Fairy tales and the promotion of resilience. How do Grimms' Fairy Tales impact children's development?

Master's Thesis, 2018

83 Pages


Table of contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Starting situation
1.2 Questions
1.3 Procedure

2 The term resilience
2.1 Resilience models
2.2 Framework model of resilience
2.3 Summary Resilience Models
2.4 Protective factor concept
2.5 Risk factor concept
2.6 Interaction of risk and protective factors
2.7 Opportunities and dangers in the resilience concept
2.8 Summary
2.9 Conclusion for the lessons

3 Resilience research
3.1 Emergence of resilience research
3.2 Kauai Longitudinal Study (1955-1995)
3.3 The Mannheim Study of Children at Risk (1986-1999)
3.4 Bielefeld Invulnerability Study (early 1990s)
3.5 BELLA study (2003-2012)
3.6 Summary of empirical studies
3.7 Conclusion

4 Fairy tales
4.1 Fairy tales: definition
4.2 Magic Fairy Tales
4.3 Grimm's Fairy Tales
4.4 Fairy tales – a life aid
4.5 Distribution of roles in fairy tales

5 Promoting resilience through fairy tales
5.1 Characteristics of resilience-enhancing fairy tales
5.2 Grid for the analysis of fairy tales with regard to resilience promotion potential
5.3 Application of the assessment grid
5.4 Notes on the application of the assessment grid

6 Results of the four Grimm fairy tales analysed
6.1 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
6.2 The Frog King
6.3 Frau Holle
6.4 Little Red Riding Hood
6.5 Conclusion

7 Derived suggestions for teaching
7.1 Prevention measure to promote resilience in the classroom
7.2 The narrative situation
7.3 Playful implementation
7.4 Stages
7.5 Conclusion

8 Summary and reflection
8.1 Summary
8.2 Conclusion
8.3 Personal conclusion and outlook



List of figures

Table directory

Appendix: Grid (Koj, 2008) filled in

Curative pedagogues accompany and supervise the pupils in everyday school life in their development towards maturity and independence. Their support can also make a major contribution to the development and strengthening of resilience. This inner resilience enables demanding and difficult tasks in life to be mastered better and for the children to go through life confidently and independently. The development of resilience depends on various factors. These are shown in the models shown. What they all have in common is that the development of resilient behaviour in every child depends on so-called risk and protective factors. The risk and protective factors influence each other's effect. As shown in the models, the process of developing resilience is complex, multidimensional and also influenced by biological, psychosocial, social, genetic and psychological factors. The behaviour of teachers, curative educators and curative educators can support children in the development of resilient behaviour by being reliable caregivers, advocating clear processes in everyday school life and transparent rules and handing over responsibility to the children. Storytelling is another resilience-enhancing factor. In the literature it is described that the children carry the content of the heard fairy tales with the courageous behaviors of the protagonists in themselves and are inspired by it. The narration of the fairy tales creates inner images that strengthen the students in everyday life. The positive conclusion in the fairy tale encourages the children and supports them in their courage to live. This strengthens the resilience factors and social protection factors. With the examination of fairy tales for resilience-promoting factors with the help of a grid (Koj, 2008), the example of four fairy tales by the Brothers Grimm shows how fairy tales can have a resilience-promoting effect. In order to achieve this, however, teachers, curative pedagogues and curative pedagogues should methodically apply different narrative and presentation forms to fairy tales. With a focus on cycle 1, proposals for action for working with fairy tales are presented. The focus should be on the creative and sensual implementation. The children should be able to process and deepen their impressions of the fairy tale they have heard, be happy about it, and be able to draw on the strengthening memories for a long time to come.

1 Introduction

1.1 Starting situation

In the literature, the concept of resilience is described and defined in many ways. This work is based on the understanding of Opp (1999, 245). Resilience is described as a changing balance between stress-generating events in life and the resilience of the individual. As a supplement, the approaches of Schlenker-Schulte (1999, 244) are used, who defines 'resilience' as 'resilience despite everything'. Grotberg (2011, 54) describes the term as a dynamic process. Because children repeatedly find the most difficult situations in their everyday lives, it is important to promote the factors that strengthen resilience at this stage of life. Only if children and adolescents are resilient can they successfully overcome problematic situations and emerge stronger from them. The development of resilience is a complex interplay between so-called risk and protective factors (Opp, 1999, 234). No child is born resilient and does not become so solely through aging (Haug-Schnabel, 2012, 9).

