Action Research. TVET Trainers' Practice and Perceived Contribution


Scientific Study, 2022

74 Pages, Grade: 1


Excerpt

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

Abstract

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Acronyms

CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background introduction
1.2. Statement of the problem
1.3. Research Question, Hypothesis and variables
1.3.1. Assumption of the researcher
1.3.2. Research question
1.3.3. Question form Hypothesis / Sub question of the study
1.3.4. Dependent and Independent variables
1.4. Purpose of the study
1.5. Objective of the study
1.5.1. General objective
1.5.2. Specific objective
1.6. Significance of the study
1.7. Scope and Context of the study (Delimitation of the study)
1.8. Limitation of the study
1.9. Operational definition
1.10. Organization of the study

CHAPTER-2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1. Trainers professional development
2.1.1. Trainers professional development for improved training quality
2.1.2. Models for trainers professional development
2.1.3. Summary major lesson learned from review literature
2.2. Conceptual overview of Action research
2.2.1. Concept of action research
2.2.2. Process, Model and approach of action research
2.3. Contribution of action research in TVET program
2.3.1. The Role and purpose of action research
2.3.2. Action research contribution in training quality improvement
2.3.3. Action research contribution for professional development
2.4. Perception contribution of action research
2.4.1. Perception and its impact on issue
2.4.2. The fundamental characteristics of action research

CHAPTER-3: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Method
3.2. Research design
3.3. Participant of the study
3.4. Sample and sampling techniques
3.5. Source of data
3.6. Data gathering tools
3.6.1. Questioner
3.6.2. Pre study Test
3.7. Data collection and administration
3.8. Reliability and a validity test
3.9. Method of data analysis’
3.10. Ethical considerations

CHAPTER-4: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Trainers practice in conducting action research
4.2. Trainer’s preliminary knowledge and skill on action research
4.3. Perceived contribution of action research for training quality improvement
4.4. Perceived contribution of action research in professional development

CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1. Recalling the study
5.2. Summary of the major findings
5.3. Opportunity and challenges
5.4. Conclusion
5.5. Recommendation
5.6. For other researchers

CHAPTER 6: PREVIOUS RESEARCH, LESSON LEARNED AND IDENTIFIED GAP
6.1. Overview of previous study
6.2. Major lesson learned from previous study
6.3. Gap in the previous study/Comment by researcher
6.4. Contribution of the study for the identified gap

CHAPTER 7: IMPLEMENTING RESEARCH FINDINGS TO ACTION
7.1. Research Findings implementation Action Plan
7.2. The researcher part on action of action research findings

APPENDICES
Appendix A: Trainers practice and status in conducting action research
Appendix B: preliminary knowledge and skill of trainers on action research
Appendix C: Training quality improvement contribution of action
Appendix D: Perceived Contribution for professional development
Appendix E: Trainer knowledge on action research

REFERENCE LIST

Acknowledgements

First and foremost great thanks to the creator not only for his support on completion of this study but also in every aspects of my life. Finally, I would like to thank also a pleasure for me to express my deepest respect to my wife for her moral, time and financial support which made me strong. Last but not least, I render my infinite gratitude to all who helped me in different dimensions.

Abstract

This study designed to examine trainers practice in conducting action research and identify their perception on contribution of action research which enable/hinder trainers in conducting action research use their research findings to their professional development and to training quality improvement in Technical Vocational Educational and training(TVET) program providing college of woliso polytechnic college .In order to attain the objectives, the study used both quantitative and qualitative research approach for data collection and analysis with mixed research methods. The participants of the study were 31 trainers of woliso TVET college who were selected using purposive sampling. Both primary and secondary data source were used. The primary data source was trainers of the colleges and the college documents were used as secondary data source. The questioners were pilot tested and administrated to 31 trainers. 100% of the questioners properly filled and returned. In addition to questioner’s ; document analysis, focus group discussion and volunteer trainers targeted preliminary knowledge and skill assessing test were made to collect the necessary information on the study variables. To analyze the quantitative data frequency and percentage were used. The data were presented in narrative form based on the participants understanding and interpreted in my reflective analysis.

