Table of Contents
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERAURE
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 Background of the Study
Human resources are cardinal element of development. The overall development of a country revolves on the level of manpower utilization . This has made manpower planning and human capacity development imperative for any successful public sector. Maintaining a competitive edge in any country where multiple players exist is only possible with people with varying talents and skills. It has got an important place in the arena of industrialization. Manpower planning and human capacity development (used interchangeably with human capital development) are two important pillars for achieving effective service delivery in Anambra State Civil Service.
It has been observed that both pre-colonial and post colonial administrations of Nigeria had failed to accord adequate regard to manpower planning and development. Labour was relegated to background among other factors of production. The human resources planning and staff development for national growth and development were distorted. These affected the availability of human resources for improvement of public sector as a whole during the first and second national development planning.
Nnadozie (2004), observed that the unrealistic nature of the 1962-1968 plan objectives and targets become more apparent when they are juxtaposed with the financial, technical and managerial capabilities of the country.
In recognition of the needs for human resources planning led to introducing of the policy for Manpower Planning and Development in Nigeria at the period of 1960’s and 70’s. Specifically, in the year 1962, federal republic of Nigeria created National Manpower board (NMB) with the responsibility of determining the manpower needs and developments Agabi, et, al (2010).
Though ideals do not approximate reality, the socio-economic and political development of Anambra state has become elusive due to inappropriate and inadequate manpower planning and development. Holistically, Planning in Nigerian public service has become a gambling affair. Public service in Nigeria especially Anambra State Civil Service usually embark on manpower planning with inadequate data on the evolutionary trends of an organization, partly on organization’s personnel, external relations, and general organization’s objectives.
Training of workforce is given little or no attention; it is no longer a matter of necessity to much management as a result of inability to forecast future manpower needs in relation to the organizations’ objectives. Daft (2010) opines that manpower planning as a plan which involves accessing trends, forecasting the supply, demand for labour and the development of appropriate strategy for addressing any differences. There is little emphasis on training for technical and professional staff; such as surveyors, accountants, engineer and doctors. This finally retards the progress of an organization.
The resources of organization are diverse but human resources is recognized as the most important out of other resources required for effective and efficient service delivery in organizations especially Anambra State Civil Service Commission. Manpower planning and/or human capital development is the key to achieving efficient and effective service delivery. In addition, Mwagbala, (2005) posits that “it is human resources of a nation not its capital, nor its material resources that determines the nature of, direction and pace of its efficient and effective service delivery. Essentially, nations are built through the creative and innovative inputs of people. At best financial resources can only facilitates service delivery, but real wealth is increased by efficient and effective labour activity, even as the money is needed the utilization should be the key focus. The quality of public sector’s personnel is the single factor that determines whether the sector is going to be successful, whether the sector will realize a satisfactory return on its investment and whether it will reach its basic objectives. As Kulkami (2013) reiterates, that for an organisation to take pleasure in global recognition and reputation, its employees must be extremely trained and retrained, for an untrained man is a menace to the society. He is a quark; he knows only the law of things he has no idea of (their) why. Hence if there is any trouble anywhere – breakdown in a machine or a mistake in a ledger all he can do is to tumble and punch up trouble anyhow leading to a more serious breakdown or greater confusion.
Getting the right caliber of people through the process of recruitment to meet the organization’s need is not just enough; this makes manpower planning and human capital development crucial in the Anambra State Civil Service Commission. Organizational effectiveness is strengthened through manpower planning and development. In other words, it improves employee’s service delivery and increases their loyalty to the public sector and their job satisfaction. An individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over others due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be and in turn bringing their best (Chiang, et.,al (2008). According to Montana, et, al (2008) emphasizes that the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients who willingly put their best to ensuring quality service delivery .
In line with the above, manpower planning and human capital development are necessary for effective service delivery, growth and development. Unless there is planning, event is left to a chance affair, planning minimize risk while taking advantage of opportunities. When adequate arrangement are not being made for future manpower needs of the public sector, the public sector find itself fighting with emergencies as the manpower needs arises. This may definitely result in spending more money for hiring manpower. It also results in procuring wrong personnel which may have devastating effects on the public sector. Shivakumar (2018).
Therefore, the impetus of engaging in this research work stems from the researcher’s concern for achieving effective service delivery through manpower planning and human capacity development in the Anambra State Civil Service commission.
