Determinants of Child Mortality. The Case of Boloso Bombe Woreda, Wolaita Zone SNNPR

Academic Paper, 2022

36 Pages, Grade: 1


Table of Contents


Table of Contents


List of figures

List of tables


1.1. Background of the Study
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.3.1. General Objective
1.3.2. Specific Objectives
1.4. Research Questions
1.5. Significance of the Study
1.6. Delimitation of the Study
1.7. Limitation of the Study
1.8. Organization of the Paper

2.1. Definition of Child Mortality
2.2. The concept of determinant of child mortality
2.2.1. Causes of Child Mortality


3.1. Research Design
3.2. Sampling Techniques and Sampling Size
3.3. Sources of Data
3.4. Methods of Data Collection
3.5. Data Collection Procedure
3.6. Methods of Data Analysis
3.7. Ethical Consideration in the Field Work

4.1. Location and Size
4.2. Topography and Vegetation
4.2.1. Topography
4.2.2. Vegetation
4.3. Soil and Geology
4.4. Climate and Hydrology

5.1. Background of the Respondents
5.1.4. Educational Level of the Respondents
5.2. Social Aspects of Respondents

6.1. Summary
6.2. Conclusion
6.3. Recommendation

Reference Appendix I

Appendix II


First and most my heartfelt and delights full thanks go to my God who paved all the ways that I traveled through to reach at this position.

Next comes to Ato Mefekir W/G who gave me his valuable and constructive advises and suggestions about the paper to be finished effectively. I am greatly in debited to express my cardinal gratitude to him for his patience and tireless security of the paper and for his technical and professional guidance as well.

Furthermore my affectionate gratitude's go to my father Yisihak Wana and all my brothers for their moral, material and others financial contribution throughout education.

I also provide my coordinal gratitude and thank to my dear friends Temesgen Ganta, fir his financial material and other supportive helps throughout my education.

In general all had given my special thanks to all these who have directly participated in my education and paper successful accomplishment.


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

List of figures

Fig 1. Map of the study area

Graph5.1: Educational Levels of Respondents

List of tables

Table5.1.1: Age composition

Table5.1.2: Sex Composition

Table5.1.3: Family number of sample respondents in household

Table5.1.5: Occupation of the respondents

Table5.1.6: Monthly income of respondents

Table5.2.1 any condition that indicates the death of child in this section, the researcher provides the details of response about any condition that indicate the death of child in OseKebele

Table5.2.2: The awareness of Household to Reduce Child Mortality

Table5.2.3: Interest to keep environmental hygiene

Table5.2.4: Causes for Child Mortality in the Study Area

Table5.2.5: Main Source of Drinking Water

Table5.2.6: Do you perform completely all education which given for you from government?

Table5.2.7: Access to safe toilet facility

Table5.2.8: Washing hands after latrine and before food

Table5.2.9: In your area, child mortality decreases?

Table5.2.10 The Reasons for the Table 9 Responses


This paper examined and identifies the determinants of child mortality in Boloso Bombe Woreda, Wolaita zone. The main objective of the study was to assess the determinants of child mortality in the study area. The researcher used simple random sampling method to determine the determinants of child mortality. The researcher was taken from the total number of population in kebele was 4080, these population dwelled in 533 households and he selected 80 sample size from the total households. The study analyzed by quantitative and qualitative methods. That was in tabulation, graph and by paragraph. When the researcher conducting the study. The major findings were lack of economy low awareness of community members, poor Sanitation conditions and occurrence of different diseases. However, economic case is the most known determinants of child mortality. Therefore the health organization and regional or local government must work together to solve the current problem of child mortality. In the study area, the major causes for child mortality were economical, social, environmental and cultural factors. Therefore, government, regional and local organization participates in these factors to reduce or to avoid these factors. The personal hygiene is most important for control the determinants of child mortality so that any society (community members) must be keep personal hygiene as well as environmental hygiene because lack of hygiene causes different types of diseases. The determinants of child mortality decrease the life expectancy of the children these decrease life expectancy of future generation.



1.1. Background of the Study

Determinants of child mortality is a factor that can be associated with the well being of population and taken as one of the development indicators of health and socio economic status and also indicates a life quality of a given population, as measured by life expectancy.

That is why reduction of child mortality is a worldwide target and one of the most important key indexes among millennium development goals (MDGs). Hence, its indication is very important for evaluation and public health strategy. Thus, it is an area that many researchers focus and that has attracted the attention of policy makers and program implementers worldwide (FMOH, 2005).

In 2000, the Ethiopia government announce the intention signed the millennium declaration committing to achieve the millennium development goals by 2015 many of which overlap with the 2015 national policy goals which introduced by the federal government in 1991, a policy action has been continued, for instance in 2004 the Ethiopian government prepared child survival strategy and implementation plan to reduce under five mortality of 140/1000 live birth to 67/1000 live births by 2015, this means a reduction from 2004 rate about 140/1000 live births.