The result of trainer practice in conducting action research reveals that a)trainers practice in conducting action research at woliso polytechnic college is very low stage i.e. 0.05%trainer per year, b)22(70.9%) of trainers don’t have experience in conducting action research, c) 7(78.8.9%) of trainers did not implemented their action research findings in to action, d) 88.9% of trainers who were conducted action research were conducted action research not for purpose of solving training and learning problems in the college/classroom, e)Trainers conducted action research: to improve research skill, for national level TVET trainers skill competition, to get promotion in career structure, to practice action research procedures and other not specified personal reasons.

Regarding trainers preliminary knowledge and skill on action research the study also identify a)the majority of the college trainers didn’t understand the concept of action research, b)78.5% trainers scored below 25% on the preliminary knowledge test which were prepared for the sake the study, c)20(64.5%) of trainers agree as action research don’t need specific skill and it can be conducted just like the traditional research approach, d)70.1% of trainers did not get in service training on action research over the past three years at least one times and e) the college management support, encouragement and motivation to trainers to conduct action research and to equip trainers with the necessary knowledge and skill is poor.

The major factors that hinders trainers to conduct action research in the study area lack of TVET context action research manual, absence of model action research document at the college, lack of motivation from the college, lack of skill on action research, time shortage because of work load, lack of awareness on TVET context action research process, lack of in service training on action research and unable to plan and implement action research as annual task of trainers. The study also indicate the major factors that enables some trainers to conduct action research were their professional commitment to support their training process with research, the in service training on action research and the national level skill competition program.

The study also resulted trainers perception on the contribution of action research for training quality improvement and professional development as a)Trainers in the college wrongly perceived the contribution of action research for training quality improvement and their professional development, b) 20(64.5%) trainers disagree on the contribution of action research on finding solution for training quality improvement and c)18 (58%) of respondent trainers perceived negatively about the contribution of action research helps for trainers in evaluating themselves and learn from themselves, their colleagues and their trainees.

The overall analysis on the tools justified there is direct correlation between trainers perception on action research and the contribution of action research for training quality improvement and for professional development.

The study result conclusion indicated that practicing action research and provision of action research findings based training in TVET colleges also has great contribution in solving institutional training related problems, for professional development of trainers and in improving training and educational quality improvement.The study was also concluded that trainers low level of practice in conducting action research and the wrongly perceived contribution of action research by trainers are function of trainers, the college management and TVET system stakeholders related problems. The majority of trainers in the college did not understand the write concept of action research and they were perceived action research contribution wrongly.

I recommend that trainers themselves should be encouraged up-grade their knowledge by reading different research works, instead of expecting formal training. Beside, the college trainers should perceive action research positively, participate in action research activities rather than simply blaming its difficulty and availability of difference factors that hiders them in conducting action research.

In addition to trainer’s commitment, all action research works should be given recognition and should be documented properly for further studies. As, the right perception start form understanding of action research, the researcher also recommends action research based in service training, development of TVET context action research manual and or guide lines and encouragement and motivational system could improve trainers knowledge, skill and perception on practicing action research and correcting the perception on contribution of action research for training quality improvement and their professional development.

Key words:

Perception, Action research, Trainers, , TVET, professional development, training quality improvement

List of Tables

Table 1: Five-Step Action Research Processes

Table 2: Frequency and % on Trainers practice in conducting action research

Table3: Trainers` preliminary knowledge and skill on action research

Table 4: Perceived contribution of action research for training quality improvement

Table 5: Perceived contribution of action research for processional development

Table 6: Plan for changing Action research findings to action

Table 7: Researcher part implementing findings of action research

List of Figures

Figure 1: Action research cycle

Figure 2: The look-Act-Think Model of action research

Figure 3: The never stopping cyclic process of action research

Figure 4: The Cyclic model of action research

List of Acronyms

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CHAPTER-1: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background introduction

Teaching is more than a technique and it is a scared job. As Amal Mohammed Hosni Abu Sharar (Aug, 2016 ) states, teaching aims at simultaneously building the whole person mentally, socially, affectively, behaviorally and spiritually. It is very complex where varied factors interact all together and orchestrate in support of students' learning.

