Introducing Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary Schools in Kumba Municipality of the South West Region of Cameroon. Teacher Perspectives

Research Project


Master's Thesis, 2022

114 Pages, Grade: A


Excerpt


TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER ONE GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Introduction
Background to the study
Statement of Problem
Objective of the study
Main Objective of the study
Specific Objectives
Research Questions
Main Research Question
Specific Research Questions
Justification of Study
Significant of the study
Scope of the Study
Operational Definition of Terms
Summary of Chapter

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
Conceptual Review
Guidance and Counselling Services in Relation to Education of Pupils
Major Guidance and Counselling Services in Schools
Challenges Hindering the introduction of Guidance and Counselling Service in S chools
Teachers' knowledge of Guidance and counselling Services in Primary School
Teachers' Expectations on Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary school
Teachers' Attitudes towards Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary School
Theoretical Review
Person-Centred Theory by Carl Rogers (1940s)
Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura (1986)
Behaviour Modification Technique by B.F Skinner (1953)
Empirical Review
Teachers' Knowledge of Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary Schools
Teachers' Expectation on Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary Schools
Teachers' Attitude towards Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary School
Lapses in Empirical Review
Summary of Chapter

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction
Research Design
Area of Study
Population of the Study
Target Population
Accessible Population
Study Sample
Sampling Techniques
Instrument for Data Collection
Validity of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Data Collection Procedure
Method of Data Analysis
Ethical Considerations
Summary of Chapter

CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
Introduction
Research Question One: What is teacher's knowledge of guidance and counselling services in primary schools?
Research Question Two: What are the expectations of teachers on the necessity to introduce guidance and counselling services in primary schools?
Research Question Three: What are the attitudes of teachers towards the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary schools?
Research Question Four: What are the challenges hindering the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary schools?

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction
Discussion of Findings
Implication of the Findings to Counselling Practice and Contribution to Knowledge
Conclusions
Recommendations
Limitations of the Study
Suggestions for Further Research
Summary of Chapter
References
Appendix
Research Permit
Interview Guide for Teachers

DEDICATION

To my lovely mother Ebude Lucy

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

No piece of work like this one could be the handy work of one particular individual without the support of different people at different stages. I therefore must admit to the fact that many people supported me at various stages involved in the realization of this work.

I am most grateful to my supervisor Prof. Patrick Fonyuy Shey who worked relentlessly with patience, tolerance and gave up his time to read my work and make all the necessary and suggestions and corrections to ensure that this work meet up to the standards required and appreciable by readers.

I am also indebted to the team of dedicated University lecturers of the Faculty of Education, Department of Education Psychology who provided me with the needed knowledge to complete this demanding task. They include; Dr. Tani Emmanuel, Dr Bongwong Bruno, Dr. Zinkeng Martina, Dr Sigala Maxwell, Dr Ambei Luma and even those whose names have not been listed, all your instructions and commitments were outstanding.

My profound appreciation goes to my relatives especially my wife Ebako Relindis and Children in the likes of Mbwogge Hercules, Mbwogge Etone, Ekinde Etone Victory, my siblings Rita Munge, Ebote Magdaline, Prisca Akame, Etape Columbus. I won't leave out my friends: Anyong Pride Ewang, Ebong Cyprian, Elime Teddy Enongene, Mbabid Emmerencia, Ebai Susan Mbi, Ndayong Blanche, Ewubelle Julius Enombene, Mbongwe Yurgen Epie, Ebai Susan, Mesumbe Hanse, Agbor Helene, Otu David and Killian Sumelong for their immeasurable support. I would be unfair to end without mentioning respondents of the instrument used in this thesis.

ABSTRACT

This study sought to investigate teachers' perspectives on the necessity of introducing guidance and counselling services in primary schools in Kumba Municipality of the South West Region of Cameroon. The main research objective of the study was to explore teachers' perspectives on the necessity for introducing guidance and counselling services in primary schools within the Kumba Municipality. From this research objective emerged three specific objectives which were to explore teachers' knowledge of guidance and counselling services in primary schools; to access teachers' expectation on the necessity of introducing guidance and counselling services in primary schools, to find out teachers' attitude towards the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary schools and to examine the challenges hindering the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary schools. The research objectives were then transformed to research questions. This study was based on the principles of person-centred therapy, social learning theory and Behaviour modification technique. The person-centred theory emphasizes on the human interaction between two people (the counsellor and the client, in this case). Social learning theory on the other hand, postulates that a child learns behaviour through social interaction in the form of observation and imitation of what other people in the society are doing. The study adopted the qualitative approach to explore teachers' perspectives on the necessity of introducing guidance and counselling service in primary schools. The current research utilized a case study research design. An interview guide was used for data collection and a simple random and purposive sampling technique were used to select the respondents and school/council area. The sample of this study comprised of sixteen (16) respondents drawn from eight (8) different functional public primary schools within the Kumba I Council Area. To answer the research questions, interview was conducted to the 16 respondents. The data derived were subjected to thematic analysis. After the analysis of data findings shows that, most of the teachers sampled have a knowledge of what guidance and counselling is all about since most of them left teacher training colleges where there are stationery school counsellors. Teachers were of the opinion that they are aware of the various guidance and counselling services though not in detail. It was also noticed that the services of guidance and counselling were rated to be ineffective by respondents. Moreso, it was noticed that the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary schools will usher a new sense of direction to learners in primary school both at home and in school milieu. That is, it will shape pupils' behaviour academically, socially, emotionally, vocationally and personal development. Findings also shows that respondents have a positive attitude towards the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary school since it will help instil interpersonal relationship between teacher/teachers and among pupils. It will also help pupils to develop new skills and techniques both in learning and attitude formation. Finally, it was also noticed that the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary school could go without hindrances. Among other things human resources is at the centre of the challenges hindering the introduction of guidance and counselling programme in primary schools. Based on the findings of the study, it was therefore recommended that, there is need for serious enlightenment on the part of the public in general and primary school teachers in particular to accept guidance and counselling services and its importance on the life of the pupils. This will help develop strategies for school administrators and teachers to achieve a realistic perception of pupils in their school environment and how to go about providing them with the necessary information. The study also recommend that government should support guidance and counselling practically by providing and making funds available for all the services in guidance and counselling especially at the level of primary school where the services are mostly needed. Professional guidance counsellors should be trained and posted to primary school to help teachers solve some of the problems pupils are facing with regards to their academic, social and future vocational life challenges. Guidance counsellors on their own part school be committed to the counselling programmes through helping the teachers with the identification of pupils with learning problems and inform the teachers, so that different individualized methods can be used for effective teaching and learning.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Number of Teachers Per School in the Kumba Municipality

