The influence of chinese college student´s personality on English learning


Research Paper (postgraduate)

66 Pages


Excerpt

Contents

Abstract

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Research Aims
1.2 Research Questions
1.4 Background and Context of the Study
1.5 Justification of the Study
1.6 Dissertation Outline

2. Research Design
2.1 Ontology
2.2 Epistemology
2.3 Methodological position
2.4 Data collection
2.5 Inclusion Criteria
2.6 Exclusion Criteria
2.7 Data Recording
2.7.1 Research Aims
2.7.2 Research Questions
2.8 Strengths and Limitations
2.8 Limitations
2.9 Research Ethics

3 . Extended Literature Review
3.0 Introduction
3.1 History of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China
3.2 Learning Styles of Chinese College Students
3.2.1 Rote-Learning
3.2.2 Silent Learning
3.2.3 Passive Learning
3.3 Teaching English as Foreign Language in China (TEFL)
3.3.1 Qing Dynasty and TEFL
3.4 TEFL in Chinese Educational Institutions
3.5 Programs for Cultural Exchange in China
3.6 Teaching and Learning Styles
3.7 Differentiating between personality traits among Chinese students
3.7.1 Theoretical foundations of the study
3.7.2 Personality traits and English learning
3.7.3 Academic Performance and the Big Five personality characteristics
3.8 Theory of self-determination and motivation
3.8.1 Self Determination and English Learning
3.9 Self-regulation effectiveness from a socio-cognitive perspective
3.9.1 Educational motivation and self-regulation efficacy as mediators
3.10 Personality and accomplishment of the Foreign Language
3.11 Personalities and Global Competency
3.12 Research Ethics
3.13 Preventing Biasness in the Selection of Studies Used in the Literature Review
3.14 Teaching English As a Foreign Language
3.15 Discussion and Conclusion

4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Learning process and learning styles of Chinese students
4.2 Teaching English as Foreign Language in China
4.3 Personalities and English Learning
4.4 Self Determination and English Learning
4.5 Self- efficacy and English Learning
4.6 Global competency and English learning
4.7 Effects of Personalities on English Learning by Chinese Students

5. Conclusion

References

Abstract

The primary objective of this research was to gather data on personality differences which were affecting teachers teaching methods. The study was necessitated by having scenarios where Chinese’s students exhibited different learning styles due to the different personality traits. As a future teacher I felt the need to conduct this research and back up several studies that had been done on English learning as a foreign language. The study also checked and evaluated how personality differences affected learning and the personality effects in teachers teaching methods for Chinese college students. The study used qualitative study using literature review as methodology and described in-depth the conceptual philosophy, study strategy, data collecting procedure and techniques, strengths and limitations and ethical issues that were taken into consideration. There are different research philosophies that governed the study with qualitative research including ontology and epistemology. The research reported and discussed the cultural trends and the attitudes as well as approaches that Chinese college students had to their studies. The study also found out that Chinese college students used the major learning styles of rote, silent and passive. The study found that personality traits associated with students have a significant influence on the success of learning English as a second language.

Keywords: influence, student motivation, personalities, student learning, Chinese students,

1.0 Introduction

This dissertation seeks to offer an insight into how different teaching methods, are important to cater to the needs of different students in an education setting. The study will investigate teaching of English language among Chinese students, and determine factors that can contribute to different learning outcomes among students. Learners in the same classroom setting have different learning capabilities and motivations and it is therefore important for teachers to consider this preparing to take learners through a learning process. To be able to investigate the factors that can contribute to different learning outcomes, an effective study design needs to be set up, which will allow for conclusive takeaways to be found, and recommendations to be made which will contribute to positive learning outcomes. This chapter will start with the aims of the dissertation, which will offer a foundation for the rest of the study. in this section, there will be a discussion of the background to the problem which will describe the context of the problem which is to be investigated. The justification of the study will be provided as will be the limitations of the current study.

1.1 Research Aims

The primary objective of this research is to gather data on personality differences which were affecting teachers teaching methods. The study will check and evaluated how personality differences affect learning and the personality effects in teachers teaching methods for Chinese college students The study will cover on the major learning styles used by chines college students and how this contributes to the teaching methods used by teachers.