In line with this, as of Hord & Sommers(2008) professionalism in teaching is achieved through gaining both the art and the technique teaching and training. Furthermore, it is archived through a process involving continual inquiry and renewal, and a teacher, among other things, is at first and foremost a questioner (Field, 1997).

When we come to context of Ethiopian TVET system trainers professional development issue also has high attention. As per MoE (2003),It is known there are four basic categories of quality in Ethiopia’s educational and training policy: professional development, curriculum development, school management and programme evaluation and from the four, professional development is at the top of the level.

Having the above opinions of scholars on teaching and training profession, criteria or quality indicators for professionally well developed trainers/teachers and their self efficacy indicating parameters are so wide, varied and still an area of question. But, the sake of the study variables the following three quality indicators of professionally developed trainers were selected. The first is learning consciously from their experience. Especially in TVET Context this is one of the biggest issues for trainers. Sagor (2000): claims that when reflections on the findings from each day's work inform the next day's instruction, teachers cannot help developing a greater mastery of the art and science of teaching. It bears the potential to increase the amount they learn consciously from their experience. Secondly, in relation to the study objective trainer professionalism is manifested how trainers believes in the importance of change and improvement for their educational value. In this regard Broom (2003) added as: in educational process as part of life as there is challenge, equally there must be effort to deal with that difficult situation. This change is grounded by the idea of development and innovation being the element of professionalism. Furthermore, as Johnson( 2002), professional trainers are agent of change, agent for their class room teaching and training quality improvement.

In addition to the professional development of trainers maintaining training quality and its improvement at TVET college level is also the current issue of the sector.As stated by national document the problems of quality in education are challenging in Ethiopia still now. Seyoum (1998) stated that there are several types of research methods that could be used to study the different kinds of educational problems. The particular research approach that has been found to be completely easy and appropriate to bring improvement in the practice of teaching learning process is said to be action research. Furthermore Daniel (2010) suggested that action research is one of the important components for educational quality improvement.

In order to have the above and other quality of professional trainers and meet the improvement of training quality at TVET college level a different model, approach, process can be used either by individual trainers or in service training proving system stakeholder. But, this time to develop professionalism at educational and training areas action research model of trainers professional development is the best model. Because; Action research: Most writers like Kemmis and McTaggart (1988), Carr and Kemmis (1986), and Elliott (1991) would agree on two defining characteristics of action research: first, action research originates from a problem in classroom teaching; second, classroom inquiry should lead to teacher action.

The Ethiopian government acknowledges the key role that teachers play in education quality and places them at the core of its quality-improvement strategies. So that the Ministry of Education launched the integration of Continuous Professional Development (CPD) program and action research as its primary strategies for building teacher quality through a continuum of improved pre-service and in-service programs (MoE, 2005).

According to McBee (2004), the quality of teaching can be improved if teachers use their own research experiences much as the teachers found their ways of thinking shifting to improve their instructional practice.inaddition action research can be conducted to succeed in three goals: to improve teaching practice, to improve the teacher and to improve the practice setting (Elliot, 1988).

Accordingly, teachers are expected to engage themselves in research activities to solve problems related to their teaching and learning process. Scholars suggest that action research can give many advantages: it is one way through which teachers improve the quality of their practice and profession, make independent judgment, acquire more knowledge and skills, improve their techniques and methods of instruction, raise their understanding of the educative process and get personal promotion. Scholars add that research should be taken as one part of the teachers’ work (Rukiya, 2007).