Table 2: Spread of Target Population

Table 3: Spread of Accessible Population

Table 4: Spread of Sample Population

Table 5: Reliability Statistics Using Cronbach Alpha

Table 6: Teacher's Knowledge of Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary Schools

Table 7: Teachers Expectations on the Necessity to introduce Guidance and Counselling Services in

Primary Schools

Table 8: Teacher's Attitudes towards the introduction of Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary Schools

Table 9: Challenges Hindering the Introduction Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary Schools

Table 10: Summary of Major Findings

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: A conceptual Diagram linking the Independent variables and Dependent variable

CHAPTER ONE GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Introduction

Perspective refers to the way one looks at the events happening in an environment. From a technical point of view, it refers to the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment (Schacter, 2011). For the purpose of this study, perspective here is based on teacher's knowledge about guidance and counselling services, teacher's expectation of guidance and counselling services, teachers' attitude towards guidance and counselling services and challenges hindering the introduction of guidance and counselling services in the school system of primary schools. How teachers look at the concept of guidance and counselling services as it relates to the needs of the pupils is also important to be considered.

Teachers, being the largest group of professionals in schools, are important actors in shaping the guidance and counselling landscape in their institutions. Their knowledge of acceptance, expectation, attitude of school-based counselling is critical for the development of a sustainable guidance and counselling service that is beneficial to the pupils at large. School counsellors face challenges in managing teachers' expectation and attitude in order to establish a balanced and collaborative relationship with them.

This study falls within this global trend, to explore teachers' perspectives on the necessity of introducing guidance and counselling service in primary schools in Kumba Municipality, South West Region of Cameroon. This study focuses on primary schools because it was realised that most of what is confronted at the level of secondary school today in Cameroon in the like of developmental challenges, act of deviant, learning difficulties, poor career orientation is partly because a proper base was not laid for these students. The present chapter presents the background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, scope of the study, significance of the study and operational definition of terms.

Background to the study

Historically, school counselling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of guidance and counselling principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counsellors were practiced by Catholic priests in the Middle Ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. (Brewer, 2005). Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century in United States precisely in the 1890s.

In Africa, a common observation of the reminiscence of the traditional system of guidance reveals that from time immemorial and before the advent of western education, counselling was practiced in various forms, the most common of which were giving advice and sharing wisdom. Giving advice has been a common way of providing help for other people. The advice offered was frequently instrumental in helping people to consider their future. Thus, vocational and career counselling had been part of our African traditional customary practices. The literature on formal guidance and counselling in African countries is rather scanty and traces the guidance movements in Africa back to the fifties in Nigeria and sixties in Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia and Swaziland (Biswalo, 1996). Within the African context and Cameroon in particular, the people have been held together by elements unique to their regions.

In Cameroon formal vocational and career counselling started by 1945 during the colonial rule, with the need for manpower to work in factories. Efforts put in place so far to develop the counselling movement as an agent of change and to promote career development can be broken down into three distinct interrelated areas. (David ,2001) Ndongka and Leke, (2000), observed that the development of guidance and counselling in Cameroon could be traced from 1945, with an in-service unit of counselling opened in the Public Works Department. That is, by 1945, the French Administration was concerned with the crucial problem of selection of manpower (labour) to work in factories. An in-service was therefore created within the Public Works Department with its headquarters in Douala. Understandably, this service was essentially charged with the selection of executive staff, students and apprentices to undergo technical training. In 1949, this service was transformed by Decree No. 49-4192 of 26th December, 1949 into “The Centre for Psychological Counselling and Vocational Choice” C.P.O.S.P. The change was not only in title but in substance. C.P.O.S.P was placed not within the Department of Public Works, but under the General Inspectorate of Labour.

The identity that was mutely provided to guidance and counselling in 1963 was reinforced and enlarged during the life of the second 5-year Federal Development Plan (1966/1971). It was envisaged that beginning with the second 5-year plan, counselling will play a role in the promotion of students from lower to higher levels of the school system. To meet this objective, career and educational problems were separated from those of labour and employment. While labour and employment remained within the competence of the Ministry of Labour, by Decree No. 68/DF/268 of 12 July 1968 reorganizing the MINEDUC, a Guidance bureau was created within the Planning Service of MINEDUC. The bureau was given the assignment of providing parents and students with all necessary information relative to their studies; to orient students to follow the paths corresponding to their aptitudes both physically and intellectually in line with their personal interest and economic needs; to initiate and maintain school files and undertake studies on the most appropriate psychological methods for use in school and university counselling under Cameroon conditions. Ndongka and Leke, (2000)

In view of shortage of Cameroonians in this discipline, the Government solicited and received technical assistance from UNESCO and the French Government established the framework of executing this task. School files were established and tests administered to some students mainly in few schools in Yaoundé and Douala areas. (David ,2001). However, the necessary conceptual framework had been established. Consequently, by Decree No. 74/406 of 24th April 1974 reorganizing the MINEDUC a Division of Planning, Orientation and School Equipment was created and a service for education counselling created within the said division. (Tita,2016) David (2001), Guidance and counselling had received recognition as an agent of change or an intervention tool, but its impact on the society remained minimal for many reasons among them: The shortage of trained and qualified staff, the lack of national training institution for counselling and the high cost of training and the inadequacy of some practicing counsellors. However, the rapid innovations and advancement in science and technology as well as increased emphasis on the psychology of education present specialized needs which cannot be addressed without sufficient preparation and training. For these and other reasons, a section for training of counsellors was established within the Department of Science of Education in the “Ecole Normale Superieure”, Yaoundé in 1982 by Decree No. 79/309 of the 10th of August, 1979. Admission of the two-year programme was by direct competitive examinations.

