,184
28 Public interest investigation powerbase: http://powerbase.info/index.php?title=Investigative_Research&action=edit (no page) cited on the 3rd April, 2017.
29 Complete Christian dictionary for home and schools, Geneva Illinois; Oasis international Ltd. 1997, 103.
30 Pandang Yamsat. The role of the church in Democratic governance in Nigeria, Bukuru: Biblical study foundation, 2002,8.
31 John Stott: “New Issues facing Christians today” London: Masharl, Pickering, 1990, 14.
32 Aristotle Stagiritis N, The politics and the constitution of Athens (Cambridge: Cambridge University press). 1996,1
33 Hannatu G. Iliya, et al: Guidance and Counseling. 2009, 2-3.
34 Paul B. Meier, Franck B. Minirth, Franck B. Wichern, Donald E. Ratcliff: Introduction to Psychology and counseling ‘Christian perspectives and application’ (2nd Ed.), Baker academic, Grand Rapids Michigan, 1991, 297
35 Kasinittz Philip, Metropolis: Center and symbol of our times, New York, 1995,6
37 Alvin Plantinga, What is intervention, Journal work, Theology and science, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2008, 2
38 Brown Christian theology and politics: retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Political_theology&oldid=766991624" (no page). Accessed on 16th April, 2017.
39 Phillip W. Gray, City University of Hong Kong: Political Theology and the Theology of Politics: Carl Schmitt and Medieval Christian Political Thought, retrieved from http://www.nhinet.org/gray20-1.pdf (n.p), cited on 15th April, 2017
41 Samuel Waje Kunhiyop, Class lecture on Christian ethics, ECWA Theological Seminary, Jos, (JETS), April, 2018
42 Bulus Galadima, Class lecture on Theological Methods, ECWA Theological Seminary, Jos, (JETS), June, 2018
43 Gustavo Gutierrez, Theology of liberation, Orbis books, Maryknok Newyork, 1973, ix
44 Ibid, ix
45 Mipo E. Dadang, Sell your Garment and buy a sword, “ A justification of retaliation in response to Religeous Violence”. Daveco publishers, Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. 2015, 17
47 Florida International University (FIU), political participation ; www2.fiu.edu/~milch002/CPO3643/outlines/participation.htm. Accessed on 17th May, 2017.
49 International women democratic network: www.iwdn.learningpartnership.org/2012/12/womens-political-and. Accessed: 17th May, 2017.
50 The 1999 Constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria, section 4, sub-section 40.
51 Byang H. Kato: An article; “Christian citizenship”, (Rom 13:1-14), typescripts. By Christina M. Breman. n.p., n.d., 10 pp.
52 Gaius Musa, “Todays’ challenge, Nigeria’s popular Christian magazine”. Vol. 14, No,1, December, 2014,9.