In the literature, various concepts are used in relation to the development of resilience. With these, the commonality lies in the description of the structure of risk and protective factors. The reasons for the emergence of the risk factors are mainly seen in the field of the environment: in the low socio-economic status, in the persistent poverty in the family, the chronic family disharmonies, the parental separations, the unemployment of the parents and the low level of education of the parents (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 38). The stable, emotional attachment to a caregiver is described as a central protective factor. The general resilience factors, which act as protective factors and can be described as children's competencies, include: The ability to self-perception, self-efficacy, self-control, social competence, problem solving and the constructive handling of stress (Fröhlich-Gildhoff and Rönnau-Böse, 2009; Fröhlich-Gildhoff and Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 16; Werner, 1999, 28). The work in the classroom in cycle 1 offers numerous opportunities for strengthening resilience promotion, for example by promoting competencies with which stressful experiences can be processed. An essential possibility for this is described in the promotion of basic skills (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 122; Schieder, 2014, 20). These include social competence, ethical and religious value competence, perceptual and language competence, fantasy and creativity competence and aesthetic and musical competence. The development and practice of these competences is an integral part of Curriculum 21 (Education Directorate Bern, Curriculum 21). The earlier the prevention measures are applied in the sense of promotion, the greater their effect. The influence of the school on the development of the children is great, as it has a systematic access to all children (Opp, 1999, 235). The dynamics in the development of resilience are explained by the changing ability to cope with difficult events. This is reflected in the fact that children appear more resilient during a certain point in life and much more vulnerable in other phases (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 30-31). In cycle 1, the training of the above-mentioned basic skills can be supplemented by telling fairy tales (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 129). Relationship competence, a central skill, is taught in a supportive way in kindergarten. In cycle 1, in an atmosphere of trust, the attachment needs can be satisfied. In this way, skills for coping with life, the ability to relate and value formation are taught. At the same time, creativity and language fantasy are promoted (Fischer, 2012, 140). This statement is extended by Bettelheim by describing not morality as the core of the fairy tale story, but the assurance that every person can succeed in life. In addition, the child is entertained by the fairy tale in his personality development (Bettelheim, 2017, 16-18). Due to the linguistic design, fairy tales do not happen anywhere and at the same time everywhere. Through formulas such as "Once upon a time" they become universally valid. The repetitive sequence of the fairy tale is crucial for this form of literature. (Lutz, 2016, 88-89). At the end of the fairy tale, the dangers are overcome and everyone is happy. Fairy tales are stories that can be understood by people, since the language is clear and understandable and never abstract or interpretative (Wilkes, 2008, 60). Also for Koj (2008, 8) the fairy tales are an important part of the children's everyday life. Identification with the protagonists opens up access to his or her emotional life. Telling fairy tales helps to take different perspectives, to make problem solutions comprehensible and to present different behavioral models (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 129). The narrative can also promote the development of coping strategies, the strengthening of self-efficacy and control beliefs, the strengthening of self-confidence and the promotion of emotional competence (Koj, 2008, 8). Teachers, remedial educators can contribute to creating positive fields of relationship and experience in a child's highly stressed living relationship. This is made possible by the supportive handling in everyday life, by conveying strategies for anger and anger impulses, feelings of inferiority and in dealing with stress, worries, doubts and fears (Göppel, 2011, 393).

1.2 Questions

On the basis of current literature, this work deals with the concept of resilience and the effect of fairy tale telling in curative education work.

The question is:

- Can resilience in children be promoted by telling Grimm fairy tales in kindergarten and lower school?

In order to answer this question, the following questions are clarified in advance in a theory-based manner:

- What are the characteristics of the phenomenon of resilience from a scientific perspective?
- What is the structure of the Grimm fairy tales?
- By applying the koj grid (2008), the potential for promoting resilience of four fairy tales is to be analysed.