As per Hensen(1996); Johnson( 2012) and McTaggart (1997) action research provides practitioners with new knowledge and understanding about how to improve educational practices or resolve significant problems in classrooms and schools. This time, action research is an attractive option for teacher researchers, school administrative staff, and other stakeholders in the teaching and learning environment to consider Mills(2011) and Stringer( 2008).Similarly, school based action research is given due attention in Ethiopian education and training policy (MoE, 1994). As it is stated, social impact of concerned bodies will be given priority to facilitate steps for research work. Action research is necessary for that it deals with problem, and solves it in a way students exploit knowledge, and improving their profession.

Teachers are expected to identify factors influencing teaching learning process, students’ achievement and related problems by conducting action research. It can help teachers to tackle educational problems. The classroom problems are mainly related with action research, thus teachers are required to participate in educational research to improve the teaching learning process.

By establishing a small-scale classroom experiment to monitor, observe and document the effect of the new methods or materials, teachers will find it far professionally rewarding than being told what to do from outsider researchers (Nunan, 1989:98). It can improve the teaching and learning process by reinforcing, changing, or modifying perceptions.

To sum up, one of the most important aspects of this type of research is the action that practitioners take to change what is happening in their workplaces setting. Also, action research can be a very powerful tool enabling practitioners not only to solve practical problems, but also to reflect on their understanding of how to develop practice.

1.2. Statement of the problem

TVET trainers need to learn the concept and principle of action research and practice conducting action research that may help them for their professional development and improvement of training quality (teaching and training practice).In decentralized TVET system where the majority of training and education activity are laid on the TVET college level trainers action research arises as invitation to learn, a means to tackle through question that face them in the class room setting.

By establishing a small-scale classroom experiment to monitor, observe and document the effect of the new methods or materials, teachers will find it far professionally rewarding than being told what to do from outsider researchers. (Nunan, 1989:98) But, in order to practice action research properly it needs the concept, principles and conceptual procedure shall be understood first. Trainers are expected to consider doing action research is part of their work and interested on its implementation without the interference their primary task of teaching.

There is obligation to all level teachers in Ethiopia to conduct school based action research for professional growth and promotion to the next professional career (MoE, 2004). At high schools and preparatory schools, there is great expectation of teachers to conduct action research to support and strengthen the teaching-learning process and examine the curriculum, and give suggestion to overcome the real classroom problems. However, there is no evidence that shows the extent to which teachers conduct action research to solve the existing educational problems in their college at TVET Context. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to ascertain if properly perceived and institutional level practiced action research contribute to improvement of trainers’ development who participates in the action research process. Furthermore, the study tried to identify the key factors which may hinder or enable the implementation of action research in the study area.

1.3. Research Question, Hypothesis and variables

1.3.1. Assumption of the researcher

Even though there are no empirical indications or previous studies that demonstrate the gap between what is expected and the actual practice and involvement of TVET trainers in action research generally with in Ethiopian TVET system and particularly I south west shewa existing TVET colleges, as senior trainer of TVET program the researcher experienced the problem related with conducting action research.

Thus, the researcher believes that it is essential to assess the level of trainers` involvement in action research, trainer’s practice in conducting action research and how the contribution of action research is perceived by trainers in trainers’ professional development and training quality improvement.

1.3.2. Research question

To this end the research is designed to answer the main research question of:

Does TVET trainers perceived action research correctly and practice it in their TVET colleges for the benefit of their professional development and training quality improvement?

1.3.3. Question form Hypothesis / Sub question of the study

The study try to respond the following hypothesis in question form and the study wants to answer particularly the following study targeted sub questions:-

1. To what status trainers are involved in action research and practice it at the College?
2. Do trainers in the college have the preliminary knowledge and skill to conduct action research?
3. What is the perceived contribution of action research for professional development and training quality improvement?
4. What are the major factors that either hinders of enable the practice of action research in the college?
5. What can be done to improve the current practice and trainer perception regarding in conducting and implementing action research?