Thus, it has been observed that Anambra State civil service commission is characterized by ineffective service delivery, to work is no longer the priding administrative attitude of the civil service in a typical Nigeria civil service which often service chooses organizational goals and value that best suit his or her interest for implementation and determines which rules to obey and which to ignore. These behavioral problems contribute to mal-administration and mismanagement of scarce resource, such a situation which F. Riggs also referred to as “administrative prodigality”.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There have been sharp drop in effectiveness and efficiency with which Anambra State Civil Service discharge their constitutional responsibilities. This is justified by pathetic nature of the high rates of under development in our climes. This is as a result of nonchalant attitude of the management and government over human resources planning and development which are essential for any organization which wants to remain relevant in our dynamic society. Organization is established in order to achieve stated objectives or goals. To achieve these objectives, effective human resources must be in place. Since every organization depends on its employees for its survival and accomplishment of its task, manpower planning and human capital development are crucial in all organizations be it private or public sectors. Speamerfam (2011).
Paradoxically in our contemporary society, emphasis has shifted from manpower planning and human capital development to controlling and sharing of the national cake meant for implementation of the development projects- a new sitting administration will tend to bring new policies and programmes without evaluating the existing one in turn destabilizing the system. Human resources planning are considered as luxury affairs and human resources supply is seen as an elastic item which can be expanded anywhere leading to acute neglect of manpower planning. Weinstein (2002).
Recruitment in Anambra State Civil Service Commission has tilted towards political patronage for political aspirant and party loyalist. This has a negative impact on the performance or service delivery of the commission. Some organizations that embarked on planning usually end up not achieving the objectives as result of inaccurate data on personnel profile and on projected objectives. Poor data management abounds in the institutions because of lack of adequate skilled employee and continued use of manual /filing methods.
Furthermore, there is highly recognized poor human resources development and utilization in various public organizations. There is growing evidence that lack of investment in the development and training of workers is associated with the long-run bankruptcy of the public sector. In addition, inadequate development of employees contributed to poor performance of public sector in Nigeria. This is traceable to poor human resources management. Human resources management according to McKinsey (2011), is the design of formal system in an organization to ensure effective use of human talent to accomplish organizational objectives. It is a set of activities directed to attracting development, utilizing and maintaining an effective workforce.
In view of the above, manpower planning - recruitment and selection, training and development, promotion and compensation which are the critical aspects of human resources management had been neglected and manipulated by incompetent personnel managers.
Critical analysis of relevant data on the performance of public sector in Nigeria in this our contemporary society expose to its totality the chaotic situation which pervaded the whole system as result of negative attitude to human resources planning and development.
It is in response of the above back drop that makes manpower planning and human capital development imperative in this study. The place of manpower planning and development cannot be compromise in the achievement of development in our localities especially in Anambra State Civil Service Commission.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to determine the ways of achieving effective service delivery through manpower planning and human capital development in Anambra State Civil Service. The specific objectives include:
(a) To determine the extent to which employees’ training and development affects service delivery in Anambra State Civil Service commission.
(b) To examine the extent to which inadequate selections and recruitments affects employees’ service delivery in the Anambra civil service commission.
(c) To ascertain the extent to which employees’ motivation affects employees’ service delivery in the Anambra State civil service commission.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raise;
(i) How has employee’s training and development affected employee’s service delivery?
(ii) How has inadequate selections and recruitments affected employees’ service delivery?
(iii) How has employee’s motivation affected employee’s service delivery?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1. Ho : employees’ training and development has no significant effect on service delivery in Anambra State Civil Service commission.
Hi: employees’ training and development has significant effect on service delivery in Anambra State Civil Service commission
2. Ho : Inadequate selections and recruitments have no significant effects on employees’ service delivery in the Anambra civil service commission.
Hi : Inadequate selections and recruitments have significant effects on employees’ service delivery in the Anambra civil service commission.
3. Ho : Employees’ motivation has no significant effects on employees’ service delivery in the Anambra State civil service commission.
Hi: Employees’ motivation has significant effects on employees’ service delivery in the Anambra State civil service commission..
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study has both theoretical and empirical significance. The significance of this study is discussed below:
Theoretically, the study would serve as a resource material for further researches on the effective service delivery through manpower planning and human capacity development in Nigeria and Anambra State Civil Service in particular. In this dimension, the study would enrich discussions, debates and scholarly views on human capacity development. This study adds significantly to existing body of knowledge on the issues of how to achieve effective service delivery through manpower planning and human capacity development.
Empirically, findings from the study would serve as a wakeup call to the government, policymakers and human resource managers in articulating and designing the ways to achieve effective service delivery through manpower planning and human capacity development. Lastly, the study would be very useful to researchers for it serves as a basis for further research in this area of study since it would no doubt arose further inquiries and research into various aspects of effective service delivery and human capacity development.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The researcher limits this work to the ways of achieving effective service delivery through manpower planning and human capital development in Anambra state civil service covering the period from 2015 to 2020.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Most research projects, like this research works, is common with certain limitations that always confront students engaging in research work. Some of the problems are inadequate funds and time constraint. The researcher spent lot of money travelling from one place to another to source information that would help to complete the work, notwithstanding all these, the researcher through prudent management of time, financial assistance from my family and piece of advice from those who have overcome similar experiences as researchers surmounted all these limitations.