1.2 Research Questions

(1) What are effects of personality and English learning among Chinese college students and how to improve their English learning
(2) How does student’s personality influence the type of teaching methods applied by the teachers?

1.3 Limitation of the Study

The study will be limited to having no chance to work with raw data. The researcher will not have a chance to go to the field and interview students and teachers.

1.4 Background and Context of the Study

The study will cover on major learning styles used by Chinese college students among them being rote, silent and passive learning(Sit,2013). The rote learning is where the student learns by memorization and repetition. Silent learning requires the student to be quiet in class as the teacher gives instructions and the teacher is the sole authority in class. There is passive learning where the student is close to the teacher outside the classroom setting, the students will ask questions after classroom things that they did not have a clear understanding of. The study will also study on the history of English as a foreign language in China and how it came to existence. The study will cover on the teaching methods that teachers use to teach the Chinese college students. Sit (2013) suggests that teachers can use a variety of teaching styles, including teacher-centered, student-centered, high-tech, and low-tech. Understanding the personality qualities of the pupils will be a critical first step in ensuring that the tutor uses the appropriate teaching method. This will help to create a positive learning atmosphere and ensure that the tutor takes use of the students' personality traits.

Teachers should learn the self-efficacy of their Chinese students when undertaking English learning as a second language. Self-efficacy is important as it influences attitudes, motives, and actions. Therefore, when learning English, the motivations inherent for a particular student will have a huge bearing on whether they succeed in the class. If a student will have no inherent motivation in the study of English, they are likely to develop a negative attitude on the subject which will negatively impact their chances of success in the subject. Motivations, attitudes, and actions are also very important because they make up the self-regulation mechanism of an individual, this will inevitably play into the minds of the learner. If a learner will see that they have limited capacity to learn the subject, they will have no incentive to undertake the learning process. Therefore, teachers have a huge role to play in changing the negative attitudes that their learners could develop in the learning of English as a second language and contribute to a positive outlook for the learners to be interested in the learning process.

It has been observed that different personalities observed in students will not only influence their learning outcomes but also their attitudes, motivations, and actions towards English learning. Therefore, teachers should identify these differences among their students, and devise different teaching methods that address the needs of different students. In this way, the teacher can ensure that each student in the class has a positive experience while learning English as a second language. This will create an inclusive and exciting learning environment where each student participates in the learning process without necessarily feeling left out. When this happens, students can cultivate that inner desire to undertake English learning as a second language, and achieve success in the process.

1.5 Justification of the Study

As a teacher I have noticed that students grasp content differently and at different momentum. Some of the students can lose motivation in a certain subject with no apparent reason. Therefore, this prompted me to do a study that will shed more light on what causes these differences among students in the same learning environments. I have also come across literature implying that using different teaching methods will contribute to positive learning environment for all students without leaving any behind. I was therefore prompted to conduct the study and refute or agree to these claims.

1.6 Dissertation Outline

The dissertation is structured in the following manner:

1. Section 1: Introduction
2. Section 2: Research Design and Methodology
3. Extended Literature Review
4. Results and Discussion
5. Conclusion

This chapter has touched the fact that students have different learning abilities, brought about their different learning needs. This therefore calls for different teaching methods which will cater to the differing needs of the students. The identified factors include personalities, motivations and attitudes of different learners. Different teaching and learning methods were also identified, which teachers can utilize to bring about positive learning outcomes for their students. The next section in this dissertation is the Chapter 2 which is the research design methodology section, which will describe the ways in which the study will be structured including data collection and analysis procedure.

2. Research Design

This section is going to be a description of the research technique that will be used in the dissertation. This study will use literature review as methodology and will describe in-depth the conceptual philosophy, study strategy, data collecting procedure and techniques, strengths and limitations and ethical issues that were taken into consideration. There are mainly two approaches used in research namely qualitative and qualitative research. Both these approaches are useful for scientists when studying phenomena in the field. However due to the differences of the nature of studies, a researcher can choose one which best fits the objectives of the study. Quantitative research approach utilizes hard data such a statistics, numbers and graphs to analyze and answer questions by quantifying, measuring and describing facts of life (Symeou & Lamprianou, 2008). In contrast, qualitative research approach follows the soft approach and it tries to answer research questions using subjective data such as pictures, words, human activity, body language and feelings. These two main research approaches, draw their claims from different philosophical perceptions about how people gain scientific knowledge and what constitutes valuable and valid knowledge (Symeou & Lamprianou, 2008). Due to the nature of this research, which relied mainly on previous research results, the qualitative research approach was thus adopted. There are different research philosophies that govern qualitative research including ontology and epistemology. There will be an analysis of the two, and the one that will be used in the study will be highlighted.