1.3.4. Dependent and Independent variables

On assessing TVET trainers` practice in conducting action research and its perceived contribution for professional development and training quality improvement the study investigate the following Variables. The following are the variable of the study:

§ Variable A (independent/causal variable): interviewing trainers in the college to understand the practicing level in conducting action research practice and their perception. Trainers practice and perception will be the independent variable.

§ Variable B (Dependent/effect variable): The result of the trainer’s interviews will determine the next steps in the implementation of action research. With this context the dependent variable is contribution of action research for trainers’ professional development and training quality improvement.

1.4. Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to examine the practice of Trainers in conducting action research and the perceived contribution of action research for professional development and training quality improvement in woliso polytechnic college. In addition, the study focused on the status of action research practice, the knowledge and skills of trainers in undertaking action research, trainers perception on contribution of action research and the major factors that hinder or enable teachers in conducting action research.

1.5. Objective of the study

1.5.1. General objective

The general object of the study is to assess TVET trainers practice in conducting action research and the perceived contribution of action research in improving professional development and training quality improvement.

1.5.2. Specific objective

The specific objectives of the study are to:-

- Assess the practice of action research in woliso polytechnic college,
- Identify the extent of trainers involvement in action research,
- Identify the perceived contribution of action research for trainer’s professional development and training quality improvement,
- Assess the major factors that either hinder or enable the practice of action research in the college and
- Propose possible research findings solution what can be done to improve the current practice and trainer perception regarding in conducting and implementing action research.

1.6. Significance of the study

The researcher`s findings related to this study benefits TVET trainers, TVET college management, TVET system stakeholders and other scholars. It also hoped to have much significance in the field of action research. The implications of this study can be exploited by:

- Provide information about the status of action research practice in woliso polytechnic college ,
- Provide information for the college management on what shall be done in improving trainers practice and involvement on conducting action research,
- It helps trainers on the type of perception required for successful practice and implementation of action research for professional development and training quality improvement,
- It provides further information to trainers in conducting TVET context action research,
- Study findings may provide information for those who are interested to make further studies on TVET Context action research.
- May use as additional source of input for TVET Stakeholders’ in designing different strategies in order to raise the involvement of teachers in action research and
- Contribute professional development and training quality improvement at the college.

1.7. Scope and Context of the study (Delimitation of the study)

The conceptual scope will be enclosed to assess the level of practice in conducting action research and what kind of perception trainers` have about action research as contributor of trainer professional development and training quality improvement agent. It is believed that all part of trainers in the colleges and all aspect of perception that trainer have couldn’t be addressed with short period of Time. The study was delimited to raise only some aspect of the perception of TVET trainers on action research and the perceived contribution of action research in improving trainer’s professional development and training quality improvement at woliso polytechnic college. The study was conducted with the academic year 2022.

1.8. Limitation of the study

The study had two limitations that the researcher faced during the study. The first limitation was the shortage of TVET context and Ethiopian outcome based action research related literature. The second is the researched faced problem in using his full energy on the action work because of lack of resources support for other body. Accordingly, it is difficult to generalize the findings of the study to other TVET governmental and private TVET colleges in south west shewa zone.

1.9. Operational definition

The following key terms are defined according to the context they have in the study:

- TVET trainers: ATVET trainer is an instructor, facilitator, or supervisor who is competent, to facilitate specific occupation MoE, (2008).
- Action research - “Any systematic inquiry conducted by…stakeholders in the teaching/learning environment to gather information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how well their students learn” (Mills, 2007, p. 5).
- Perception: process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world.
- Professional development -“Those processes and activities designed to enhance the professional knowledge, skills, and attitudes of educators so that they might, in turn, improve the learning of students” (Guskey, 2000, p. 16).

1.10. Organization of the study

This study is organized in six chapters. The first chapter deals with, a brief background of the study, statement of the problem including the research questions and objectives of the research questions and objectives of the study, delimitation of the study, definition of key terms and organization of the study. The second chapter presents review of related literature that provides a theoretical framework for the research conducted the theories related with design and implementation of action research contribution for professional development training quality improvement.