1.3 Procedure

After the introduction (Chapter 1) with the described starting point, the phenomenon of resilience with the protective and risk factors, and the effects on teaching are discussed (Chapter 2). The current research results are then summarized (Chapter 3). The social significance, the content structure of the fairy tales, including the Grimm fairy tales, are presented (chapter 4). Saskia Koj's grid for the analysis of stories and fairy tales in relation to promoting resilience (Koj, 2008, 9-14) is presented and critically examined (Chapter 5). On the basis of this grid, the results of the four analyzed Grimm fairy tales are presented (chapter 6). Based on the current theories on resilience as well as the analysis of the Grimm fairy tales, recommendations for everyday school life in the form of proposals for action in kindergarten and in the lower school from a curative education point of view (Chapter 7) are developed. This is followed by a summary of the results and a reflection on the basics developed (Chapter 8).

2 The term resilience

In the following chapter, after clarifying the meaning of the term resilience, the different models of resilience are discussed and the risk factors that can have a negative effect on the psychological development of the child are explained in more detail. Afterwards, the protective factors that act as resources and create resilience are presented. The term 'resilience' is derived from the English word 'resilience' (resilience, elasticity, durability) and the Latin word 'resiliere' (bounce) (Bengel et al., 2009, 18). This refers to the ability to successfully deal with stressful living conditions and the consequences of negative stress. The concept of resilience summarizes the psychological resilience to biological, psychological and psychosocial developmental risks (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 18).

Today, the psychosocial demands on children and adolescents are very high, which justifies the great importance of resilience (Haug-Schnabel, 2012, 9). Increasing child poverty and the increasing number of single parents are described as examples of challenges in our changing society (Krause, 2012, 21). Children experience difficult situations in their everyday lives again and again. In order for them to master them well, support plays an important role in the development of resilience-promoting factors (Grotberg, 2011, 54). Resilience is helpful in stressful circumstances (Frick, 2011, 203). However, resilience in humans is not available indefinitely. There is neither permanent resilience nor resistance. This means that resilience is neither innate nor simply created by aging (Haug-Schnabel, 2012, 9). As a reason for the lack of development of resilient behavior, the adverse living conditions cannot be held solely responsible (Krause, 2012, 19). The statement that children can develop positively despite great social and psychological stress is empirically proven today (Fingerle, 2011, 208).

2.1 Resilience models

Building on the recognition that processes and effects influence each other, the researchers have developed various resilience models. These are static models in which risk-reducing and risk-increasing factors and the development result of resilience are regarded as interdependent variables. The term 'risk' here refers to the 'failure' of the child in a difficult situation. The models described are of great importance for prevention and intervention approaches, also in the field of curative education. Four models are described: The model of compensation (chap. 2.1.1), the model of challenge (chap. 2.1.2), the model of interaction (chap. 2.1.3) and the model of cumulation (chap. 2.1.4) (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 56-57).

2.1.1 Model of compensation

This model shows the effects of the risk-increasing factors on the development of resilience. However, these can be compensated by the influence of risk-reducing factors (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 57-58). They have a mutually subtractive effect and the risk factors can be neutralised by so-called 'protective factors' (Chapter 2.4) (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 37). This can improve the development of resilience in risk situations. The fewer risk-reducing factors (Chapter 2.5) are present in the children and adolescents, the greater the risk of a psychological impairment. In the model of compensation, a distinction is once again made between the main effect model and the mediator model (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 37).

The main effect model: In this model, it is assumed that risk-increasing and risk-reducing factors have a direct effect on the developmental outcome of the personal development of the children and adolescents. Prevention measures are important and aim to increase protective factors and support resources. These prevention measures include the promotion of problem-solving, stress management and general social skills skills. ( Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 57-58).

The mediator model: It is assumed that the risk-increasing and risk-reducing factors have an indirect effect on the development of children and adolescents, i.e. via mediators. For example, parental behavior, which can be influenced, is described as an important mediator. By a parent training e.g. For example, unfavorable childhood experiences are compensated, which can otherwise represent risk factors for the children in education. This has a concrete effect on the mediator, in this area the parental parenting behaviour. The risk factors of chronic poverty or parental unemployment can also be reduced or compensated for by support. For example, the family's social network can be strengthened. This relief for parents increases the possibility that they can better respond to the children. In the mediator model, the prevention measures focus on counselling or family education offers and thus on strengthening parental parenting skills (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 57-58).