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
Manpower planning: This is the process – including forecasting, developing and controlling – by which public sector ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people at the right places at the right time doing work for which they are economically useful.
Human capital development: This is the process of improving an organization’s employees’ performance, capabilities, capacities and resources .
Human resource management: This is the strategic approach to the effective and efficient management of people in the public and/or private sector as the case maybe such that they help in quality service delivery.
Organization: this is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling civil servants to work effectively together in accompanying objectives.
Staff development: This refers to all the policies, practices, practices, and procedures used to develop the knowledge, skills, and competencies of staff to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the public sector.
Manpower utilization: It relates to the strategies, tools and methodologies that a public sector relies on to determine its total workload at a given moment.
Civil Service Commission: A government agency that is constituted by legislature to regulate the employment and working conditions of civil servants, oversee hiring and promotions, and promote the values of the public service.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERAURE
2.1 Conceptual Review:
The conceptual review for this study aims to explore the relationships between effective service delivery and manpower planning and human capacity development . In this section of the study, related works to the subject matter were reviewed under the following sub-headings: manpower planning and development, objectives of manpower planning and development, effects of manpower planning, challenges of manpower planning in organization and possible solutions, roles of manpower planning in ensuring efficient service delivery, the issues of merit as a criterion for manpower development, employees’ training and development, recruitment and selection process and employees’ Motivation.
2.1.1 Manpower Planning and Development
Manpower planning is often used interchangeably with “human resources planning” refers to the totality of the energies, skills, knowledge and experience available in a country Dibie (2014). It is the managerial, scientific, engineering, technical, craftsmen and other skills which are employed in creating, designing, developing, managing and operating public sectors. Obojo (2012) conceived manpower planning and development as “the process by which an organisation ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people at the right place and the right time, doing things for which they are economically useful”. Therefore, the right number and quality of personnel should be in place to perform varied functions. (Igbokwe- Ibeto (2012).
Hamlin (2004) examines different views and definitions of manpower and development and submits that it implies any activity which deliberately attempts to improve a person's skill in a job. It also creates learning in the areas of knowledge, skill, experience and attitudes. This tends to suggest that the essence of manpower planning and development goes beyond job skills but extends to personal development in terms of knowledge acquisition. In fact, it can be interpreted to mean a transformation of men. Furthermore, Conroy (2010) defined manpower planning and development as a purposive effort intended to strengthen the library's capability to fulfill its mission effectively and efficiently by encouraging and providing for the growth of its own human resources. He described manpower development as a factor that improves the competence of personnel through opportunities for learning on the job. This implies that manpower development can be achieved through training and education of staff. However, the continual enrichment of staff with knowledge is to the mutual benefit of the individual and the organization. McNamara (2010) views manpower planning and development as involving an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs. However, manpower planning and development is not a responsibility of just an individual; rather it is a combination of different factors.
Biscoe (2002) sees manpower development as a two-way responsibility within the organization and individual. Sodipo (2005), investigated the effect of manpower development on service delivery with the aim of determining the different factors that play important roles in any organizational set up for effective utilization of manpower resources available to it, its main focus is on different factors that play important role in organizational set up to ensure effective information management. Onasanya (2006) perceives manpower development as a form of specialized education aimed at giving the trainee a particular or specialized knowledge, skill and attitude which he must possess to effectively perform in a given position. Beardwell and Helen (2001) on their own part view manpower development as the process of becoming increasingly complex, more elaborate and differentiated by virtue of learning and maturation.
It is also seen as a planned process to modify attitude, character, knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities Ekeria et.,al (2013). Rouda & Kusy (2005) view manpower development as the ‘acquisition of knowledge, competencies and skills, and adopting behaviors that improve performance in current jobs, including: adult learning theory and applications, instructional systems design, train-the-trainer programs, and instructional strategies and methods. Agabi and Ogah (2010) posit that manpower is the bulk of labour available for any particular kind of work. In a more specific term, “it is the bulk of human beings with the relevant skills, energies, talents, knowledge and attitudes that can be committed towards rendering of services Gbosi (2003). In Gbosi’s view, human beings are not described as manpower or human resources except in that they can be put to some efficient use as a resource that in turn can be used for wealth generation or for the facilitation of increases in wealth.
