Online interactive resources for asynchronous modality in teaching grade 12 General Biology


Master's Thesis, 2021

155 Pages, Grade: 12


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS>

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

DEDICATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
INTRODUCTION
Rationale of the Study
Theoretical Background of the Study
THE PROBLEM
Statement of the Problem
Null Hypothesis
Significance of the Study
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Design
Flow of the Study
Environment
Respondents
Instruments
Data-gathering Procedures
Statistical Treatment of Data
Scoring Procedures
DEFINITION OF TERMS

Chapter 2 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA PRETEST PERFORMANCES OF THE STUDENTS FROM THE CONTROL AND THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
- Characterizing the Phases of the Cell Cycle and Their Control Points
- Describing the Stages of Mitosis/ Meiosis given 2n=6
- Explaining the Significance or Applications of Mitosis/ Meiosis
- Identifying Disorders and Diseases that Result from the Malfunction of the Cell during the Cell Cycle
POSTTEST PERFORMANCES OF THE STUDENTS FROM THE CONTROL AND THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
- Characterizing the Phases of the Cell Cycle and Their Control Points
- Describing the Stages of Mitosis/ Meiosis given 2n=6
- Explaining the Significance or Applications of Mitosis/ Meiosis
- Identifying Disorders and Diseases that Result from the Malfunction of the Cell during the Cell Cycle
POSTTEST PERFORMANCES OF THE STUDENTS FROM THE CONTROL AND THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
- Characterizing the Phases of the Cell Cycle and Their Control Points
- Describing the Stages of Mitosis/ Meiosis given 2n=6
- Explaining the Significance or Applications of Mitosis/ Meiosis
- Identifying Disorders and Diseases that Result from the Malfunction of the Cell during the Cell Cycle
SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE PRETEST AND POSTTEST PERFORMANCES OF THE STUDENTS FROM THE CONTROL AND THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE POSTTEST PERFORMANCES OF THE STUDENTS FROM THE CONTROL AND THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS
STUDENTS' FEEDBACK TOWARD ONLINE INTERACTIVE RESOURCES

Chapter 3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings
Conclusion
Recommendations

Chapter 4 OUTPUT OF THE STUDY
Rationale
Objective
Scheme of Implementation
Enhanced Learning Module
Module 1: Competency 1
Module 2: Competency 2
Module 3: Competencies 3 & 4
References

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

A Letter of Request

B Test Questionnaire

C Tables of Specifications (TOS)

D Feedback Questionnaire

LIST OF TABLES

Description

Table 1 Distribution of Respondents

Table 2 Pretest Performances of the Students from the Control and the Experimental Groups on Characterizing the Phases of the Cell Cycle and Their Control PointsPretest Performances of the Students from the Control and the

Table 3 Experimental Groups on Describing the Stages of Mitosis/ Meiosis Given 2n=6 Pretest Performances of the Students from the Control and the

Table 4 Experimental Groups on Explaining the Significance or Applications of Mitosis/ Meiosis Pretest Performances of the Students from the Control and the

Table 5 Experimental Groups on Identifying Disorders and Diseases that Result from the Malfunction of the Cell During the Cell Cycle

Table 6 Experimental Groups on Characterizing the Phases of the Cell Cycle and Their Control Points Posttest Performances of the Students from the Control and the Experimental Groups on Describing the Stages of Mitosis/ Meiosis

Table 7 Given 2n=6 Posttest Performances of the Students from the Control and the Experimental Groups on Explaining the Significance or

Table 8 Applications of Mitosis/ Meiosis Posttest Performances of the Students from the Control and the Experimental Groups on Identifying

Table 9 Disorders and Diseases that Result from the Malfunction of the Cell During the Cell Cycle

Table 10 Significant Difference Between the Pretest and Posttest Performances of the Students from the Control and the Experimental Groups Based On the Aforementioned Competencies

Table 11 Significant Difference Between the Posttest Performances of the Students from the Control and the Experimental Groups Based on the Aforementioned Competencies

