The Nexus between Intrastate Conflict and Right to Development in English-Speaking Regions of Cameroon


Academic Paper, 2022

16 Pages


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Table of Contents

ABSTRACT

An overview of Concepts

Intrastate

Conflict

Right

Development

Right to Development

An overview of intrastate conflict and the right to development

Negative Consequence of intrastate conflict on the right to Development in the English Speaking Regions of Cameroon

Positive Consequences of Intrastate conflict on the right to development in the English speaking Regions of Cameroon

CONCLUSION

Reference List

An overview of Concepts

Intrastate

Intrastate means within a state or inside a state. Merriam Webster Dictionary defines intrastate as existing or occurring within a state.1 As per American Dictionary, intrastate means occurring or existing within the boundaries of a state.2 Intrastate means within a state region of a country. Hence, this work focuses on the internal conflict in the Northwest and Southwest regions of Cameroon.

Conflict

Conflict is part of our human existence and a natural part of our daily life.3 Black‟s Law Dictionary circumscribes “disputes” as a conflict or controversy, especially one that gives rise to a particular law suit.4 Dzurba5 defines conflicts as “a social problem in which two or more persons, families, districts, communities, states or nations are at war with each other”. He opines that human nature “is a perpetual cause of disagreement, quarrel, and conflict”. Other words used to denote conflicts are “disagreements, oppositions, contradictions, hostility, challenge and difference. Coser6 defines conflict as a struggle between individuals and collectivities, over values or claims to status power and scarce resources in which the aim of the opponent is either to neutralize, injure and eliminate their rivals.7 According to Collins dictionary, a dispute is a disagreement or argument between people or groups.8 Black‟s Law dictionary defines „disputes‟ as a conflict or controversy especially one giving rise to a lawsuit,9 thus, the above definition is adopted in the study.

It worth establishing a dichotomy between a dispute and a conflict for purposes of understanding their context with the study. Firstly, a dispute is a short-term disagreement while a conflict is a long-term disagreement. Secondly, unlike conflict dispute is a disagreement, which can be easily resolved. In contrast to a conflict, a dispute can be resolved through judicial or other means. Thirdly, a Conflict refers to a broad area of issues, and within these broad areas, specific disputes can arise. Hence, Disputes may stem from a Conflict. Disputes are resolved by dealing with the specific issue at hand and coming to a final determination. This is not the same with Conflict. Conflicts are more serious and sensitive in nature and very volatile in terms of resolution. The conflict under analysis is internal which has at its root marginalization. Hence, this conflict within the English speaking of Cameroon from 2016 to 2021.

Right

In a sense, a right means an entitlement to a specific service or treatment from others. According to Black’s Law Dictionary,10 a right is a legally enforceable claim that another will do or will not do a given act, a recognizable and protected interest the violation of which is a wrong. Cambridge Advanced, learner’s Dictionary defines a right correct, true and exact. The term right employed in the study means a claim, which is legally enforceable.

Development

Incorporates the broad aspiration to mean a good life in all its social, economic, cultural and political dimensions that each society sets for itself. Development is a process where someone or something grows or changes and become more advanced.11 According to Pearson, defined the development means the movement upward of the entire social other.12 Also, According to Seers, opines that development means the conditions for realization of the human personality.13 Thus, the term development in this work focuses on positive change, economic growth, education, peace, poverty reduction and sustainability, geared towards improving and making something better for people fulfil their potential. Thus, development here embodies positive change in the fulling the full potential in the political, economic, social and cultural domains.

Right to Development

The right to development is an inalienable human right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized14. The Right to Development is used here to mean the right of the people to participate in, contribute to development process and enjoy the developmental proceeds.