Today many more counselling programs have been introduced in other state universities in the country. There exists the department of counselling in the Universities of Maroua and Bamenda precisely in the Higher Teacher Training Colleges of these two universities. Counsellors are also trained in other schools like the Higher Technical Teachers Training Colleges of Kumba, Douala, Ebolowa and Bamenda. In addition, the department of Counselling Psychology has gone operational in the Faculty of Education of the University of Bamenda while the Department of Educational Psychology in the University of Buea and that of Psychology in the University of Yaoundé all run training programs for counsellors. This has broadened the scope of the discipline hence many more people are beginning to see the need for counselling in our schools (David 2001).

Conceptually, counselling is a learning process in which a counsellor helps an individual or individuals learn, understand themselves and their environment and be in a position to choose the right type of behaviours that will help them develop, grow, progress, ascend, mature and step up, educationally, vocationally and socio personally. In other words, counselling is a transformative process of helping people to learn all that are to be learnt both in and outside the school. That is, “the total development of a child can only take place in an environment conducive for teaching and learning”. It is in realization of the above that all educational services which can promote teaching and learning in schools are given prominent attention by educational planners. Counselling services are among the school educational services. It is believed that guidance and counselling services in school shall develop, assess and improve educational programmes; enhance teaching and improve the competence of the teacher and reduce cost for the children Egbo (2013).

The elementary school stage is an important step for acquiring desired positive personality features, getting ready for secondary school and vocational orientation (Canel, 2007). The children at the first grade of elementary school experience secondary childhood features until the fifth grade. From this year on the child enters adolescent and has to deal with bodily, sexual, cognitive, emotional and social problems (Baysal, 2004). Therefore, the students' educational, vocational, emotional, social and personal development and harmony should be attended to considering their age and developmental tasks

Personally, guidance and counselling services help the individual to know and understand himself, accept his superior and limited features and develop himself, trust himself, develop effective interpersonal relationships, become a personally and socially balanced and harmonious individual (Yesilyaprak,2001). Thus, they enable the continuously developing individual to manage the developmental tasks at various developmental stages. Guidance and counselling services also aim to prevent, adjust and better the adaptation, development and other personal problems of the individual in educational or other environments (Ozbay, 2004). Counselling and guidance services offers services concerning developmental needs of the individual in personal and social areas such as developing awareness about interpersonal relationships beginning from the early ages; working on communication skills, life skills, social skills, problem-solving skills, decision-making skills; working on anger management (Uz-Bas, 2007), dealing with peer pressure and developing healthy relationships with the opposite sex (Canel, 2007).

Educationally, counselling and guidance services help the students adapt to school make educational decisions and choices by informing them about educational facilities (Ilgar, 2004). They help the students choose the most appropriate course to study and club for their interests and abilities and help them learn more effectively (Fitch & Marshall, 2004; Jackson, 2000; Myrick, 2003; Akt: Webb, Brigman & Campbell, 2005) by introducing them effective study methods and students with learning difficulties (Hotaman, 2008; Kuhn, 2004; Yuksel-Sahin & Hotaman, 2007).

Vocationally, counselling and guidance services aim that the student perceives himself realistically; knows his weak and strong points; feels the need to develop his weak points and makes use of opportunities for developing his weak points; searches for job opportunities suitable for himself; possesses the skills that working life requires such as communication, taking responsibility, problem solving and makes (Kuzgun, 2000).

The school counsellor's role in facilitating student achievement is complex. In past years, school counsellors have had responsibilities that have included disciplining students, keeping track of attendance, filling in for the principal or teachers when there is an absence, checking grades, monitoring study halls, managing cases for special education, coordination testing, organizing and maintaining school records, scheduling new students, building the master schedule, and performing clerical responsibilities (Hatch & Bowers, 2002).

Despite the efforts to clearly define the role and responsibilities of the school counsellor, the profession continues to face role disparity, unclear responsibilities, and the obligation of performing administrative tasks (Dahir et al., 2010). The role of the school counsellor has long been debated within the field, and various models and means of accountability have been presented, tried, and evaluated over the past several decades. Comprehensive guidance and counselling services that incorporate academic, career development, and social/emotional domains have been described in the professional literature for many years (Gysbers & Henderson, 2000; Myrick, 2003). Burnham and Jackson (2000) explained “School administrators, teachers, parents and other interested groups often view the school counsellor's role differently".

In the vast majority of states, there has been an increased emphasis on high academic achievement for all students. State-wide competency-based testing results have become an increasingly high priority in our today's schools. The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) has established new math and reading testing requirements and has authorized funds for states to develop, select, and design their own tests Experts agree that establishing meaningful connections between teachers and pupils in the classrooms, as well as among the pupil themselves, is essential for the mission of education to be successful (Dodd, 2000). Many educators assert that too much instructional time is taken up with classroom management issues including the lack of positive communication between teacher and pupil/student(s) (Dodd,2000). The educators are recognizing that when schools attend to pupils social and emotional skills, the academic achievement of children increases, the incidence of problem behaviours decreases, and the quality of the relationships surrounding each child improves (Pasi, 2001).

There is very little written in the professional literature about expectation, knowledge, the perceptions or contributions of teachers toward influencing guidance and counselling services in schools. Yet, teachers are the people who are with the students for the majority of their school day and they are basically held responsible for the teaching and learning that take place in the school. Furthermore, public schools have mirrored the social transformations of the modern era resulting in an expansion of the teacher's role regarding inclusion, socialization, and multiculturalism (Elkind, 2000).

Teachers in today's schools often are facing a population of pupils and students whose personal and social problems create barriers to academic success (Bemak, 2000). The influence and expectations of teachers and school heads, their understanding of the function of guidance services, as well as their understanding of program development and implementation have been identified as significant factors affecting the development of exemplary school guidance and counselling programs (Ponec & Brock, 2000). Teachers have not been specifically mentioned in the literature as being a part of this support, yet teachers' expectations of counsellors and their knowledge of guidance and counselling services can have great impact on pupils, students, parents, and administrators and therefore on guidance and counselling programmes (Ponec & Brock, 2000).