2.1.2 Model of challenge

In this resilience model, the relationship between risk-increasing conditions and child adaptation is presented as an interaction. Negative stress, such as the birth of a sibling or a strained relationship between parents, are major challenges for a child (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 59). This model shows how the child can increase his competence in dealing with difficult situations by developing new strategies in order to then resort to them in the event of recurrence of risks. (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 38). Children are supported in considering stress and risk situations as challenges. Through the support within the framework of the so-called prevention work, the children should be taught a repertoire of coping strategies early in life and be able to practice them (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 59).

2.1.3 Model of interaction

This model assumes an interactive relationship between risk-increasing and risk-reducing factors (Wustmann, 2016, 60). The risk-reducing factors are only attributed an indirect effect (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 38). This means that mitigating factors can only have an effect if there is a hazard. Thus, risk-reducing factors only have an indirect effect on the development of the child. The social support of the teacher is presented as a significantly positive measure on the social competence of the children. In this model, interventions only make sense for risk groups (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 60).

2.1.4 Model of cumulation

This model according to Rutter (1985) is the extension of the interaction model. The number of protective factors is decisive (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 38). The more protective factors there are, the higher the probability of a successful development of resilient behavior. In addition, risk-increasing and risk-reducing factors can add up. This means that if, for example, the working parent dies in children, not only the handling of death and grief, but also the financial effects and consequences on the socio-economic status can be burdens (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 61).

2.2 Framework model of resilience

In Kumpfer's framework model from 1999, the described models (chapters 2.1.1 to 2.1.4) are supplemented by additional developmental psychological aspects, and the research results discussed so far on the subject of resilience are summarized. This is done with special attention to the complex mechanisms and dynamic relationships between the characteristics of a child, his family and social environment and the result regarding the development of resilience (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 62).

The framework model consists of four predictors (factors that act on the development of resilience) and two transaction processes (acting between environment and person). The digits in the text refer to the representation in the model on page 14.

The acute stressor (1) triggers the process of resilience and disrupts the child's inner balance. The experienced stress level is determined by the child with his subjective evaluation. The child experiences stress as a challenge or as a threat (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 62).

The Environmental conditions (2) refer to the interaction of risk-increasing and risk-reducing conditions in the living environment of children. The effect of these risk and protection conditions depends on the variables of the level of development, whereby age, gender, geographical and socio-cultural background are co-determining (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 62).

The Personal Characteristics, resources and resilience factors (3) are competencies of the child that help to cope with risk situations. These include cognitive abilities, such as emotional stability, social skills, physical health resources and faith (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 62).

That Development result (4, adaptation / mismatch) manifests itself in the preservation of age-appropriate child development and in the absence of mental disorders. The positive development result, which is reflected in a tearful behavior, is seen as a good sign for the successful management of future stressful situations.

As transaction processes, Kumpfer (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 63) emphasizes the following relationships:

That Interaction of person and environment (5) is influenced, for example, by the selective processes of perception or the attachment to the social networks. Through supportive caregivers, a well-running adaptation process of the child in his environment is stimulated, for example, by positive model behavior.

With the Interaction of person and developmental outcome (6) the effective and dysfunctional coping processes are meant. These are reflected in increasing or constant competencies or in non-adapted reactions. Today, it is still unclear how and why which development results occur. This is the subject of research.

The following figure shows the frame model of resilience developed by Kumpfer in 1999 and modified by Wustmann Seiler (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 65):

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig.1: Framework model of resilience

2.3 Summary Resilience Models

All these models refer to each other. Overcoming challenges can lead to the development of protective factors in children and adolescents. The development of risk and protective factors influence each other, cancel each other out or can also accumulate depending on the situation. An undesirable development of resilience is caused by an unbalanced relationship between risk and protective factors. Decisive for a negative or positive influence on the development process of resilience is the occurrence of the combination, intensity and sequence of protective and risk factors. In the development of resilience, it should be noted that the influencing factors have more weight in the vulnerable phases of life than in stable phases of life. In the following chapter, the protection and risk factor concept and the concrete promotion of the respective factors are presented.