2.1 Ontology

This is a research philosophy that describes how we perceive reality (Rehman & Alharthi, 2016). Scientists have a belief about reality, and this influences the assumptions that they make about certain phenomena in society or environment. These assumptions therefore drive the quest to find solutions or answers about what is observed. The ontological question therefore forms the basis upon which a researcher approaches a certain problem, and how they seek solutions.

2.2 Epistemology

Epistemology is a philosophy that is concerned with acquiring and validating new knowledge. In this branch of philosophy, a researcher will gather new knowledge and come up with effective ways of communicating the same to others. It is the epistemological question that leads a researcher to debate “the possibility and desirability of objectivity, subjectivity, causality, validity, generalizability” (Patton, 2002, p. 134).

2.3 Methodological position

The study used Interpretivism paradigm, which perceives that there is no such thing as an eternally valid/universal truth about reality. The concept of reality is a social creation. Numerous ideas refer to things that are not physically present—love, sentiments, and hopes, to name a few. The goal of social science should be to comprehend how an individual sees reality. The philosophy method was ontology is a research philosophy, which tries to prove existence of interrelationship between two variables. In this study it tries to prove character has significant impact on English learning experience of Chinese students.

The fundamental goal of learning a foreign language is to be able to use it to comprehend meanings and linguistic implications in the target culture, and to build capacity to understand and produce speech. As a result, teaching English to students always entails teaching culture. For teaching English as a foreign language, building a foundation for fostering an English culture among pupils becomes critical after China's open-up policy and WTO admission.

Traditional teaching methods teach students vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, reading, writing, speaking, and listening abilities. Even yet, they cannot grasp the language entirely. English, as a foreign language, blends language and culture. One of the main goals of teaching English is to raise students' understanding of cultural differences in language. The instructor must help pupils understand that various nations and civilizations view nature and human society differently. Thus, cultural context must always be a major content throughout the entire teaching process.

The People's Republic of China has the most native speakers of Mandarin Chinese (845 million), according to Entnologue's online edition. This is more than double the estimated number of native Spanish speakers, which is the second most spoken language in the world.

With China's rapid modernization, most Mandarin speakers are interested in learning English. Researchers tend to agree that employees need to master a second language to succeed in an increasingly linked corporate environment. Due to these reasons, most Chinese choose English as a second language.

2.4 Data collection

During the data gathering phase, there were two key steps: At first search for scholarly materials relating to the issue was conducted using web-based databases and internet search engines. Examples of databases used include Google scholar, Science direct, Scopus and ERICK. The study used these databases because they are reputable and reliable for conducting scholarly research. Next came defining the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Earlier studies were sought, gathered, categorized, and assessed. These methods of data collection allowed for more expansive study in acquisition of English as a second language. Data on determining personality differences was sourced from previous research studies. Data was gathered through use of internet sources like google surveys and other online questionnaires specially to know how many people were taking English as a second language and differentiate them from native English speakers. The search engines used included Google so as to come up with conclusive research with use of specific keywords such as personality traits, English learning as a foreign language, Chinese English students learning, big five personality traits for both teachers and college students. The study used a literature review table to keep record of the literature that was reviewed.

2.5 Inclusion Criteria

The review focuses on articles from 2011 to 2020.Less time is spent in the classroom, and more time is spent in real-world language use. The articles used were checking on personality and effect on English learning in Chinese college students. The research used journal articles to obtain past studies on influence of Chinese college students’ personality and their English learning

The study also focused on how personality affects teachers teaching methods.