With regards to the challenges, there are both internal and external challenges as barrier to the implementations of guidance and counselling programmes in schools. The role of a school counsellor can be precisely defined in some schools while remain vague and open in others. Roles vary as the education systems as well as individual schools differ from one and another. Role clarity is often a much- highlighted internal challenge in many studies. In Nigeria, as highlighted by Tatar (1995), counsellors perform a number of roles beyond traditional counselling duties. These include admission processes and referral to other schools or institutions following students' graduation. In Maluwa-Banda's (1998) study conducted in Malawi, role clarity was one of the key issues discussed in the context of school counsellors' perceptions of the guidance and counselling programme. Bunce and Willower (2001) also reported in their study of counsellors' subculture in American schools that counsellors often have to manage role ambiguity. The issue of increasing workload was also highlighted in both studies. Paisley and McMahon (2001) also highlighted the concern on school counsellors' ambiguous role definition and functions in the context of American schools. The relationship between the two issues of role clarity and increasing workload may be worth further exploration in future studies. Defining ‘what' and ‘how' a guidance and counselling services contributes to the overall function of the school is an essential internal challenge faced by practitioners.

Another important stakeholder in the school counselling process is the teachers. Their perceptions of guidance and counselling services and school counsellors are of considerable importance. School counsellors often gain access to clients through referrals made by teachers, so their attitudes towards counselling in schools should not be underestimated.

The theoretical background to this study basically dwelled on the following theories: person- centred therapy, social learning theory and behavioural therapy technique.

Person-centred therapy focuses on the human interaction between the counsellor and the client. Rogers (1980) called it the Person-centred theory in order to suggest that his principles extended beyond the client-therapist relationship to encompass all human interaction. The current person-centred theory is understood as a process of helping clients discover new and more satisfying personal meanings about themselves and the world, they inhabit

Albert Bandura is noted as one of the exponents of the theory of social learning and observational learning. Social learning theory explains human behaviour from the point of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioural and environmental influences. For social learning theory to take place, there are four factors which must be present. These are observers: (learners), teacher (model), learners' attention and proximity or nearness. The process of learning is influenced by the extent of identifications and imitations by the learners to the other three factors (Bandura, 1978).

Behaviour therapy practitioners focus on observable behaviour, current determinants of behaviour, learning experiences that promote change, tailoring treatment strategies to individual clients, and rigorous assessment and evaluation. Behaviour therapy has been used to treat a wide range of psychological disorders with different client populations (Wilson, 2008). Anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse, eating disorders, domestic violence, sexual problems, pain management, and hypertension have all been successfully treated using this approach.

Contextually, widespread provision of schools in Cameroon is a commendable and strategic effort aimed at eradicating poverty and promoting sustainable development for the attainment of the vision of an ‘Emerging Cameroon by 2035' (Growth and Employment Strategy Paper (GESP), 2010). However, the Cameroon education system is plagued with problems among which are: inadequate teachers in quantity/quality, inadequate educational facilities (like classrooms, playground for pupils, libraries), and inadequate financial resources leading to ineffectiveness in teaching and consequently, poor academic performances of learners (National Education Forum of 1995 cited in (Tambo, 2003) and Sector-wide conference to education, 2006 cited in (Titanji, 2017).

Egbo (2013) was of the opinion that the unprecedented economic and social changes have over the years changed the ways in which individual manage their lives. Consequently, not all the lessons of the past can effectively deal using the challenges of modern-day times. Effective introduction of guidance and counselling, especially in institutions of learning has now become important and teachers should help in its implementation in one way or another. Pupils and students, need to be guided in the relationships between health and the environment, earning abilities, knowledge, and attitudes that lead to success and failure in life. The need for guidance and counselling has become paramount in order to promote the well-being of the child. Effective advice and counselling should help to improve the self-image of young people and facilitate achievement in life tasks. Counselling should empower girls and boys to participate fully in, and benefit from, the economic and social development of the nation.

The need to institute counselling programmes in primary school cannot be over emphasized. Human mind at this level is usually in a “tabular rasa” form. This implies that the mind of the child, at this level is virgin and open, needing to be filled up. By virtues of good counselling and subsequent training, the kid begins to develop positively. This is what task this research work seeks to explore using guidance and counselling as a prolific tool for effective human living and adjustment. Thus, guidance and counselling are remedial, preventive and developmental. It takes care of the needs of the pupils to demonstrate adjustment and maturity in relationships and cushion possible discovery of their talents, talents, abilities, potentialities, strengths and weakness at the earliest stages for their own betterment. The need for people to live functional and meaningful lives makes it imperative that early guidance and counselling programmes should be established at the primary school level. The aim is to enhance early and positive adjustment procedures for meaningful living.

There are concerted efforts within and out of the country to improve schools. Some strong recommendations from the 1998 National Forum of Education and the Sector-Wide Approach to Education (2005) include among others the need to strengthen teacher quality through pre- and in­service training, improve on the working conditions of teachers and build a strong collaboration between teachers and school counsellor for effective learning outcome (Titanji, 2017 and Johnson, 2006). Of recent, many Higher Teacher Training Colleges have been opened in the country to trained school guidance counsellor. For example: the creation of Higher Teachers' Training college (HTTC), Maroua, University of Maroua, Higher Teachers' training college and Higher Technical Teachers' Training College (HTTTC), Bambili, University of Bamenda and HTTTC, Kumba, University of Buea among others. This implies that there is bigger pool of trained counsellors' secondary schools as compared to ten years ago. But all these efforts are limited to secondary and higher institution with little been done in primary schools where these services are paramount. The main issue of concern here is see these concerted efforts by the government could be extended at the primary school level. Statement of Problem

One of the underlying principles of guidance and counselling stipulates that guidance and counselling is for everybody; from nursery to primary right up to university level. Guidance and counselling is remedial, preventive and developmental. Even those without problems need counselling to plan their lives in a meaningful way. Counselling services have long term effects on a child's well­being and can prevent a pupil from performing poorly in school, turning to violence and drug or alcohol abuse. Unfortunately, guidance services in the Cameroon educational system have however been focused in secondary schools and tertiary institutions with little or no attention to the primary sector where most of the problem faced or manifested at the later stage originated. Also, it is notice that while residence counsellors are permanent in secondary schools and some higher institutions of learning the situation is different at the level of primary school where they are mostly needed.