The third chapter deals with the research methodology and procedures employed to collect and analyze the data. The fourth chapter deals with the presentation, analysis of data and interpretation of the findings. The fifth chapter of the study includes summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendations. Unlike the usual research trended this research adds additional sixth chapter which includes the national/international lesson based findings, possible ways in implementing research findings to action, the study contribution and further recommended research area for others researchers.

CHAPTER-2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Chapter two of the study includes the literature review which deal with trainer’s action research based perceptions that hinder/enables trainers in conducting action research and the perceived contribution of action research contribution in Technical, Vocational, and Educational and Training (TVET) programs. It also contain selected previous studies relevant to the study variables and pre defined study objective based research questions, the researcher viewed based gaps in the previous studies, major lesson learned from the previous studies, the existing literature gap in the previous studies and what this study fill the gap in the literatures.

2.1. Trainers professional development

2.1.1. Trainers professional development for improved training quality

2.1.1.1. Teaching as Profession

The adjective ''professional refers to something that has been well-done. Wallace (1991) notes that the title ''profession'' bears some of the following qualities: a basis of scientific knowledge; a period of rigorous study which is formally assessed; a sense of public service, high standards of professional conduct; and the ability to perform some demanding and socially useful tasks in a competent manner.

Teaching is more than a technique. It is a process involving continual inquiry and renewal, and a teacher, among other things, is at first and foremost a questioner (Field, 1997. A good quality teacher can guide the learning process of children making learning relevant and stimulating. As of Hord & Sommers(2008),gaining both the art and the technique of the profession of teaching alongside with successful training may well enhance the quality of teaching provided, that may help them modify or adapt their teaching performances .

2.1.1.2. Reflection on the findings from each day

Learning consciously from their experience is another quality of professional trainers. Sagor (2000): claims that when reflections on the findings from each day's work inform the next day's instruction, teachers cannot help developing a greater mastery of the art and science of teaching. It bears the potential to increase the amount they learn consciously from their experience.

2.1.1.3. Change and improvement for their educational value

In addition, in relation to the study objective trainer professionalism is manifested how trainers believes in the importance of change and improvement for their educational value. In educational process as part of life as there is challenge, equally there must be effort to deal with that difficult situation Broom-2003). This change is grounded by the idea of development and innovation being the element of professionalism (Johnson, 2002). As per this scholar professional trainers are agent of change.

2.1.2. Models for trainers professional development

2.1.2.1. Wallace’s model to teachers learning

Wallace‟s three models of language teacher education are likely to be needed in all teacher development, but in different degrees, depending upon teachers' experience and understanding. According to Wallace (1991), there are three major models of trainers learning model.

A. Crafts or apprenticeship model: In this crafts or apprenticeship model, less experienced teachers learn through observing those with more experience. It is identical with how a new worker learns to do routine tasks. This training procedure was called 'Sitting with Nellie', Nellie being an experienced worker who had been doing routine tasks for years.
B. Applied science or theory-to-practice model: In the applied science or theory-to-practice model, the findings of scientific knowledge and experimentation are conveyed to the trainee teachers by experts in the relevant areas. Then the trainees have to put these conclusions into practice and apply them in real-world contexts.
C. Reflective model: Schon (1983:24) defines the reflective teacher as someone "who is discovering more about his/her own teaching by seeking to understand the processes of teaching and learning in his/her own and others' classrooms". Reflective teaching enables teachers to reflect upon, evaluate, and adapt their own practices.

2.1.2.2. Freeman's teaching as doing Model

The three models discussed above broadly correspond to the three views of teaching identified by Freeman (1991; 1996): Teaching as doing (a behavioral model emphasizing what teachers do and encouraging a skills or a crafts model of teacher education); Teaching as thinking and doing (a cognitive model emphasizing what teachers know and how they do it, encouraging both theory and skill development).