An overview of intrastate conflict and the right to development

The debate as to the nexus between internal conflict and the right to development has been a subject of great rationalization. There exists a nexus between conflict and the right to development. Firstly, development reduces conflict. A reduction in incidence of conflict generally increases the realization of the right to development. This ideology is the prevailing view of the development community. That donors place conditions on recipient government to reduce military expenditures. A reduction in military expenditures reduces internal violence and consequently promotes the realization of the right to development within the state. The third is that post-conflict assistance decreases the likelihood of returning to war and investment should be made in justice/reconciliation, demobilization and reintegration of combatants. Moreover, the fourth approach aims at minimizing the potential harmful effects of aid in conflict situations, and this was a revelation to many that aid could potentially contribute to the exacerbation of a conflict which undermines the prospects of the right to development.15

Prevention of conflict can also impede a conflict from escalating to violence. The outbreak of intrastate conflict has a link with development, because the eruption of conflict can be attributed to several factors for instance low levels of human development raises the likelihood of conflict. Furthermore, violence reduces prospects of development resulting to impoverishment and loss of wealth. Thus, the relationship between intrastate conflict and the right to development is like a vicious circle: the two reinforce each other. Consequently, the formulation and implementation of policies that strengthen human development has an indirect effect on reducing the likelihood of conflict.16 Hence, carrying out conflict prevention strategies and the guarantee of human security that is freedom from fear and want can help de-escalate a conflict for the realization of the right to development.

The Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) has investigated the consequences of internal armed conflict on several of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).17 The MDGs are a set of globally recognized development objectives, encompassing the conquest of poverty and hunger; universal education; gender equality; improved child and maternal health; combating HIV/AIDS; achieving environmental sustainability; and building a global partnership for development. The MDGs represent the closest thing we have to a global consensus on developmental priorities. However, there has so far been no systematic and extensive examination of the effect of civil conflict on the attainment of these goals. The analysis presented here indicates that civil war does indeed have deleterious effects on the achievement of most of the MDGs and the RTD.

Furthermore, the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) has investigated the effect of Armed Conflict on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).18 The globe has witnessed a steep rise in armed conflicts in recent years and with 62% of those in extreme poverty estimated to be living in countries at risk from high levels of violence by 2030.19 Determined efforts are needed to respond to these interlinked challenges. To mitigate the effect of violence and insecurity on development, the 2030 agenda includes peace as a cross-cutting issue as well as SDG 16, to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all, and build effective, accountable, and inclusive institutions at all levels.”20

How to measure advancement toward such a goal and how to decipher universal targets and indicators at the national level is a serious challenge. The study highlights the fact that SDG goal 16 has the highest number of targets (10) and the lowest number of means of implementation (2) making the pursuit of peace, justice, and good governance, destined to remain the stuff of idealistic hopes. SDGs represent what is general accepted as development consensus. However, there has so far been no chronological and extensive examination of the effect of intrastate conflict on the attainment of these goals. The analysis presented below indicates that intrastate wars have detrimental effects on the achievement of most of the SDGs and the RTD.

From the above it can viewed on the one hand that intrastate conflicts have negative effect on the realization of the right to development. This is palpable through death21, poverty, hunger destruction of infrastructure22, displacement of people23, loss livelihood24, and conflict often leads to long-term refugee problems. Social, political, and economic institutions can be permanently damaged25. The consequences of war, especially civil war, are profound for the realization of the right to development. Especially in the domain of agriculture, access to education and justice in the English speaking regions of Cameroon.

Negative Consequence of intrastate conflict on the right to Development in the English Speaking Regions of Cameroon

Firstly, looking at the agricultural sector in Cameroon the conflict in the English speaking regions has a deleterious effect on the Cameroon development corporation, small scheme farmers and general prices for agricultural products. The Cameroon Development Corporation has been forced to downsize because of thousands of its workers have fled the plantation due to the fighting between security forces and separatist. The separatist torched the CDC‟s vehicles, tractors, buildings, warehouses and some their workers have been maimed and kidnapped. The CDC runs Banana, Palm and Rubber plantation. The General Manager reports that. Out of CDC‟s 29 production sites across the country, 12 have been shut down, 10 are partially functioning while only seven are fully operational. The company‟s precarious financial situation has caused job loss for 6,124 employees, while 5,805 more jobs could be lost as the conflict persists, representing 70 per cent of CDC‟s workforce.26

The effects on the agricultural sector has bedeviled the projects under execution by the Southwest Development Authority, some of this projects disrupted in the Southwest region include: Manyemen- Fifia Road - 6km; Banga long street - Mungo road-8km; Rehabilitation of Bekora-Bafaka road - 26km; Construction of intra farm roads in the Ekona - 4km; rehabilitation of Kuke Mbomo - Bai Mokimafen Road - 12km; Rehabilitation of Bachou Ntai Junction - Obang Three Corners - Obang Farms Road in Upper Bayang Sub Division, Manyu Division - 9 Km. The projects extended to the non-construction of bridges which includes:

Construction of home to farm bridge at Nkwen/Ekambeng and Construction of a Cable Suspended Foot Bridge in Diongo Ikiliwindi in Meme Division27

Thus, the conflict in the English speaking regions has bedevilling effects on the economy of the regions and the entire country. Thorough assessment from GICAM reports that as at 2018 about 410 million euros has been lost by the state, about 6500 jobs are lost and further 9000 are under threat by 202028 which spells doom for the right to development at the individual and collective level in the regions.

Secondly, access to education is undermined in the English speaking regions of Cameroon. This can be demonstrated through enrolment in the Basic and Secondary Schools in the North West regions of the country recorded a drop of about 198.5 percent from 2016 to 2018.29 Furthermore, the performance of students also dropped in terms of the quality and quantity of points. Student registration of the General Certificate of Examination GCE experienced a 5.79 percent decline in 2018 compared with the year 2016 and there was 27.04 percent decline in the number of students who passes GCE.30

The effects of school boycott are far reaching on the individual development of the students of this region, because it impedes their professional and intellectual progress, increases illiteracy levels, inadequate coverage of school syllabus, teenage pregnancy, household burdens and poverty in the regions. Moreover, the school boycotts and ghost towns have increased the number of school drop outs by over 80 percent, increase in crime wave by over 45 percent, alcohol and drug consumption by 35 percent, and also income resources have greatly diminished.31 Some Schools have been displaced from one place to another for instance, in Kupe-mauenguba division integrity Comprehensive College Ebonji has moved to Manjo and Oxford College Tombel has moved to Lum. In Lebialem division Saint John XXII Minor Seminary Fotabong and Saint John Paul II College Nkongle move to Mamfe due to the conflict it sullen in Muyuka sub-division were schools are not functional.32

From the foregoing, the state of school functioning has been immensely affected by the conflict as confirmed by the Chief of Bureau for school functioning and mapping in the Northwest region. Who bemoans a drastic decline in the number of enrolled students, which plummeted from 422000 students to about 100.000 students which has been marked with a reduction of teachers. For instance, in the Menchum division, only Government Bilingual High School Furawa, GTHS WUM, GBHS WUM, GTC Wayndu and GTC Waey are operational there other schools within the division have been paralyzed.33

Moreover, another negative consequence of school boycott is self-marginalization in as much as they limit themselves and the future of their own children. The lack of education will determine the manner and style which the children of these regions will be raised. In a radical style, learning to hate their nation and fight against for a virtual state which some Cameroonians of English speaking regions

imagine for themselves.34 Hence, the pause in the education creates an even greater marginalization for the English speaking regions and also triggers children to involve in the conflict which warrant Cameroon to deal with the issue of child soldiers.

Positive Consequences of Intrastate conflict on the right to development in the English speaking Regions of Cameroon

On the other hand, conflict should not be understood solely as an inherently negative and destructive occurrence, but rather as a potentially positive and productive force for change. That is, development is embedded in conflict. It does follow that intrastate conflicts have their benefits as well. Internal conflicts can bring about a review of the developmental policy of the state which promotes the right to development. For instance, it sets the stage for reconstruction and putting in place institutions which leads to progress of individuals and communities.

From the foregoing intrastate conflict have negative and positive effects on the right to development. Positively, internal conflicts can also contribute towards the realization of the right to development. The end of an internal conflict brings about policies which promote the respect of human rights and create favourable conditions for the flourishment of the right to development. For instance in Rwanda, one of the positives of the conflict was the establishment of a government which ensures everyone‟s ones participation, reconstruction of towns in view of creating a conducive environment for the realization of the right to development.35 The Kenyan government has put in place a more people centered management of the community land in the Ogiek36 and Endorois37 communities in view of providing an environment which guarantees the protection of the right to development.