Guidance and counselling programmes at the primary school level in Cameroon education system seems not to be given enough attention. This could be the reason why many post primary school pupils are facing social and emotional needs, experience mental health problems, and engage in harmful activities such as substance abuse, violence, and other self-destructive behaviours. This is evident in a large number of students at the secondary level who just left primary school still involved in indiscipline and disruptive behaviours such as social, emotional and mental challenges. If effective and professional measures, skills and techniques are not put in place this will go a long way to negatively affect their performance in school, lead to emotional problems, problem of social interaction and career choice, school dropout, involvement in deviant acts such as stealing, dodging from classes, violence, fighting with their mates, teachers and even with the school administrators, substance and alcohol abuse, and even loss of lives. Until attention is given to this level of education programme, majority of pupils will continue to find it difficult to adjust academically, social relationship and in career decision making. Based on the above, some classroom teachers have taken the task/responsibility of helping these pupils succeed in their academics and shun aspects of disruptive behaviour and indiscipline yet there seems to be a lack of effective strategies since they have not been professionally trained as counsellors to do so.

It should be noted that, a lot of research has carried out on the role of guidance and counselling services in secondary schools and universities with much emphasis on career choice, yet no academic research has been focused on guidance and counselling services in primary schools. The need to institute counselling programmes in primary school cannot be over emphasized. Human mind at this level is usually in a “tabular rasa” form. This implies that the mind of the child, at this level is virgin and open, needing to be filled up. By virtues of good counselling and subsequent training, the kid begins to develop positively. Primary school children are at the stage of formation of identity and self-concept. They are open to a myriad of options and that is why guidance and counselling services are supposed to be prevalent at this stage because it is better to train kids than to mend men. This is the task this research seeks to explore especially on teacher's knowledge and awareness of guidance and counselling services, teachers' expectations of the services, teachers' attitude towards guidance and counselling services and challenges hindering the implementation of these services.

Objective of the study

Main Objective of the study

The main purpose of this study was to explore teachers' perspectives on the necessity to introduce guidance and counselling services in primary schools within the Kumba Municipality. Specific Objectives

Specifically, the study seeks:

- To explore teacher's knowledge of guidance and counselling services in primary schools.
- To access teachers' expectations on the necessity to introduce guidance and counselling services in primary schools.
- To find out teacher's attitude towards the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary schools.
- To examine the challenges hindering the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary schools

Research Questions

Main Research Question

What are teachers' perspectives on the necessity to introduce guidance and counselling programs in primary schools?

Specific Research Questions

- What is teacher's knowledge of guidance and counselling services in primary schools?
- What are the expectations of teachers on the necessity to introduce guidance and counselling services in primary schools?
- What are the attitudes of teachers towards the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary schools?
- What are the challenges hindering the introduction of guidance and counselling services in primary schools?

Justification of Study

Egbo (2013) asserts that school counselling is not just a therapy or curative service, but that it involves activities and or services for prevention of problems and for building up capacities for preparing learners for future job roles as workers and good citizens. With this conception and in order to respond to the changing need of individuals and the society, one of the major approaches to school counselling is through the curriculum as a learning area or school subject, referred to as “Life Skills”. Life Skills, taught as a subject in the school curriculum, is a model of education primarily concerned with the prevention and not just with the solution to problems but also for developing the capacities of learners to respond appropriately to life situations. This manner of thinking is aimed at conceiving school counselling as meant for the development of the “Whole person” in learners and not only to see the school setting in its aspect of intellectual development alone. The educational activities involved in Life Skills are clustered into three main areas including daily living skills, personal/social skills and career opportunities.

Cameroon schools have in recent years been plagued with numerous challenges coming from students and ranging from various forms of deviant behaviours and maladjustments. Students are now a threat to the very teachers whose future rest in their hands, it should be noted that such act could have been prevented if a proper transition from primary to secondary school was established through the study of life skills as outlined in Egbo (2013). If students could have undergone adequate forms of counselling on social values, then such deviant acts may not have surfaced. This therefore justifies the need for introducing guidance and counselling programs in primary schools to better curb such deviance acts there through the institution of the policy of “Clean school”

Given that almost all people completing primary education have never had an encounter with a counsellor since these services are not available in primary schools; considering that many do not even know what courses to study and the opportunities opened to them; considering the confusion and choice between pursuing technical or general education at the end of the primary education, the researcher thinks a study of this nature can contribute to resolving or alleviating some of the above-mentioned challenges. Most studies carried out in this field have tended to focus mainly on secondary schools. Hence a study of this nature would contribute to enhancing the knowledge and making counselling available to primary school pupils who up to this moment have been deprived of it.

Also, a lot of research has focused on the role of guidance and counselling in secondary schools, and universities with much emphasis on career choice, yet no academic research has focused on counselling in primary schools. The need to institute guidance and counselling programs in primary schools cannot be over emphasized. By virtues of good counselling and subsequent training, the kid begins to develop positively. The primary school children are at the stage of formation of identity and self-concept. They are opened to a myriad of options and that is why guidance and counselling services are supposed to be prevalent at this stage because it is better to train kids than to mend men. This therefore justify the necessity of this study at this level.

Significant of the study

The study will help primary school teachers acting as para-counsellors to understand the unique characteristics and nature of each pupil as well as be able to make relative referrals at any point in time for effective adjustment. Good classroom, social and social climate should be created for inclusive development of the pupils for maximum sustenance of solutions to academic, vocational and personal social problems of the Cameroon primary school pupil.

We live in an era where children and youths are heavily confronted and confused with various developmental needs, problems to content with in their lives, challenges in academics, vocational and personal-social without leaving out the surmounting influence of peer at all level especially during childhood. Children are vulnerable to everything that come from the environment, they copy from teacher more especially and as such if teachers emulate appropriate social values in schools, pupils will consequently emulate those social values for proper societal adjustment, hence effectiveness of guidance and counselling programme in primary schools will help pupils to adjust in all spheres of life.

