4 Pages, Grade: A
Nowadays it is necessary to consider the steps of marketing communication because it is becoming a very complex process. In the beginning a company must define its target group; then set the objectives and calculate the budget; think about legal, regulatory, social and ethical values; decide tools, messages and media; analyse the strategy and evaluate the campaign. According to Wood (2007) an integrated marketing communication (IMC) is essential to interact, to inform and to have an effect on the way that the customer behaves or thinks. The main IMC tools are advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, direct marketing and public relations. Kotler et al (2005) state that in respect of international markets every tool needs to be adopted differently to each country it operates in, in order to gain a wider range of potential customers.
The marketing communication tool advertising is the main and most important one due to its ability to reach mass audiences. Advertising implies television, radio, magazines, newspaper, cinema, internet etc. According to Datamonitor (2007) the global advertising market grew by 4.7% in 2006 to reach a value of $70.7 billion. The American advertising market dominates, with 57.6% share of the total global revenues, Europe generates a further 23.4% of the global market value and Asia-Pacific accounts for a 19% (Datamonitor, 2007). It is obvious that the Asia-Pacific market is the one with fewer shares. This is due to the fact that Asian countries such as Cambodia or Vietnam do not dispose of sufficient technological facilities. It is expected by the authors of this essay that Asian markets e.g. China and India will help to close this gap due to their mass population.
Today markets are affected by the implications of globalization which in turn results in tough competition as a large number of companies are able to go abroad and to reach consumers all over the world. In order to become present and competitive in the global market it is of paramount importance to use the appropriate kind of communication accordingly to every single country and its respective culture to avoid any misunderstandings. According to Kaynak and Mitchell (1981) companies are facing difficulties in communicating to people of diverse cultures. International companies have to create standardized products, packaging and communication methods to be successful in order to different countries and across cultural diversities (Holt et al, 2004). Today cultural perspectives play an important role in marketing communications decisions. The concentration moved from a national culture towards a global culture because products and services nowadays can be reachable for everyone (in industrialized countries). We have to consider the fact that according to the World Bank, 90 % of the world’s population live in developing countries in 2030.
However globalization implies also a negative effect as it widens the gap between industrialized and less-developed countries in order to their availabilities of media. Companies have to be aware of the local situations and act accordingly. For instance in India the rate of analphabetic has increased considerably over the past few years (Keegan and Green, 1997). That is why global marketers have to concern whether advertising in newspapers or leaflets are less effective than for example commercials in the cinema as according to Keegan and Green (1997) India has a highly rate of cinema visitors.
The sports manufacturer NIKE for example focuses on the combination of different cultures on his website (online). By accessing the webpage the user can choose his particular country and language. NIKE offers cultural diversity and moreover shows higher brand awareness by having different famous sports representatives such as Lance Armstrong on the US website or Haile Gebrselassie on the Ethiopian version of the African website (online).
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