2.1.2.3. The Richards reflective model for trainer’s learning

Richards (1990) claims that teaching depends upon integrating the application of appropriate theory, the development of careful instructional designs and strategies, and the study of what actually happens in the classroom. Reflection is a type of thinking associated with deep thought, aimed at achieving better understanding. Within the concept of reflective teaching, three emphases can be traced: classroom based inquiry, teacher as researcher, and action research. (Wallace, 2000)

1. Classroom-based inquiry: Classroom-based inquiry aims at developing a reflective approach to teaching in which teachers and student teachers collect data about teaching, examine their attitudes, beliefs, assumptions, and teaching practices, and use the information obtained as a basis for critical reflection on teaching. Such a method aims basically at obtaining first-hand data as a basis for reflection (Richards & Lockhart ,1994).
2. Teacher as researcher : Some researchers such as Lier (1988), Bailey's (1991) and Nunan (1989) suggest that one way to bridge the gap between theory and practice, as well as that between researcher and teacher, is to involve teachers into classroom research. Teachers benefit from adopting an experimental approach to incorporating these ideas into their classrooms. By establishing a small-scale classroom experiment to monitor, observe and document the effect of the new methods or materials, teachers will find it far professionally rewarding than being told what to do from outsider researchers. (Nunan, 1989:98)
3. Action research: Most writers like Kemmis and McTaggart (1988), Carr and Kemmis (1986), and Elliott (1991) would agree on two defining characteristics of action research: first, action research originates from a problem in classroom teaching; second, classroom inquiry should lead to teacher action.

2.1.3. Summary major lesson learned from review literature

As lesson learned from reviewed literature for success of training and learning outcome trainers are expected to have characteristic professionalism. Some of the reviewed lesson indicate trainers, teachers professionalism as; the ability to perform dome social useful task in competent manner Wallace (1991), being questioner Field (1997), can guide the learning process of children making learning relevant and stimulating Broom (2003), gaining both the art and the technique Hord & Sommers(2008), Learning consciously from their experience Sagor (2000) and as stated by Altrichter et al (1993), concern of is change towards educational value. The basic question is doing TVET trainers have this professional criteria? If so with which model they develop it and how the quality criteria can be sustained are the basic points which need further refer.

2.2. Conceptual overview of Action research

2.2.1. Concept of action research

2.2.1.1. Definition of action research

Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2010) defines action research as studies done to improve the working methods of people who do a particular job, or activity, especially in education. Specifically, Daniel and Firdissa (2009) noted that even though the usage of the term ‘action research’ varies with time, place and setting, many of its meanings focus on the enhancement of classroom practice. Furthermore, Daniel and Firdissa (2009) indicated that the term action research has begun to be conceived as a practical way of looking at one’s own work; that is, as one would like it to be.

In addition scholars in the areas indicated that action research is a process in which teachers investigate teaching and learning to improve their own and their students learning. Similarly, Borgia and Schuler (1996) defines action research as a process, one in which trainers systematically reflect on their practice and make changes to their instruction based on careful analysis of student results. This is to mean that action research is a form of self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in educational setting for the purpose of understanding their practice and solve immediate problematic situation.

2.2.1.2. Type of action research

As per the findings of scholars in research area there are different types of action research depending upon the participants involved. The characteristic and description of each action research method is presented as follow.

1. Individual teacher research: Individual teacher research usually focuses on a single issue in the classroom. These issues may include problems of classroom management, instructional strategies, use of materials, or student learning. Such problems are evident in the classroom and can be addressed on an individual basis.
2. Collaborative action research: Collaborative action research may include as few as two teachers or a group of several teachers and others interested in addressing a classroom or department issue. This issue may involve one classroom or a common problem shared by many classrooms.
3. School-wide research: School-wide research focuses on issues common to all. They may include a school's concern about the lack of parental involvement in activities, for example, and is looking for a way to reach more parents to involve them in meaningful ways. Or, the school may be looking to address its organizational and decision-making structures.