It is as a result of this conflict that generated the above policies which have, to some extent, quelled or suppressed the violence in the region. The government recently granted amnesty to about 28938 persons prior to and after the National dialogue to persons arrested as propagators of hostility against the fatherland in the Northwest and Southwest regions of the country. This magnanimous gesture of government was promptly reciprocated by some of the militants who did not only surrender themselves but also surrendered the arms and ammunition at their disposal. The regional headquarters are now relatively safe and peaceful to do genuine business, and the government has reinvigorated the speedy reconstruction and development of the area.

In Cameroon the government has employed certain measures to guarantee the right to development such as initiating a dialogue, reconstruction of the Northwest and Southwest regions, excluding the regions from certain fiscal duties (economical damaged zones), creation of a disarmament de-mobilization and reintegration institutions to safeguard the rights of ex-combatants, enactment of the language bill, creation of the National commission for Bilingualism and Multiculturalism, grant a special status to the English speaking regions as pathways for them to participate and contribute in realizing the right to development in these regions.

CONCLUSION

All in all, this paper set out to examine the nexus between conflict and the right to development in English speaking regions of Cameroon from 2016 to 2021 concept of conflict driven by bad governance and marginalization. This internal conflicts result in loss of life property, displacement and socio-economic backwardness. The pre-dominance of conflict has positive and negative effects on the right to development as examined. From the analysis, it can be deduced that though the right to development is a human right however, its international implementation still remains a work in in progress but however, in Africa the African charter recognizes it as a right and thus, its implementation rest on members states as they are under the duty to respect fulfil and protect the right to development as per the triple prong theory of law.

Reference List

1. A. Dzurba, Prevention and Resolution of Conflict: Local and International Perspectives, John Archers ltd, Ibadan, (2010), p 6

2. A. Nider, O.M & Mile T.J (eds), Peace & Conflict Resolution, Basic Concepts, Theories and Issues, Success World publications, Makurdi, (2003) p 6

3. African Commission on Human & People‟s Rights v Republic of Kenya (Ogiek case) . Application, No.006/2012

4. B. A Garner, Black‟s Dictionary , 7ed 1999, Boston

5. B. Gargner, Black‟s Dictionary, Abridge Ninth (eds) 1999, Boston. p. 1126

6. Intrastate.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary Merriam-Webster. Available at: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/intrastate. Accessed 09/03/2020.

7. Cameroon‟s Anglophone Crisis: How to Get to Talks? , International crisis group Report No. 272 Africa, may 2019. Available at: https://www.justice.gov/eoir/page/file/1161586/download/ .accessed on 24/11/2020

8. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary at, p.415, 2013

9. Collins Dictionary. Available at: https://www.collinsdictionary.com accessed on 07/03/2020

10. Declaration on the Right to development, Article 1(1).

11. H. Strand et al. The Effect of Armed Conflict on Sustainable Development Goals, presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Washington DC, USA, (29 August – 1 September 2019). Available at: https://www.prio.org/Publications/Publication/?x=12076. Accessed on 29/07/2021

12. Human Rights watch report 2021. Available at: https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2021/country-chapters/cameroon. Accessed on 29/07/2021. About 4000 Civilian deaths have been recorded in the crisis in the English speaking regions of Cameroon

13. H. Forbe Ngangnchi et al “Analysis of the Socio-economic Consequences of the Crisis in the Northwest and Southwest Regions of Cameroon on the Economy of the Two regions (2016-2018)

14. Intrastate. American Dictionary.com, https://www.dictionary.com/browse/intrastate. Accessed 09/03/2020.

15. L. Coser. The Function of Social Conflict. New York: The Free Press, (1965) p. 3

16. M. B. Anderson, in Do No Harm wrote about the potentially negative effect of aid, and Mark Duffield incorporates this view in Global Governance and the New Wars. Anderson, Do No Harm; Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars. Lynne Reinner Publishing, Boulder, (1999)

17. M. E. Kindzeka. Voice of Africa News (VOA). Cameroon‟s Second Largest Employer Losing workers to Conflict, August 2018. Available at: https://www.voanews.com/africa/cameroons-2nd-largest-employer-losing-workers-conflict. Accessed on 11/03/2021

18. N. Kladoumadeji. Lessons Learned from the Post Conflict Reconstruction in Rwanda, Regional Workshop on Post-conflict and Development 2008

19. N. Kim et al, „The Economic Crises, Violent Conflict and Human Development‟, International Journal of Peace Studies, Vol. 15, No.1, 2010 p. 1-16: 1, 2, 3 ,5 & 10

20. R. Pearson. „Rethinking Gender Matters in Development‟, in Allen, T. & Thomas, A. (eds.). Poverty and Development into the 21st Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, (2000

21. S. Charlton. Women in Third World Development, London: Westview Press, (1984

22. Sustainable Development Goal 16

[...]