It is hoped that the study will equip educational stakeholders and policy makers with the right information on the nature and the magnitude of the guidance and counselling in our primary schools and the impact its proper introduction will have on pupil's well-being academically and choice of a future vocation.

The study will help educational planners in the ministries of basic education and educational resource centre to know exactly the situation of guidance and counselling in primary schools. This study will reveal the strengths and necessity of counselling in primary school. The findings and recommendation of the study will help to improve guidance services and thereby reduce pupil's problems and thereby adequately preparing them for the world of work.

Finally, it is hoped that this study would not only add new dimension to work already done in the field of need and impact of guidance services, but also open up other area where useful inquiries or researches could be conducted.

Scope of the Study

This study falls within the interest of teachers' perspectives on the necessity of introducing guidance and counselling in primary schools in Kumba Municipality. The study dwells on the teachers' perspectives like their knowledge of guidance and counselling, teachers' expectation, teachers' attitude and challenges encountered in the course of introducing guidance and counselling services in primary schools. Dimensions of guidance and counselling programmes such as appraisal service, information, orientation, referral and counselling (academic, vocational and personal social) services will also be look at.

Geographically, this study was carried out in some functional primary schools in Kumba Municipality, specifically at; GBPS Station Group I, GBPS Station Group II, GPS Kumba Town GRP I, GPS Kumba Town GRP II, GPS Kumba Town GRP III, GPS Kumba Mbeng GRP I, GPS Kumba Mbeng GRP II, and GPS Kumba Mbeng GRP III. These institutions of learning were chosen to give the researcher the opportunity to find out the problem under study and also because the researcher is versed with the educational activities in the area of the selected institutions and also based on the fact that the institutions are functioning well. The schools are among the biggest in terms of infrastructure, teaching staff, and population of pupils registered. Most importantly, these schools are also the few schools that are still active in the mist of the socio-political crises plaguing the North West and South West region of Cameroon

The theoretical scope to this study basically dwelled on the following: Person-Centred Therapy, Behaviour Modification Technique and Social Learning Theory. These theories were chosen because they had a significant bearing to the study which enable the researcher to establish a link between the present study and the existing theories.

Methodologically, this study was based on qualitative approach which seeks to explore teachers' perspectives on the necessity of introducing guidance and counselling services in primary schools in Kumba Municipality. The current research utilizes a case study research design. This approach was used because it allowed an in-depth examination of the phenomenon under study. Also, the case study was used because the focus of the study was describing and explaining rather than predicting variables under investigation

Operational Definition of Terms

Teacher

According to Longman Dictionary (2018) a teacher someone job is to assist learner to gain knowledge, especially in primary and a school usually in classroom setting. There are many different kinds of teachers. Some teachers teach young children in kindergarten or primary schools. Others teach older children in middle, junior high and high schools

For the purpose of the study a teacher is seen as a person who helps pupils/students to acquire knowledge, competence or virtue.

Perspectives

Schacter (2011) refers to perspective as the way one looks at the events happening in an environment. From a technical point of view, it refers to the organization, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment

For the purpose of this study, perspective here is based on teacher's knowledge, attitude about guidance and counselling services, their expectation and challenges encountered in the course of introducing guidance and counselling services in the School System of primary schools

Guidance

Watts and Kidd (2000) defined guidance as comprising “a range of processes designed to enable individuals to make informed choices and transitions related to their educational, vocational and personal development”.

In the present context, guidance can be defined as a, developmental process, by which an individual is assisted to understand, accept and use his/her abilities, aptitudes and interests and attitudinal patterns, in relation to his/her aspirations. Guidance as an educational construct involves those experiences that assist each learner to understand him/herself, accept him/herself, and live effectively in his/her society. Guidance is therefore a process that builds up a human character rather than a single event.

Counselling

Hall and Hall (2003) opined that counselling is where a counsellor sees a client in a private and confidential setting to explore a difficulty the client is having, distress they may be experiencing or perhaps their dissatisfaction with life, or loss of a sense of direction and purpose. By listening attentively and patiently the counsellor can begin to perceive the difficulties from the client's point of view and can help them to see things more clearly, possibly from a different perspective. In this light, counselling is a helping process that uses safety engendered by a special kind of relationship to help individuals to get access to a greater part of their personal resources, as a means of responding to the challenges of their life. It uses specific skills and techniques in that relationship to help people become more competent, more contented and more creative in domestic, work-oriented and social life Guidance and Counselling Egbo (2013) defined guidance and counselling as a learning discipline in which an individual is or individuals are helped to learn, understand themselves and their environment and be in a position to choose the right type of behaviours that will help them develop, grow, progress, ascend, mature and step up, educationally, vocationally and socio personally. For the purpose of this study, guidance and counselling is a transformative discipline that will help pupils in primary to learn all that are to be learnt both in and outside the school.

Primary School

ISCED (2011) Primary school relates to the education of the child approximately between the ages of four and 10 years old. Primary school is the previous step to secondary school. For the purpose of this study Primary Schools is seen as typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in primary school,

Summary of Chapter

Chapter one basically presented the background of the study, the statement of the problem as well as the objective of the study from where the research questions were built. The justification of the work, significance and the scope of the study were also brought out as well as the operational definition of terms. The next chapter presents the theories backing up the study and other authors' contributions or ideas on teachers' perspectives on the necessity of introducing guidance and counselling in primary schools.

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction

This chapter reviewed literature on teachers' perspectives on the necessity of introducing guidance and counselling services in primary schools. The review discussed teachers' perspectives bases on their knowledge, expectations and attitude towards guidance and counselling programmes in schools, and problems facing the various guidance and counselling services in school. The chapter also reviewed theories that guided the study and empirical literature related to this study.

Conceptual Review

The study was conceptualised on teachers' perspectives on the necessity of introducing guidance and counselling services in primary schools. Teachers' perspectives were based on teacher's knowledge of guidance and counselling services, their expectation and attitudes towards guidance and counselling services

Guidance and Counselling Services in Relation to Education of Pupils

Guidance and Counselling are two closely interrelated concepts and each determines the availability and efficient of the other. According to Patterson (2012), “guidance” refers to a broad area of all educational activities and services aimed at assisting individual students to understand themselves and adjust to school life. In Nigeria, the Ministry of Education (1977) considers guidance as a continuing process concerned with determining and providing for the developmental needs of learner. Mutie and Ndambuki (2005) defines “counselling” as a learning-oriented process which usually occurs in an interactive relationship with the aim of helping the client learn more about him/herself. Guidance and counselling is therefore aimed at bringing about maximum development and self-realization of human potential for the benefit of the individual and the society.