2.2.1.3. Categories of action research

According to Yasmeen (2008), many researchers have discussed different types of action research. For instance, Kemmis and McTaggert (1988) describes it as Technical, Practical (participatory) and Emancipatory. Supporting this, Holter and Schwartz-Barcott (1993) explained three types of action research: Technical collaborative, mutual collaborative and enhancement approach. In addition, O’Brien (2001) cited in Daniel and Firdissa (2009) indicated that by the mid-1970s the types of action research can be categorized into four main streams: traditional, contextual, radical and educational action research. This categorization can be elaborated as follows:

1. Traditional Action Research: Traditional action research stemmed from Lewin’s work within organization and encompasses the concepts and practices of Field Theory, Group Dynamics, T-Groups,and the Clinical Model. This traditional approach tends toward the conservative, generally maintaining the status quo regarding organizational power structures.
2. Contextual Action Research: Contextual action research which is also sometimes referred to as Action Learning is an approach derived from Trist’s work on relations between organizations. It is contextual, insofar as it entails reconstructing the structural relations among actors in a social environment. It is domain-based in that it involves all affected stakeholders. It is holographic, as each participant understands the working of the whole; and it stresses that participant’s act as project designers and co-researchers. On the other hand, according to Zeichner (2007) indicated that contextual action research refers to the conditions under which action research is conducted.
3. Radical Action Research : radical stream, which has its roots in Maxian ‘dialectical materialism’ and the praxis orientations of Antonio Gramsci, has a strong focus on emancipation and the overcoming of power imbalances. Participatory Action Research, often found in liberationist movements and international development circles, and Feminist Action Research both strive for social transformation via an advocacy process to strengthen peripheral groups in society.
4. Educational Action Research :Altrich et al. (1993) indicated that educational action research is primarily concerned with educational change, which is a process not an event. It is gradual and bottom-up, responding to development within academic disciplines, the growth of new knowledge, its classification and organization within specific context.

2.2.2. Process, Model and approach of action research

2.2.2.1. Action research all theories offering model

All theorists of action research offer models or cycles in which thinking, doing, and watching are interwoven and repeated throughout the research activity. For this study, three models were selected based on their ease of use and were presented to the practitioners as a vehicle to conduct their action research project. These models are described by Altrichter, Posch and Somekh (1993) and Kuhne and Quigley (1997) and appear in a summary

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1 Action research cycle (adapted from Stringer, 2004, p. 5)

2.2.2.2. Sagar, Kemmis and Mc and Calhoun Model

There have been many suggested models of the process of action research. However, most writers on action research, e.g. Zeichne (2007), Feldman (2003), and Calhoun (1994) would view it as a spiraling process that facilitates planning, acting, collecting data, observing, reflecting, analyzing, reacting, and evaluating in a manner that is systematic but flexible in nature. Most models have the five steps in common as shown in the table below.

Table 1 Five-Step Action Research Processes

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2.2.2.3. Look-Act-Think Model based action research process

For this study, the research has included as first model of action research helix (Stringer, p. 4), commonly referred to as the “Look, Act, Think” model — as below. In this model, the ‘Look’ stage, information is gathered by careful observation through looking, listening, and recording. During the ‘Think’ stage, researchers analyze the collected information to identify significant features and elements of the phenomenon being studied. Finally, the ‘Act’ stage is where the newly formulated information is used to devise solutions to the issue being investigated.

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Figure 2 The look-Act-Think Model of action research (adapted from Stringer, 2004, p. 4)

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Excerpt out of 74 pages

Details

Title
Action Research. TVET Trainers' Practice and Perceived Contribution
Course
Action research
Grade
1
Author
Year
2022
Pages
74
Catalog Number
V1189149
ISBN (Book)
9783346626424
Language
Ethiopic
Keywords
action, research, tvet, trainers, practice, perceived, contribution
Quote paper
Mesay Aklilu (Author), 2022, Action Research. TVET Trainers' Practice and Perceived Contribution, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1189149

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