2.4 Protective factor concept

In contrast to the risk-increasing factors, the so-called 'risk factors', the positive term 'protective factors' was conceived (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 44). Protective factors can reduce or eliminate the effect of a risk in a problematic situation in a child. However, if the protection factor is missing, the risk effect comes into its own. Protective factors are described as characteristics that prevent the occurrence of mental disorders or their negative effects (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 28). Protective factors can positively reinforce each other and promote an appropriate development of a child's resilience (Werner, 2006, 29). With a larger number of protective factors, the child is more likely to have the possibility of a pronounced resilience development. The protective factors cannot eliminate the risks and burdens, but enable those affected to deal constructively with a threatening situation (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 32). The protective factors only show their effect when crises or stresses occur. The occurrence of multiple protective factors can increase the chance of adaptation to the child's environment and thus significantly improve living conditions (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 47). According to Wustmann Seiler (2016, 46), protective factors can be classified into three levels of influence:

1. Child-related protective factors: Are personal protective factors that the child has from birth, such as e.g. For example, a positive temperament (open, active, flexible).
2. Personal resilience factors: Factors that the child acquires through interactions with the environment, e.g. For example, a positive self-esteem or active coping behavior.
3. Social protection factors: Characteristics that occur within the family and in the social environment of the child. This includes, for example, stable emotional relationships.

However, the three levels of influence must not be considered in isolation, as they are always interwoven and influence each other. Frick (2011, 206) emphasizes that - even if individual characteristics of the protective factors are spoken of - they never occur in isolation in life, but always arise in interactions between the individual, surrounding persons and living conditions.

2.4.1 Personal, child-related protective factors (first level of influence)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Tab. 1: Personal, child-related factors (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 115)

Children with pronounced personal protective factors have personality traits that evoke positive emotions in the caregivers. Thus, they are often described by their mothers as active, loving, cuddly, friendly and easy-care babies. At the age of two, they seem cheerful, friendly, open-minded and sociable. Then, at the age of ten, these children stand out for their practical problem-solving skills and ability to be proud of themselves and help others (Werner, 2006, 31).

2.4.2 Personal resilience factors (second level of influence)

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Tab. 2: Personal resilience factors (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 115)

Children who can develop good resilience have been able to form a close bond with at least one competent and emotionally stable person from the very beginning of their lives. This caregiver is characterized by the fact that he responds sensitively to the child's needs and signals, and reacts adequately and sensitively. This positive-emotional and at the same time stable and reliable relationship is of the utmost importance (Werner 2006, 32; Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 106). Resilient children are particularly adept at recruiting surrogate parents when their own parents are emotionally unavailable (Werner, 2006, 32). In many research results, the reliable attachment to a caregiver has been demonstrated as the most central feature in the process of resilience development (Frick, 2011, 206).

2.4.3 Social protection factors (third level of influence)

Werner (2006, 32) writes that resilient young people often orient themselves towards people of the same age or older people. They then seek advice from them in times of crisis. These persons can be a teacher, a neighbour, a neighbour or a leader in sports training or youth work.

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Tab. 3: Social protection factors within the family (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 116)

2.5 Risk factor concept

Risk factors are described as a feature that increases the risk of developing a mental disorder in stressed children (Laucht, 1999, 303). The risk factor concept is described as a probability concept and not as a causality concept. This means that the simultaneous occurrence of several risk factors increases the likelihood of a developmental hazard in terms of resilience (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 36; Frick, 2011, 81). Decisive here is the duration, the intensity, the repeated occurrence of the factors, as well as the perceived burden by the child (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 23). Risk factors are particularly effective in the developmental transitions of children and adolescents. This process is complex and is influenced by several factors, such as the vulnerability of the child. The younger the child is, the more at risk of developmental disorders. The subjective weighting of the experienced, negative situations plays a major role. Every child goes through crises in their development. However, serious crises triggered by a critical life event threaten the healthy development of the child. The positive management of a difficult situation for the child strengthens it and the experience gained from it can later be successfully applied (Krause, 2012b, 21-22).