Eze (2006) defined counselling as a helping relationship in which the counsellor assists the client to better understand himself and the world. Tambawal (2007) stated that counselling is concerned with the feelings, attitudes and emotional dispositions of an individual about himself and situations facing him. Counselling practice is mainly concerned with the ways of assisting the individuals to understand himself and the world around him, be able to utilize his potential to the fullest and live a normal and well-adjusted life. Counselling in primary schools is in three dimensions namely resolution of problems, prevention of problems and growth counselling which is available to every child so as to enable him develop the hidden potentials and capabilities. However, there are some challenges facing the practice of counselling in primary schools which Oraegbunam (2008) listed as counselling-client ratio, non­recognition of counsellors by the headmasters, absence of counselling in the timetable. For Okere (2005), it is incompetence in handling pupils' problems; Ifelunni (2005), dual job and lack of authority for execution of programmes; Nwokolo (2006), not giving free hand to organize guidance services and Akinade (2009), lack of proper knowledge in interpretation of psychological test. Guidance and counselling is described as an enlightened process whereby people help people by facilitating growth and positive adjustment through self-understanding. (Kolo 2001). Akinade (2012) defines guidance and counselling as a process of helping an individual become fully aware of himself and the ways in which he is responding to the influences of his environment.

It further assists him to establish some personal meaning for this behaviour and to develop and classify a set of goals and values for future behaviour. Corey (1988) regards counselling as a process which occurs in one-to-one relationship between an individual troubled by problems with which he cannot cope with and a professional worker whose training and experiences have qualified him to help others reach solution to personal needs. Okoye (1990) viewed counselling as an interactional relationship designed to facilitate the personal development of information leading to effective decision making and awareness of the self. Counselling is a learning process in which a counsellor helps an individual or individuals learn, understand themselves and their environment and be in a position to choose the right type of behaviours that will help them develop, grow, progress, ascend, mature and step up, educationally, vocationally and socio personally. (Egbo,2013).

In other words, counselling is a transformative process of helping people to learn all that are to be learnt both in and outside the school. Abolade (2000) describes teaching as a set of activities that are designed to bring about changes in the behaviour of learners. Bamgbaiye (2005) sees teaching as explaining, demonstrating, guiding and counselling by the teacher in order to effect a change in the learner. Okoye (2010) stated that the main aim of teaching is to help someone acquire or change some skills, attitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation. In other words, it is to bring about some desirable changes in the learners, she also noted that teaching is said to be effective only when the learners have been able to achieve the set behavioural objectives. Nnabuike, (2012) believes that a teacher is also a learner because there is no end to learning. Okoye (2010), views learning as the mental activity by which knowledge and skills, habits and attitudes, virtues and ideas are acquired, retained and utilized resulting in the progressive adoption and modification of conduct and behaviour. Idowu (1989) sees learning as the acquisition of new behaviour or a change in behaviour whether positive or negative change.

It also includes acquisition of knowledge, information, skills and cultures. He therefore noted that learning definitely will lead to change in one's thought, patterns and feeling. Learning also involves cognitive process especially mental reasoning. Thus, teaching and learning go together; it is like buying and selling. If nobody learns it follows that nobody teaches. Nnabuike (2012) noted that the work of the teacher is to help students to learn through deliberate and conscious manipulation of information, knowledge, skill, values, attitudes and habits of the learners in order to bring about learning, leading to desirable changes in character. Based on the above, no effective teaching could be said to have taken place if learning has not occurred. In schools, most teachers are cheating instead of teaching. Some do not know the methods for teaching and so do not make any positive impact (teaching and learning); some abandon the teaching job for which they are being paid, to engage in petty trading, farming and even contract. (Odo, 2007). He noted that majority do not conduct research to get more knowledge for effective, efficient and qualitative teaching and for upgrading of knowledge and ideas. He noted that some teachers do not care about the students under their care.

Kolo (2001) however, pointed out that teaching is a difficult task and therefore not every teaching that brings about pupils learning. He noted that you can take a horse to the stream but you cannot force it to drink water. In a sense, it is possible that one could put in his best effort to teach and yet some pupils fail to learn. This is where counselling comes in for there are pupils who find it difficult to learn due to some learning problems. Some do not understand why they are in school, what is expected of them and how to handle some of their problems. Guidance is a programme of service to individual students based on the need of each student, in understanding of his immediate environmental factors and the influences of such factors on the individual. It is designed to help each pupil adjust to his environment, develop the ability to set realistic goals for him and to improve his total educational programmes while in school and post school life.

Major Guidance and Counselling Services in Schools

At the primary and post primary levels, the schools are expected to provide the tripartite functions of administration, instruction and guidance and counselling service. Counselling services, according to Anwana (2005), are designed to enable an individual to gain self-understanding of himself as well as his self-direction. The services are offered by a counsellor who is professionally competent in relevant psychologically skills and knowledge to assist the client. Over the years, counselling services have been adopted at the primary and post primary levels in Nigeria, and they have been found to play a good complementary role to other school programmes (Anwana, 2005).

Egbo (2008), the rationale for guidance and counselling in schools is based on the belief that prevention is always better than cure in every aspect of life. She therefore noted that counselling no doubt has the key for the prevention of almost all the problems associated with learning therefore the need to understand the services provided under the school guidance. The school should make arrangements to enlist the support of the parents and introduce them to the idea of guidance and counselling. Therefore, in an effective guidance and counselling programme, various guidance and counselling services are offered to assist students in personal development and psychological growth towards maturity. According to Schertzer and Stone (1976), these services include the following:

Orientation Services: orientation service is provided to the students those who are new comers and those who go to new class or new course in the school set up. It is a well-known fact that the students those who join first time. In the school or get promotion for higher classes are heterogeneous in nature as they are from different family backgrounds, from different socio-economic status, from different areas, and from different abilities, interests, aptitudes and skills (Obinaju, 2011). Orientation service is normally meant for students to enable them to know school courses, rules, regulations, different facilities given to the students by school and to know the clear image of the school. On the same line school also keeps record of the students about their bio-data including identification, socio- economic background, capacities and abilities, interest for courses etc.