Table 12 Students' Feedback Toward Online Interactive Resources

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Schematic Presentation of the Theoretical Background of the Study

Figure 2 Flow of the Study

Figure 3 Location Map of the Research Environment

Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION

Rationale of the Study

Since time immemorial, textbooks play a significant role in the teaching and learning process (Walker, 2011). For the learners, it is a framework or guide that helps them to organize their learning. However, it has also limitations, which may contribute to the dissatisfaction of the learners towards the course or subject (Walker, 2011), of which, may also lead to low student performance (Matthew, 2012). As cited by the Department of Education-Bureau of Curriculum Development-JDRA (2019), the results of the Grade 12 Basic Education Exit Assessment (BEEA) for the last two years were in the low proficient level in the Science subject area with mean percentage scores of 31.26 and 32.11, respectively, compared to other subject areas. Additionally, the Department of Education, through the National Education Testing and Research Center (NETRC), disclosed that in the entire trend of the National Achievement Test (NAT) since 2004 until the most recent results, a large number of examinees have low mastery in Science and Technology (Cabajar, 2019).

Globally, the Philippines ranked almost at the bottom of the list of 17 nations that took part in the large-scale evaluation of educational achievement. Specifically, the Second International Science Study (SISS) and Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), which are series of international assessments on mathematics and science established by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), placed the Philippines in disadvantaged positions among participating nations.

On the other hand, the Corona Virus Disease of 2019, also known as Covid- 19, has deeply affected the entire globe, particularly the education sector. It forced many schools and colleges to remain closed temporarily (Dhawan, 2020). Right now, online learning has been pushed further as a solution that addresses the challenges of learning continuity amidst school closure at this time of the pandemic (Tuscano, 2020). It is a tool that can make the teaching-learning process more student-centered, more innovative, and even more flexible. It is further a set of digital experiences with internet connectivity in synchronous or asynchronous environments using different devices, such as mobile phones, desktop computers, laptops, and the like. In an asynchronous learning environment, learning materials in the form of live lectures or classes are not available; it is accessible in different learning structures and fora (Dhawan, 2020). Also, one may use online interactive resources, such as Khan Academy, Concord Consortium, and BioMan, which will be linked in google classroom, for asynchronous modality.

At the University of Cebu - METC Campus, Senior High School Science teachers have a hard time addressing how Science lessons can be exciting and motivating to create a positive impact on student learning. According to Munyaradzi (2014), as cited in the study of Dela Paz (2018), inefficient and ineffective instructional approaches by teachers contribute to the poor academic performance by the majority of students. As experienced, teaching Science subjects during the Summer of 2020 in June and July through online distance learning, most of the students had difficulty in grasping the information through pure-text notes and modules given to them during the asynchronous session. In fact, on average, 33 percent would have most likely passed the exercises and quizzes. Thus, there is a need for teachers to innovate new strategies about interactive and meaningful learning. Hence, this study is apt and in order.

Theoretical Background of the Study

This study assumes that the online interactive resources in online learning through asynchronous modality impact students' performance. This study is anchored on Self-Directed Learning Theory by Malcolm Knowles (1975). It is a learning framework that empowers the learner to take responsibility for what and how they learn and when and where they learn it (as cited in Gresham, 2019). Self­directed learning, in its broadest sense, defines the mechanism by which individuals take the lead, with or without the aid of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning priorities, defining human and material resources for learning, determining and executing effective learning methods, and assessing learning outcomes. Individuals who take the initiative in learning— proactive learners—learn more and learn better than those who sit and wait for instruction from their teacher - reactive learners. Self-directed learning represents a learning method that is more in tune with human psychological development (Gresham, 2019).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1. Schematic Presentation of the Theoretical Background of the Study

Moreover, Carson et al. (2012) posited that self-directed learning is a process or skill that could be undertaken by an individual and improved through experience or training by an instructor. Teachers should guide learners to increase their ability to be more self-directed and to take personal responsibility for their learning. Meanwhile, some researchers view self-directed learning as an attribute of personality, which has provided a consistent indicator since psychological characteristics, such as personality traits, tend to persist from one learning environment to the next. The self-directed learner possesses as one who has a high degree of self-efficacy; is intrinsically motivated; diagnoses personal learning needs; sets goals based on that diagnosis; chooses appropriate strategies to achieve those goals; self-evaluates the goal achievement based on internal evidence and external feedback; and is willing to meet new challenges.