Two groups of risk factors are distinguished: Vulnerability factors that relate to biological and psychological characteristics of the child (including so-called deficits, defects or weaknesses of the child), and the social and psychosocial risk factors based on psychosocial characteristics of the child originating in the child's family or environment (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 38).

2.5.1 Personal vulnerability factors

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Tab. 4: Primary and secondary vulnerability factors (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 38)

2.5.2 Social and psychosocial risk factors

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Tab. 5: Risk factors (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 38)

2.6 Interaction of risk and protective factors

The interaction between risk and protective factors is described as follows: The factors influence each other in a complex mechanism of action. Risk-increasing factors lead to a vulnerability of the child, especially during the transitions (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 33). Protective factors do not mean the opposite or the absence of risk factors. The interaction of risk and protective factors results in a buffer effect, whereby the effect of the risk factors is dampened by the protective factors. A protective factor can reduce or completely eliminate the risk effect (Laucht, 1999, 307-308). However, if the protective effect is missing, the risk factor comes into its own. On the other hand, the protective factors only work if there is a risk at all. The protective factors promote the resilience of the child. Depending on how the interaction between protective and risk factors proceeds, the development of the child is shaped. As soon as a challenging situation arises, both the protective and the risk factors influence the child's development. Resilience as well as vulnerability are not lasting personality traits. Both change in the course of development and adapt to the available resources and requirements. With the accumulation of several risk factors, the likelihood of children becoming vulnerable increases, which can negatively affect the development of resilient behavior (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 34). The more risk factors there are, the greater the need for protective mechanisms. This was proven by systematic observations of people with several social risks, who were particularly likely to commit crimes (Lösel & Bender, 1999, 43). However, if the persons mentioned have a number of personal resources and potential protective factors, the risk of committing crimes is significantly reduced compared to those without protective factors (Lösel & Bender, 1999, 44). If the imbalance between risk and protective factors is noticeable in everyday life in institutions, this can be used as an indicator for the use of resilience-promoting programs (Lösel & Bender, 1999, 52).

2.7 Opportunities and dangers in the resilience concept

The existence of the protective factors is described as a great fascination. The idea that children at risk can survive their development unscathed by having enough protective factors is tempting. In addition, this idea promotes the idea that risk groups can be protected from developmental disorders by sufficient stimulation and prevention programs (Laucht, 1999, 311). The concept of resilience is described as an optimistic resource- and development-oriented approach. However, this creates the danger that a purely action-oriented view is taken, which can culminate in a delusion of feasibility. In addition, there is a risk that significant other factors will be overlooked in the complex processes of interactions. The child or adolescent is thus held solely responsible for the wrong decision and must bear the blame for it himself. Great importance is attributed to the resilience concept: It makes it clear that the actions of the carers of the children and young people in the personal as well as in the school environment serve to set priorities in the promotion and to support the child to get out of the victim role. Today's development in society is perceived as very strongly individual-centered with a desolidarizing ideology. The effect of this is that the support of the environment is often eliminated and children, young people and families are thus left to their own devices. The concept of resilience prevents them from taking deficient views and helps to encourage children to take an active role in their own development and a more open and positive attitude towards themselves (Frick, 2011, 212-213).

2.8 Summary

The effect of the factors of all categories – personal, child-related protective factors, personal resilience factors and social protection factors – must be seen in the context of children (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 46). The protective factors can reduce or eliminate the impact of a risk of developing resilience in problematic situations. A so-called 'happy' life story is shaped by several elements over a longer period of time. Empirical research assumes that protective factors have a particularly intense cumulative effect and reinforce each other (Frick, 2011, 209). Furthermore, the concept of risk factors was constructed (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 40). In it, the risk factors that occur simultaneously and over a longer period of time can pose a developmental hazard in the child. These factors can be divided into 'personal vulnerability factors' (biological factors) and 'social and psychosocial risk factors' (the child's environment). They rarely occur in isolation and are often an indicator of the coincidence of risks in the child's life (Wustmann Seiler, 2016, 38). In the course of development, children repeatedly go through phases in which they are more 'susceptible' to risk-increasing factors (Fröhlich-Gildhoff & Rönnau-Böse, 2015, 25). The highest vulnerability is in transitions. If risk-increasing situations occur during this time, the likelihood of inappropriate development or the development of a mental disorder increases (Krause, 2012b, 21).