Orientation services are provided to help students and pupils to adjust better to school environment. Makinde (1984), when new students and pupils are admitted every new academic year in secondary schools, they feel lost socially and psychologically in their new environment. This is designed to assist students adjust adaptively when found in new school environment for effective learning. The teachers should also be given orientation on how to handle the learners from time to time. This is because they no longer enjoy the psychological support of their parents, friends and former teachers. Also, the new environment has rules, regulations and administrative set-up appears completely different. Egbo (2008), was of the view that orientation services are therefore designed to help such students and pupils adjust during such critical transition periods (from primary to secondary, secondary to high school and then from high school to university). Good guidance programme is hence drawn to familiarize then with the overall school situation. orientation service gives scope to make the students familiar with the unfamiliar situation of the school. The orientation service is also meant to develop student's abilities and scholarships, a sense of responsibility and integrity, abilities for citizenship, social and vocational skills etc. The orientation service is such a service which develops relationship between school and students and vice versa and it is organised systematically in the beginning of the new sessions (Anwana, 2005).

Egbo (2008), the orientation service is highly needed due to following reasons: It assists new pupils and students to know the information's about school, its history and traditions, its rules and regulations, its strength and weaknesses, facilities available for them etc. It helps pupils and students to adjust with school situations and enables students to develop academic standard, personal qualities, high moral values as well as ethical standards from rich experiences of the school, it also assists pupils' students to achieve success in academic life by learning to study carefully, developing interest in study, taking examinations and notes sincerely and utilizing time properly. More so it helps them to know the almost all useful information's regarding physical plant, library, hostels, class-rooms, laboratories, workshops, gardens, play grounds, different teaching aids and other facilities, it also assists pupils and students to provide remedial reading, language programme, projects and clubs and different financial help by schools and finally it assists pupils and students to develop social adjustment abilities, citizenship education, well adjustment in different school activities and facilities, with different members of school and finally it assists to develop an idea and feeling among students that is a self­directed, intellectually oriented experience.

Assessment and Appraisal Services: Appraisal involves the collection, administration, interpretation and clinical usage of variety of test devices in order to provide effective counselling services to both pupils and students in a given institution (Akinade, 2012). This involves a teacher counsellor collecting, analysing and using a variety of objective data that can enhance better understanding of the pupils and student their related issues. A teacher counsellor without adequate and reliable information of a pupil or student will have difficulties in assisting him/her (Makinde 1984). It is therefore important to collect and make available a variety of information through observation, interview, testing, history, and social adjustment data about each child so that they can be in a position to plan satisfying educational, vocational and social programme.

Egbo (2008), Individual inventory service or appraisal service is an important type of guidance service which may be recognized often as “pupil's” inventory service. It is very much essential for pupils as it assists to know the student “himself” at the time of taking any decisions so far, his educational courses and careers are concerned. Really the pupils or student proceeds in his educational set-up as he/she has made proper choice regarding concerned subject or courses according to his own abilities, interests, aptitudes, attitudes and skills. The adequate and accurate data are collected for the same purpose.

Egbo (2008), generally, student's information is highly required for the following reasons: The individual information is needed to assist them to know the clear picture of his/her abilities, interests, aptitudes, skills, personality characteristics, achievement standard, level of aspiration and his physical health status as well as his mental capacities, it also assists pupils and student to know him/herself from various point of view such as socio-economic-status, family background, educational status of family, will of parents and students etc. It helps pupils and student to provide a record of the academic standard and status and his progress in this regard, also enables guidance worker and teacher to know about pupils and student adequately as a result of which they would be able to suggest for further progress of the pupils and students.

Mutie and Ndambuki (2005) outline the various steps involved in conducting assessment and appraisal services in school such as data collection, maintenance of data, use of data and self-inventory service

Data Collection: Data collection is the first and foremost step to be followed for good individual inventory service. Here necessary and adequate data regarding student's ability, interests, aptitudes, skills, habit patterns, family background, socio- economic-status, health, habits and conditions, vocational interest, educational standard, interest for different curricular and co-curricular activities, parental aspirations etc. should be collected by guidance personnel with utmost care. For the purpose of data collection about the students, the guidance worker should take the help of different tools and techniques such as interviews, observations, case study, incidental records, cumulative record cards, questionnaires, rating scales, standardized test, and inventories meant for measuring intelligence, creativity, adjustment abilities and other psychological traits. Data collection involved general, family, physical, academic, social and psychological data (Mutie and Ndambuki, 2005).

General data: Pupil's name, his father's name, age, date of birth, place of birth, permanent address, present address, name of the class in which he reads.

Family data: Home and school environment, number of the family members, number of the brothers and sisters, relation with family members, parental educational status, parental occupational status, socio-economic-status of the family, home situation (Rural/Urban) and health status of family members.

Physical data: Pupil's height, weight, body structure, complexion, eye sight, hearing condition, heart and lung condition, chronic disease, health status of the student etc.

Academic data: Present achievement records, past achievement records, progress of studies in different subjects, marks or grades obtained the position of student in the class-room so far, his academic achievement is concerned.

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Details

Title
Introducing Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary Schools in Kumba Municipality of the South West Region of Cameroon. Teacher Perspectives
Subtitle
Research Project
College
University of Buea
Course
Guidance and Counselling
Grade
A
Author
Year
2022
Pages
114
Catalog Number
V1217046
ISBN (eBook)
9783346657640
ISBN (Book)
9783346657657
Language
English
Keywords
introducing, guidance, counselling, services, primary, schools, kumba, municipality, south, west, region, cameroon, teacher, perspectives, research, project
Quote paper
Etape Emmanuel Ntungwe (Author), 2022, Introducing Guidance and Counselling Services in Primary Schools in Kumba Municipality of the South West Region of Cameroon. Teacher Perspectives, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1217046

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