1 Intrastate.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary Merriam-Webster. Available at: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/intrastate. Accessed 09/03/2020.

2 Intrastate. American Dictionary.com, https://www.dictionary.com/browse/intrastate. Accessed 09/03/2020.

3 A. Nider, O.M & Mile T.J (eds), Peace & Conflict Resolution, Basic Concepts, Theories and Issues, Success World publications, Makurdi, (2003) p 6

4 B. Garner, Black‟s Dictionary , 7ed 1999, Boston.

5 A. Dzurba, Prevention and Resolution of Conflict: Local and International Perspectives, John Archers ltd, Ibadan, (2010), p 6

6 L. Coser. The Function of Social Conflict. New York: The Free Press, (1965) p. 3

7 Ibid

8 Collins Dictionary. Available at: https://www.collinsdictionary.com accessed on 07/03/2020

9 B.A. Garner, Black‟law Dictionary, 777th ed (1999)

10 B. Gargner, Black‟s Dictionary, Abridge Ninth (eds) 1999, Boston. p. 1126

11 Cambridge University Press :Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary at, p.415, 2013

12 R. Pearson. „Rethinking Gender Matters in Development‟, in Allen, T. & Thomas, A. (eds.). Poverty and Development into the 21st Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, (2000)

13 S. Charlton. Women in Third World Development, London: Westview Press, (1984)

14 Article 1(1) Declaration on the Right to development.

15 M. B. Anderson, in Do No Harm wrote about the potentially negative effect of aid, and Mark Duffield incorporates this view in Global Governance and the New Wars. Anderson, Do No Harm; Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars. Lynne Reinner Publishing, Boulder, (1999)

16 N. Kim et al, „The Economic Crises, Violent Conflict and Human Development‟, International Journal of Peace Studies, Vol. 15, No.1, 2010 p. 1-16: 1, 2, 3 ,5 & 10

17 The Consequences for internal armed conflict on development. Available at: https://www.sipri.org/commentary/blog/2015/consequences-internal-armed-conflict-development-part-1. Accessed on 04/09/2020

18 H. Strand et al. The Effect of Armed Conflict on Sustainable Development Goals, presented at the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Washington DC, USA, (29 August – 1 September 2019). Available at: https://www.prio.org/Publications/Publication/?x=12076. Accessed on 29/07/2021

19 Ibid

20 Sustainable Development Goal 16

21 According to Human Rights watch report 2021. Available at: https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2021/country-chapters/cameroon. Accessed on 29/07/2021. About 4000 Civilian deaths have been recorded in the crisis in the English speaking regions of Cameroon

22 According to observation in Kumba, Bali, Ekona Muyuka, and numerous reports from human rights organizations and the press that allege that Cameroonian security forces, in particular, the Rapid Intervention Battalion (BIR), have engaged in a systematic campaign of terror against Separatist in the English speaking regions and have destroyed properties belonging to locals. The most prominent example of this is the tactic of targeted property destruction in which security forces have reportedly burned down hundreds of structures such as homes, businesses and local government buildings and on observation in towns such as: Mbalangi, kwakwa, Mbonge, Batibo and Ngabur. As of June 2020, over 238 villages have been burnt in the NW/SW. 135 in the North West with 79 severely and 103 in the South west with 68 severely destroyed.