2.9 Conclusion for the lessons

The models with regard to resilience development assume an interaction between risk and protective factors. The environment in which the children grow up and the duration of the influence of the factors have a decisive importance on the influence of psychological development. In this context, the understanding of resilience refers to coping with stressful everyday situations and formative educational situations. Resilience is not innate as a personality trait. Resilience is developed on the basis of the bio-psycho-social factors in a child's life. Children with well-developed resilience can experience stressful and difficult situations as a challenge and not as an insurmountable obstacle.

Mindfulness in dealing with children is required of teachers, curative pedagogues and curative pedagogues who work especially when entering cycle 1 and in the transition to cycle 2. Because they are particularly vulnerable in transitions and the careful handling of funding opportunities must be taken into account. Of particular importance is the protective factor of a stable relationship with a caregiver, which can often also be a curative pedagogue or a teacher. Furthermore, the observance of consistent rules in everyday school life, clear structures in the processes as well as social and emotional support already in kindergarten life is important. Dealing with friendship relationships and involving the children in everyday school life with responsible tasks can also support the positive development. It is important to note that risk and protective factors cannot cancel each other out. The child is in a dynamic and multidimensional process. Interactions between the factors that the child brings with him and his environment influence each other. Biological and genetic factors can promote or hinder the development of resilience. The concept of resilience is a resource- and development-oriented model. It focuses on the positive change of the children. Today, the development of resilience is recognized as a processual and changeable process.

3 Resilience research

In the following chapter, the emergence of resilience research is briefly discussed and the most important research for this work is described. These include the Kauai longitudinal study by Emmy Werner (1955-1995), the Mannheim risk study (1986-1999) by Manfred Laucht and his team, the Bielefeld invulnerability study (early 1990s) by Friedrich Lösel and his team, and the BELLA study (2003-2012), which was conducted in Germany.

3.1 Emergence of resilience research

In the 1970s, studies were carried out in Germany on the psychopathology of children of mentally ill parents. The surprising findings at the time showed that children were able to develop healthily despite risks and difficulties. According to Bengel et al. (2009, 15), this was the beginning of resilience research. Thus, today we can look back on a 50-year history of resilience research. Rönnau-Böse & Fröhlich-Gildhoff (2015, 9) describe four thematic focal points in the history of resilience research: In the first phase (Bengel et al., 2009, 15), the weight of the analysis of favorable developmental courses under high-risk conditions was investigated. This made clear the enormous importance of preventing and treating problems. In addition, the terms of vulnerability, such as risk and protection factors, were defined at this time. At the time, it was found that children go through phases of varying vulnerability in their development (Bengel et al., 2009, 15). In the second phase, the process focused on the specific mechanisms of action on the development of resilience (Rönnau-Böse & Fröhlich-Gildhoff, 2015, 9; Bengel et al., 2009, 16). Factors from the environment such as the socio-economic status or the inclusion of social networks were recorded. Biological, social and cultural processes have been integrated into the existing models. The dynamics of resilience in a child's life became clear: At a certain point in time, the child can be resilient, but in a different environment at another time psychologically much less stable. In the third phase of resilience research, the central importance of the development of prevention measures was described (Rönnau-Böse & Fröhlich-Gildhoff, 2015, 9). During this time, resilience-enhancing measures and theory-led interventions were applied and reviewed (Bengel et al., 2009, 17).

The fourth phase focused on the development of multi-level models and the investigation of their influencing factors. Since the beginning of resilience research, 19 longitudinal studies have been written in the countries and continents of the USA, New Zealand, Australia and Europe (Rönnau-Böse & Fröhlich-Gildhoff, 2015, 9).


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Fairy tales and the promotion of resilience. How do Grimms' Fairy Tales impact children's development?
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fairy, grimms, tales
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Renate Keller (Author), 2018, Fairy tales and the promotion of resilience. How do Grimms' Fairy Tales impact children's development?, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1189170


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Title: Fairy tales and the promotion of resilience. How do Grimms' Fairy Tales impact children's development?

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