According to Cazan et al. (2014), self-directed learning is associated with students' academic performance. Previous studies showed that self-directed learning and academic performance are related. The studies reported a positive correlation between self-directed learning and GPA and between self-directed learning and course grade. They also stated that self-regulated learning predicts academic success.

Another theory that supports this study is Anchored Instruction by John Bransford and The Cognitive and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (CTGV) (Anchored Instruction, 2019). It is a technology-based learning approach that stresses the importance of placing learning within a meaningful, problem-solving context. The theory focuses on how to structure teaching materials and maximize the use of technology as a way to solve educational challenges either in the classroom or in a distance learning environment. It provides technique in designing instructional activities around an “anchor”, which may be a theme, case study, or a problem to be solved, making the learning more useful and meaningful (Linn et al., 2011).

Furthermore, it is a generative learning format because learners are motivated to construct or produce a solution to the open-ended problem in the story. Anchored Instruction is a video-based presentation that enhances textbook learning with audio, animation, graphics, simulation, color, and realism. The narrative format of anchored instruction makes it more authentic, and the realistic storyline enriches the context of the characters and events. The complexity of the problem demands the learner's full attention and stimulates their curiosity to solve the problem. Data are embedded in the story so that learners can explore the content; students must also learn how to identify pertinent data because not all of the story's data are necessary to solve the problem. Teachers provide learners opportunities to transfer knowledge from one subject area to another.

Also, Jerome Bruner's Constructivist Theory of teaching and learning supports the present study. It describes learning as an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge (Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner) - InstructionalDesign.Org, 2019). The learner decides and transforms knowledge, creates conclusions, and makes decisions on the basis of a cognitive framework. Cognitive structure brings meaning and organization to interactions and enables the person to "go beyond the information given."

Constructivists argue that interactive activities in which learners play active roles can engage and motivate learning more effectively than those activities where learners are passive. One may learn better when they discover things by themselves and control the pace of learning. Therefore, it is natural to expect that self-directed, interactive learning will improve learning outcomes (Lubiano, 2017).

On the other hand, this research is legally based on the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, specifically Article XIV, Section 10 which stipulates that science and technology are essential for national development and progress. The State shall prioritize research and development, invention, innovation, and their utilization, and science and technology education, training, and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate, and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities and their application to the country's productive systems and national life.

Moreover, the Department of Education Order No. 12, series of 2020, Section 2, stated that the Department developed and adopted a Basic Education Learning Continuity Plan (BE-LCP), a package of education interventions that will respond to basic education challenges brought about by COVID-19; thus will be the overall framework to govern the school year 2020 - 2021. The said plan describes the key elements of the learning delivery modalities that schools can adopt,may be one or a combination of the following, depending on the COVID-19 restrictions and the particular context of the learners in the school or in any locality. These include face-to-face instruction, blended learning, and distance learning, which can be done through modules, online, or radio and television broadcast. Meanwhile, the Department of Education Memorandum Undersecretary for Curriculum and Instruction No. 162, Series of 2020 - provides suggested strategies in implementing and managing Distance Leaning Delivery Modalities for School Year 2020 - 2021. In the attached appendix B, No, 16, it states thatfor the asynchronous online platform, learners shall utilizeLearning Management System or any educational platform for self-paced learning. Teachers may post learning materials online, and learners may work through them in their own time, collaborating asynchronously with other learners and with the teacher via online forum, email, and othermodes/ platforms.