Flowing from the above discuss, it can be asserted that manpower (human resources) are a nation’s most valuable resources without which other resources will not give rise to rapid economic growth. According to Unugbro (2012), planning can be defined “as the process of deciding what objectives will be pursued within a future time frame and what will be done in order to achieve those objectives”. It involves deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it and who is to do it (Weihrich et,al 2008). Agabi and Ogah (2010) define planning as a managerial process directed at the optimal utilization of time and resources in the attainment of clearly identified goals. From the above analysis, planning can be described as a worthwhile activity directed at the management of human and other essential resources with the aim of achieving an identified set of goals and objectives.
Manpower planning has been defined variously by different authors. According to Agabi and Ogah (2010), Manpower (human resource) planning “involves forecasting the human resource needs of an economy, setting objectives that will lead to the realization of such needs, designing strategies for the achievement of the set objectives, identifying resource needs, and defining modalities for plan implementation; it is referred to as “the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number of people, at the right place, at the right time, doing things for which they are economically most useful” Ibojo (2012).
Chandan (2005) posits that human resource planning involves objective and systematic assessment of present staffing needs of an organization, identifying the available personnel to satisfy the current needs, forecasting the future demand and supply of employees, formulating staffing strategies with a view to both short range as well as long range strategic plans and continuously monitoring, evaluating and updating these needs and resources of supply; “it is a rational approach to the effective recruitment, retention and deployment of people within an organization, including, when necessary, arrangement for dismissing staff” (Cole, 2004, p.169).
Scholars of vast intellectual reputes such as; Ezeani (2002), Obi (2004), Onah (2007), Okoye et al (2005) have come to terms that manpower planning and not any other constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations. Obi (2004) noted that mere good organizational structure does not by itself guarantee good performance. Onah (2007) subscribed that, every organization needs these resources to keep afloat and functioning. An organization needs money to pay its staff and to buy essential materials or equipment for daily operations. Maximum rendering of services offered cannot be achieved unless the essential material resources are available. Organizations, whether public or private, are prone to jeopardy when there is no adequate human resource and manpower administration.
Consequent upon the available premise, the disturbing need arises for manpower management and development as a sine-qua-non for improved performance which ensures optimum service delivery and reproduction of a near perfect society. Despite the available human capital, civil service in Nigeria especially in Anambra, has neither been properly managed nor the available human resources administered effectively and efficiently. Nwanolue (2012) opined that this ugly trend has fetched the service a bad name over the years. In most cases, staff development is neglected or overlooked entirely. This is usually due to the corruption in the service.
Cases abound where funds ranging into millions and billions of naira, meant for staff development have been embezzled by individuals and groups in change, without any serious actions taken to that effect. Ekpo (2013) stated that the lack of adequate emphasis on manpower development as a tool for development in Nigeria on the part of government as well as the organized private sector could not be farfetched from the lack of understanding of both the concept and methods application of manpower development in a post-colonial Nigerian State in which the process of human resources development for national growth was distorted by colonialism with the attendant negative orientation that was injected into political leadership.
It can be adduced from the above discussion that the essence of manpower planning is to ensure regular and adequate supply and maintenance of relevant human resources in all sectors of the economy, at all times by ensuring that organization guarantees the availability of the right kind of people, in the right number, in the right place, and at the right time. Summarily, employers should have laudable career programmes, establish improved work climates, and above all their personal needs and aspirations should be factor into management decision Adewale, Abolaji & Kolade (2011; Helton & Soubik (2004).
Future staffing needs have to look beyond quantitative perspective of manpower planning Stokker & Hallam (2009). This change in the attitude towards having effective strategy in place is the key driver for manpower planning in organizations. Stokker & Hallam (2009) The plan should be driven by the need to determine the right sized work force having the right competencies to meet current and future business objectives and goals of an organization Radford (2010). Manpower planning should be considered as core human resource process. It is indeed an important opportunity for human resource to “raise the bar‟ and be involved in making of the strategic plan for the future of the organization. Baron et al (2010). As concisely put by Stokker & Hallam (2009), it is all about having the right person, in the right job, with the right skills, at the right time. It can also be stated as implementation of those human resource activities, policies and practices which drive the change and prepare the organization to cope with that change. Pynes (2004) Manpower planning encompasses forecasting human resource demand and creating schedules that meet with targeted service level goals (Durr, 2003).
If the planning is all about numbers based on past trends to predict future supply and demand it is generally referred to as “Hard Manpower planning” Baron et al (2010). “Soft manpower planning” can be stated as core process of people management shaped by organizational strategy and ensures right match of work force to deliver short and long term organization objectives based on strategic framework of the organization Baron et al (2010). Essentially it is about forecasting both the demand and supply of labour, understanding what you have got now and what you might need in the future”. Baron et al (2010). Manpower planning is the systematic identification and analysis of what an organization is going to need in terms of the size, kind, and quality of workforce to achieve its objectives. It determines what mix of experience, knowledge, and skills is required and sequential steps to get the right number of right people in the right place at the right time Radford (2010).