23 Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) report On Cameroon: Northwest and Southwest Crisis Situation No.2 December 31st 2021. About 500.000 persons are internally displaced persons within the Northwest and Southwest regions of the country. See Conflict in Cameroon's Anglophone regions forces 430,000 people to flee. Available at:https://reliefweb.int/report/cameroon/conflict-cameroons-anglophone-regions-forces-430000-people-flee. Accessed on 04/07/2021

24 It should be noted that without other means of economic support, there is a likelihood for the unemployed or former combatants to engage in criminal behaviour, especially with the many small arms in circulation in war- torn countries. The researcher argues that the population of the English speaking regions are generally engaged in agriculture as their source of livelihood. The conflict in the Northwest and Southwest regions has led to loss of livelihood, consequently, most Cameroonians from the English speaking regions engaged in agriculture have been force to abandon their source of sustenance. Hence, the general standards of living in these regions have fallen, reflected in the inability of government to provide adequate services, due to the diversification of state resources towards the conflict instead of channelling such funds for the wellbeing of citizens. The loss of livelihood poses a major challenge for the population to actively participate in the developmental process and benefit from the developmental process.

25 For instance the Court services in Muyuka, and Batibo. The Hospital in Kumba and the Health unit in Kwakwa have been burnt to ashes consequently the population have no access to medical facilities demonstrating the precarious situation of the right to development in this area. Furthermore, The disruptive effect of conflict on the economy of the English speaking regions and the country has been considerable, Groupement Interpatronal du Cameroun (GICAM) report that the crisis has cost Cameroon around 269 billion XAF.

26 M. E. Kindzeka. Voice of Africa News (VOA). Cameroon‟s Second Largest Employer Losing workers to Conflict, August 2018. Available at: https://www.voanews.com/africa/cameroons-2nd-largest-employer-losing-workers-conflict. Accessed on 11/03/2021

27 Interview with the divisional delegates of public works for Mezam, Kupe Muanenguba and Meme Divisions.

28 GICAM‟s assessment is incomplete, but provides an interesting insight into the conflict‟s impact on the economy. In March 2019, the CDC evaluated company losses at 53million euros and Cameroon‟s employees estimated the losses of companies in the Anglophone region at 460 million euros. „Insécurité dans les régions du Sud-Ouest et Nord-Ouest: conséquences économique et impact sur l‟activité des entreprise‟, GICAM, July 2018. „Le conflit séparatiste au Cameroun devient crise agricole et économique‟, France 24, 27 March 2019

29 Interview with the Regional chief of Service for school planning Mapping and Structures Southwest Region, on 26/11/2020 at 12:00pm and Interview with the Regional Coordinator of Administrative and General Affairs of Northwest Region, on 28/11/2020 at 3:00pm

30 H. Forbe Ngangnchi et al “Analysis of the Socio-economic Consequences of the Crisis in the Northwest and Southwest Regions of Cameroon on the Economy of the Two regions (2016-2018)

31 Ibid

32 Interview with the Regional chief of Service for school planning Mapping and Structures Southwest Region, on 26/11/2020 at 12:

33 Interview with Chief of Service for General Affairs Delegation of Education Northwest region, on 24/11/2020 at 2:00 pm

34 Cameroon‟s Anglophone Crisis: How to Get to Talks? , International crisis group Report No. 272 Africa, may 2019. Available at: https://www.justice.gov/eoir/page/file/1161586/download/ .accessed on 24/11/2020

35 N. Kladoumadeji. Lessons Learned from the Post Conflict Reconstruction in Rwanda, Regional Workshop on Post-conflict and Development 2008

36 African Commission on Human & People‟s Rights v Republic of Kenya (Ogiek case) . Application, No.006/2012

37 Application No.076/2012

38 Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) report on: Cameroon: Release of 289 people must lead to end of wrongful detentions 2(018). Available at: https://reliefweb.int/report/cameroon/cameroon-release-289-people-must-lead-end-wrongful-detentions. Accessed on 04/07/2021. See the case of The People of Cameroon v. Nkongho Felix Agbor Balla & others (2017).

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Details

Title
The Nexus between Intrastate Conflict and Right to Development in English-Speaking Regions of Cameroon
College
University of Buea
Authors
Year
2022
Pages
16
Catalog Number
V1187492
ISBN (eBook)
9783346625779
ISBN (Book)
9783346625786
Language
English
Keywords
nexus, intrastate, conflict, right, development, english, speaking, regions, cameroon
Quote paper
Melle Akame Winslow (Author)Ray Ngole Jr Akwe (Author), 2022, The Nexus between Intrastate Conflict and Right to Development in English-Speaking Regions of Cameroon, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1187492

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