Ethiopia is the second largest country in Africa and the least developed country with high fertility and rapid population growth rates. The country's population is estimated nearly 79 million and a growth rate 2.73 percent per year (MoFED, 2008).

Determinants of child mortality in Ethiopia has shown a continuous decline since 1960 onwards with a more pronounced reduction in the recent decades. The trend of child mortality rate has been about 200 per 1000 live birth in 1960, 153 in 1970, 110 in 1984.

(CSA, 1991 and 1993), 97 per 1000 in 2000 and 77 per 1000 live births in 2005, this means that child mortality declined by 20% between 2000 and 2005 (DHS, 2005).

The socioeconomic condition of the population is a major determinant of childhood survival at individual household and community level. It is a condition influence the risk of childhood mortality by influencing intermediate or proximate variables such maternal factors, environmental contamination, nutrient deficiency injury and personal illness control (BMC Research Notes, 2011).

- Place of residence
- Age of mother and medical coverage pregnancy and delivery.
- Mothers education
- Mother's age or mother's experience
- Immediate environmental
- Mothers work status
- Mothers religion

1.2. Statement of the Problem

Problems related to determinants of child mortality are multidimensional encompassing to economic, political and environmental.

About 472,000 Ethiopian children die each year before their fifth birthday, which places Ethiopia sixth among the countries of the world in terms of absolute numbers of child death yet.

There are effective low cost interventions to prevent two thirds of these deaths following high level discussion with the global child survival partnership, the federal ministry of health (FMOH) and its partners organized a national child survival conference from 22-24 April 2004. The conference recommended that a national strategy and plan of action for the reduction of child mortality should be prepared (FMOH, 2005).

In general, children in Ethiopia suffer from poor health. The national under five mortality rate is about 140/1000, with variations among the regions from 114 to 233/1000. About 90% of mortality in under five is caused by pneumonia, malaria, diarrhea and measles. Malnutrition is the underlying causes of death is about 57% these deaths and 11% are associated with HIV infection. The level of mortality are also worsened particularly by poverty, inadequate maternal education, lack of potable water and sanitation, high fertility and inadequate birth spacing (WHO, 2005).

In Wolaita Zone, many children die with different causes, diarrheal disease is the most common cause of illness. In addition to this, poor housing, poor sanitation condition, poor personal hygiene, and lack of relevant knowledge are strongly associated with diarrheal disease among children under five years of age.

Boloso Bombe is one of the 12 districts in Wolaita zone. In this Woreda, a number of children die with different causes. The disease, such as malaria and diarrheal are the major causes. In addition to the disease, poor sanitation condition and poor personal hygiene are the another causes for the death of children.According to Boloso Bombe Woreda Health Offices Information the year 2005 E.C, 50 (5.0%) and the year 2006 E.C 45 (4.5%) children died with above causes. Therefore, the entire study deals with the determinants of child mortality at Ose Kebele under Boloso Bombe Woreda, in Wolaita Zone.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

1.3.1. General Objective

The main objective of this study is to assess the determinants of child mortality in Wolaita Zone Boloso Bombe Woreda in case of Ose Kebele.

1.3.2. Specific Objectives

- To identify the cause of child mortality
- To describe determinants of child mortality
- To suggest possible solution for the problem identified.

1.4. Research Questions

The following research questions are to guide and to seek answer conducting in the study area.

1. What are the causes for child mortality?
2. What is the rate of child mortality in the study area?
3. What are recommended suggestions for child mortality in study area?

1.5. Significance of the Study

The study would believe to have the following importance.

- It was helps population organization to recognize factors that increasing child mortality.
- It was helps to create awareness for community to prevent child mortality.
- It would use a source of document reference for other researchers.
- This kind of the study is very helpful to identify and determined the possible courses that are responsible for the chilled mortality. In addition it may create awareness among concerned bodies.

1.6. Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to assess the determinants of child mortality at OseKebele the case of Boloso Bombe Woreda, Wolaita zone. It was hardship to swim all Kebeles in the Woreda due to the time and resource limit. The Kebele was much affected by child mortality as the researcher explained in the statement of the problem part in the study area. By looking this into consideration, the study was limited in Wolaita Zone Boloso Bombe Woreda. The study was mainly focused on identifying the major causes of child mortality, to know the ways of reducing determinants of child mortality, identify the conditions that increasing child mortality in the study area.

1.7. Limitation of the Study

It is hardly true that expecting all the research writings are sufficiently fulfill the criteria of the research study due to internal and external challenges. The young researcher faced some of the following problems while conducting the research.