On the other hand, the Department of Education Order No. 78, series of 2010- Guidelines on the Implementation of the DepEd Computerization Program (DCP), Section 3 pointed out the two of the objectives of the DepEd Computerization Program (DCP), which are to integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the school system and raise the ICT literacy of learners, pupils, students, teachers, and school heads. Integrating technology in the teaching-learning process is needed to improve students' learning processes, engagement, and outcomes. Technology and interactive multimedia are more relevantto students if they become highly engaged during the formative learning process. Teachers who integrate ICT and use computers as powerful tools in teaching are changing their teaching strategies from behavioral to the constructivist approach.

Every principle and theory, as discussed earlier, emphasized how learning can be facilitated in the classroom despite the different backgrounds, learning styles, and individual differences among students. These serve as the foundation of this research, specifically in using online interactive resources, such as Khan Academy, Concord Consortium, and BioMan to convey biological concepts and principles. The study focuses on a technology-based learning approach, which stresses the importance of placing learning within a meaningful, problem-solving context. It also focuses on who to structure teaching materials and maximize the use of technology as a way to solve educational challenges either in the classroom or in a distance learning environment. It gives technique in designing instructional activities around an “anchor,” which may be a theme, case study, or a problem to be solved, making the learning process more useful and meaningful (Linn et al., 2011).

It is specified in the Republic Act No. 10533 or also known as the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, which states that teachers are encouraged to prepare and secure teaching aids, instructional materials, that would most closely meet the specific needs of learners to maximize teaching-learning situations. Hence, there is a need to inform and train the teachers on the disadvantages and manipulation of multimedia because of its importance in facilitating meaningful and relevant teaching-learning endeavors (Obiedo, 2009).

Khan Academy is an online platform offering educational videos and exercises in different content areas, and it has become a worldwide education phenomenon. It is a nonprofit organization that provides free digital educational materials online. Its resources include practical exercises, instructional videos and a personalized learning dashboard that allows students to study at their own pace in and out of the classroom. Educational tools are offered in a wide range of subjects. Specifically, science ‘missions' guide students through different scientific concepts using an adaptive system that identifies the individual's strengths and learning gaps (Leon, 2018).

The study of Murphy, et al. (2014) on the use of Khan Academy in schools found out that students' engagement level was generally high during Khan Academy sessions. Also, it found out that 45 percent of student respondents said that with Khan Academy they were able to learn new things about math on their own without the help of a teacher. Students who spent more time on Khan Academy and successfully completed more Khan Academy problem sets to proficiently experience more positive than expected outcomes in terms of math test scores, reduced math anxiety, and had higher confidence in their ability to do math. This is similar to the present study as it uses the same online resource as a supplementary one. However, the present study focuses on teaching Science subject, specifically General Biology, while that of Murphy's investigates the use of Khan Academy in elementary math classes in public elementary schools.

Similarly, the study of Te (2014) employed a quasi-experimental design where the sample was divided into control and experimental groups. Students in the latter were exposed to multimedia while students in the former group did not. As a result, he concluded that digital technology in education like the use of multimedia tool in the classroom will help teacher deliver the most complex lesson easily understood by the students. Thus, student learning is interactive, individualized, and personalized in a multimedia environment.

Berk (2009) postulated that digital technology can be viewed as a learning tool and a means of communication. Within learning situations, multimedia products and online services can be used creatively and reflectively. In his study, he reviewed the theoretical and research evidence on videos about the brain and the theory of multimedia learning as it relates to such videos. This is relevant to the present study as it integrates videos in the instruction in a multimedia classroom setting. In contrast, the said study is only limited to the use of videos while the present study utilizes varied online resources to be integrated in the instruction.

[...]

Excerpt out of 155 pages

Details

Title
Online interactive resources for asynchronous modality in teaching grade 12 General Biology
Grade
12
Author
Year
2021
Pages
155
Catalog Number
V1192076
Language
English
Tags
online, general, biology
Quote paper
John Kenneth Taneo (Author), 2021, Online interactive resources for asynchronous modality in teaching grade 12 General Biology, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1192076

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Online interactive resources for asynchronous modality in teaching grade 12 General Biology



Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free