2.6 Exclusion Criteria

Out of 15 literatures I choose to use around 5 since it clearly depicted how Chinese English learning among college students was carried out and there was expansive study on how personality traits were affecting learning. Among some of the articles and journals found Some had non-conclusive studies. The studies were lacking some major aspects like some were missing the way personality of teachers affect teaching methods. Some of the past studies also excluded how personality had effect on English learning among the Chinese college students. My study therefore captured this and clearly covers all these factors in order to understand and distinguish between personality differences and how personality affects teachers teaching methods. The study excluded information of journals older than ten years since teaching methods have changed and literature has improved.

2.7 Data Recording

2.7.1 Research Aims

The primary objective of this research is to gather data on personality differences which were affecting teachers teaching methods. The study also checked and evaluated how personality differences affected learning and the personality effects in teachers teaching methods for Chinese college students

2.7.2 Research Questions

(1) What are effects of personality and English learning among Chinese college students and how to improve their English learning
(2) How does student’s personality influence the type of teaching methods applied by the teachers?

2.8 Strengths and Limitations

Among the strengths of the study is that it saves on time and cost since it is preventing you to go to the field carrying out the research. It uses validated and reliable data from knowledgeable authors. Data used was from different settings and universities since it came from different studies

2.8 Limitations

The study was limited to having no chance to work with raw data.

2.9 Research Ethics

Even in studies that did not gather data from persons, research integrity and ethics were crucial. This study addressed the ethical problems raised by the Ethical Guidelines for Educational Research (2018). First, this review used qualitative analysis to summarize primary study data. Second, the researcher kept meticulous notes of all methods and outcomes, and all data files were password-protected on his own computer. After the study, the researcher securely destroyed the electronic records.

In conclusion, the study was able to show influence of Chinese college student’s personality and their English learning through the vast research done by use of extended literature review as a research strategy. The following chapter is on data analysis on how data was used to come up with the study.

3. Extended Literature Review

3.0 Introduction

The previous chapter tackled how personality traits were affecting Chinese college students in their English learning. English as a second language among the Chinese will be perceived and taken in a different way than a native language (Wang & Kong, 2005). The aims of this research are to show the history of teaching and learning English as a foreign language among Chinese students as well as identify learning and teaching methods used by Chinese college students. The study will cover on how Chinese education and cultural system embraced English education in the past and currently. According to research, Chinese students tend to be modest and diligent (Mao-jin 2001). They have a love for education and value older members of society. They have therefore had an aspect of learning easily and been obedient to the teachers. On the other hand, their learning styles are a bit different from those of other students in other parts of the world. Some of the major learning styles are the Rote, silent, and passive styles of learning (Wang & Greenwood,2015). The learning characteristics or styles play a major role in personality while learning English among Chinese college students.

3.1 History of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China

English as a Foreign Language (EFL) has been in existence in China for more than a century and has evolved in response to the politics and policies of the day. It was the Westernization Movement, spearheaded by some Chinese executive officials under the Qing Dynasty, that marked the beginning of EFL in China in the middle of the nineteenth century.

The reformers of the Qing Dynasty built Chinese-government-run schools that taught English, a practice that has continued to the present day, according to Rao (2013). The movement resulted in the spread of Western cultural influence, as well as commerce and trade. The learning of English as a foreign language by certain educated and imaginative Chinese leaders was deemed suitable by them. As a result, English language institutions were established to educate students in the language. The “Tongwenguan” institute, which was founded in 1862, was one of the first educational institutions in China. In 1901, the institute became a constituent of Beijing Normal University. It was decided to integrate EFL in the curriculum of this comprehensive institution of higher learning.

3.2 Learning Styles of Chinese College Students

There are major learning styles used by Chinese college students in their English learning (Sit, 2013). The learning styles are rote, silent and passive learning.

3.2.1 Rote-Learning

First and foremost, studies show that Chinese learning and student's background rely on rote learning techniques and repetition, memory techniques, and strategies (Rohmi,2017). A problem-solving technique of this nature is ineffective. Considering students from a variety of Chinese backgrounds as a homogeneous group without taking into account particular problems that come about by having different sub-cultures. Studies have identified that the two major learning approaches; the deep approach to the learning process which encompasses an emphasis on general message underpinning materials of study, and the surface approach which emphasizes material of learning. (Li, 2004) In English, effective learning is typically associated with students' utilization of deep approaches to learning as well as active participation engagement in activities in the classroom. The surface rote learning method of Chinese pupils in a large class setting with a strongly authoritarian teaching environment is easily thought to result in poor learning achievement.