- Lack of knowledge and experience for the researcher
- Lack of financial and material resources for research delivery.
- The time allocated to conduct research since the study was conducting a long with the learning teaching process of the Semester.
- Finally the problem of retiring rate questionnaire.

1.8. Organization of the Paper

This study consists of three sections. Section one consists preliminary, table of contents, acknowledgement, acronym and list of tables. Section two consists main body. It has six chapters. Chapter one introduction of the study, chapter two about review of review of literature, chapter three research methodology, chapter four description of the study area, chapter five data analysis and interpretation and chapter six summary, conclusion and recommendation. Section three consists different appendices.



2.1. Definition of Child Mortality

Since the beginning of the age the enlightenment and over the course of modernization, the mortality of children below 5 years of age has declined rapidly. Infant mortality- refers to basis of young children, typically thisless than one year of age. It is measured by the infant mortality rate, (IMP), which is the number of deaths of children less thanone year of age per 1000 live births.(https//en. m>child)

Child mortality is the death of children and infant under the age of five year old. These children do not have to die. Many of the causes of child death come from preventable disease or conditions including malnutrition, lack of safe drinking water, disease and infection. Many developing countries suffer from lack of service supporting adequate living conditions, nutrition and health care that contribute to the increased child mortality rates around the world. Preventive health care based on social, cultural and behavioral change has an immediate long term impact particularly on the lives of women and children (DestaMekonnen, 2011).

The under five mortality is a number of children who die by the age of five per thousand live birth's year. In 2013, the world average was 46 (4.6%) down from 90 (9.0%) in 1990. The average was 6 in developed countries and 50 in developing countries including 92 in sub­Saharan Africa.

The highest rate in the world was 167 in Angola. Likewise, there are disported between wealthy and poor households in developing countries. According to save the children paper children from the poorest households indeed are three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than those the richest households (SRIVASTAVASK, 2011).

The definition of child mortality is probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age expressed per 1000 live births (, 2015).

2.2. The concept of determinant of child mortality

The concept of determinants of child mortality can be expressed in the following ways. For example: environmental determinants of child mortality. This concept related households' environmental and socioeconomic characteristics such mother's education, source of drinking water, sanitation facility, types of cooking fuels and access to electricity. A hazard rate framework was used to analyze determinants of child mortality, preliminary results show that households environmental and socioeconomic characteristics have significant impact on child mortality (Clive J, Mutunga, 2014).

Social concept of determinants of child mortality; the social determinants of child mortality are the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live work and age, and the systems put in a place to deal with illness and death. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces economics social policies and politics (Becher et al, 2014).

Economic determinants of child mortality: economic variable may influence the child mortality level through factors that increase or reduce mortality. Child mortality refers to the death between the first and fifth birthdays (F Mulugeta, 2015).

2.2.1. Causes of Child Mortality

There are marked differences in the causes of child mortality between the developed and the developing countries. These are include environmental and socio economic factors (WHO, 2004).

A. Environmental Factors

Environmental factors can have a dramatic and unpredictable effects on child mortality levels. According to (WHO, 2004), at least three million children die before their fifth birthday due to environmental related diseases. For instance, acute respiratory infections an estimated two million children under the age of five years and much as 60% of these infections, worldwide, are related to environmental conditions especially contaminated water and inadequate sanitation.

The quality of community environment is essential for health of children. It is important to note that the influence of the environment on human health is also mediated by socioeconomic as well as neighborhood conditions of urban residents. In other words, the magnitude of the impact of various environmental conditions on human health is determined by, among other factor, the household economy, family, water quality and availability as well as the presence of environmental services at the household and community level (WHO, 2004).

B. Socioeconomic Factors

Socioeconomic factors are an impact on child mortality level including housing condition. The mortality is higher in damp, overcrowded dwelling lack of sanitation and availability of pure water are direct impact on child mortality. Also, nutritional status, accessibility of health care facilities and social class of individuals affect life expectancy (Getachew Ahmed, 2011).

A number of studies have demonstrated that life expectancy is higher for professional people than for unskilled workers in both developed and less developed countries. Although it is recognized that socioeconomic factors contributed greatly to mortality rate, it is extremely difficult to measure precisely, the impact each has on the death rate because most factors are interrelated and do not act in isolation, improvements of socioeconomic conditions. (FitsumZewdu, 2011).


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Determinants of Child Mortality. The Case of Boloso Bombe Woreda, Wolaita Zone SNNPR
sociology of vulnerability
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determinants, child, mortality, case, boloso, bombe, woreda, wolaita, zone, snnpr
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Mamush Wana (Author), 2022, Determinants of Child Mortality. The Case of Boloso Bombe Woreda, Wolaita Zone SNNPR, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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