3.2.2 Silent Learning

The second feature in Chinese classrooms is silent learning. Teachers in Chinese classrooms are the authoritative type, on the other hand, some Chinese students are quiet and have obedience personalities this is to enable silent learning, This viewpoint is not new in Western literature. Even though their efforts are recognized, Chinese students have the personality of not questioning anything that they are taught in class they are thus passive and most important passive learners (Cortazzi& Jin 1996). In another learning perspective students view their teachers as those who know everything and will not question or challenge teachers, they accept all knowledge passed to them and this can go in a hierarchical order. Chinese classroom activities are often perceived as being controlled by teachers, with little opportunity for inquiry or discussion among students.

The College students from the Confucian model are hardworking, orderly, and recognize authority, place a high priority on the pragmatic acquisition of information. "Silent learning" is a characteristic that finds its way back to Confucian culture and consists of teachings of respect that are orderly in terms of hierarchy. Those with extensive knowledge, such as scholars and teachers, are held in high regard as ideal role models (Chan,2019). To maintain order and harmony any student or learner should not talk unless they are spoken to. Being a good listener during a class has been passed down through ancestors and generations. Nonetheless, when students are not talking or are silent is not an indicator they are not engaged in critical thinking or learning of any kind.

Following research, the Confucian notion of authority when taken to the educational context teacher and students are role-pairs and the order of importance is maintained in their relationships and it slowly emerges. Chinese students rarely question or criticize the information they are taught by their teachers, which is still frequent. Teachers in the Confucian learning culture are expected to convey knowledge, answer any questions, and be morally upright since they are role models to their students (Hubbert,2019). Teachers are supposed to arrange knowledge in a systematic and consolidated manner so that students can be orderly and have the right system as they progress through the curriculum.

3.2.3 Passive Learning

Passive learning is a major preference of college students learning English as a second language. Just like stated the Chinese students have hardworking personalities, obedient and conscientious. They are also assessment-focused and tend to be docile (Sit, 2013).They are eager to complete the syllabus and want to be certain that they have given the correct answer. This also leads to the paradoxical situation in which teacher-student interaction is prohibited in class, which is typically characterized by a dull and dictatorial studying environment. According to research, college students learning English as Chinese want to gather knowledge in class and are great at staying close to the teachers to learn more and reinforce their learning. (Vyas& Yu, 2018) The majority of them prefer to wait until after class to ask things that they are unsure of rather than asking inquiries in class.

The student and teachers interaction is informal outside the classroom setting. Usually, some teachers can typically visit students at home so that they learn students learning styles and better their knowledge of the student. It is also normal for teachers to make invites to parents of students so that they learn of their children's achievements and progress. English learning will lie on the personality of the parents for if they are not keen then the students will tend to be less active. If some aspect was left unclear the students are advised and encouraged to approach teachers outside the classroom. (Vyas& Yu, 2018) The pattern of interaction between teachers and students that resembles a family is not restricted to the setting of English language learning. The importance of questioning and enquiring is emphasized in this text, and Chinese students use this method in their English learning as well.

3.3 Teaching English as Foreign Language in China (TEFL)

3.3.1 Qing Dynasty and TEFL

The politics and policies of China have made TEFL evolve since its existence in the region for about a century. The Qing Dynasty authorities began the westernization movement and this brought about TEFL dated back to half of the 19th Century. The movement impacted new western culture, trade as well as commerce. Prominent Chinese leaders recognized it will be important to learn English as a foreign language. The circumstance necessitated the construction of English language institutes. (Li-na, 2018)The earliest of these institutes (dubbed "Tongwenguan") was founded in 1862 and became a component of Beijing Normal University in 1901. The college was a broad institution of advanced learning that included TEFL in its curriculum.

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Title
The influence of chinese college student´s personality on English learning
Author
Pages
66
Catalog Number
V1189886
ISBN (Book)
9783346634221
Language
English
Keywords
influence, student motivation, personalities, student learning, Chinese students
Quote paper
Joseph Kariuki (Author), The influence of chinese college student´s personality on English learning, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1189886

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