Assessment “Madeira Live Project”

The development of a product for cruise tourists

Project Report, 2008

70 Pages, Grade: B


Table of Contents

1. Project Brief

2. Executive Summary of Project Report

3. Madeira Island an Introduction

4. The Product
4.1 The project aim
4.2 Strategic objectives
4.3 Product risk assessment

5. Internal Analysis
5.1 Visitor demand characteristic
5.2 Cruise operators demand
5.3 Economic impact of tourism
5.4 Tourism inventory
5.5 Attractions inventory
5.6 Image
5.7 Organisation of tourism
5.8 Marketing & promotion
5.9 Sustainability issues
5.10 Community issues
5.11 Summary of internal audit with key strengths and weaknesses

6. External audit analysis
6.1 Stakeholder Analysis
6.2 External Strategic Analysis
6.2.1 Remote Environment Analysis
6.2.2 Operating Environment Analysis
6.3 Tourism Product Portfolio Analysis
6.4 Cruise Trends
6.5 Summary of External Audit with key Opportunities and Threats

7. Strategies to develop the tourism Product
7.1 The TOWS Matrix
7.2 Choice of Strategies
7.3 Implementation of Strategies
7.3.1 Marketing-mix
7.3.2 Product
7.3.3 Price
7.3.4 Promotion
7.3.5 Place
7.3.6 People
7.3.7 Process
7.3.8 Physical Evidence
7.3.9 Partnerships

8. Monitoring Strategy Performance

9. Conclusion

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3


1. Project Brief

Groups of 4 were assigned in order to analyse the existing range of the tourism product portfolio on Madeira. The task was to develop a new product for the existing market segment of cruise passengers on Madeira, which is consistent with the resources and the tourism aims on the island. The project report consists of internal and external analysis, the product idea and a suitable marketing mix.

2. Executive Summary of Project Report

The product FUNCHALoCITY is a touring-information-voucher guide that includes maps, routes, vouchers and discounts, insider information and a hotel voucher for the cruise passenger segment. Derived from the internal analysis one of the islands’ strengths is its range of attractions gastronomy and accommodation. Furthermore, the climate and the geography favour the tourism activity, which result in a high rate of local people who own, or work in local businesses. This is a favourable basis to build the product on. However, the island has weaknesses that include high attraction prices that turn into an opportunity for the product. Another weakness is Madeira’s global image as being an old people’s destination that again can be used by the product to help the destination attract more families and younger visitors. Last but not least, the cooperation of local tourism related businesses lack and yet another possibility for FUNCHALoCITY is to improve collaboration in Funchal, whose infrastructure is well-developed anyway. Threats might only be of an environmental nature also deriving from the huge centralisation of population in Funchal.

The combination of product development and focus strategies is used for launch, short and medium term stages. The product development strategy is the first step to introduce a product into an existing market. Furthermore, the focus strategy is quite important to achieve efficient production, distribution and marketing through specialisation. In order to implement these strategies, the promotional mix mainly consists of promotion, personal selling on the cruise ships and the establishment of partnerships in Funchal. The first step is to build up the network of local businesses in Funchal and secondly it is important to convince the cruise line companies to promote the product on their ships.

Furthermore, the product awareness will be raised using promotional elements like news stories, tourism brochures and leaflets.

3. Madeira Island an Introduction

“And legend of this love my dear still murmurs today

She - the famous Island

He - the sea which surrounds and kisses her.”

(Madeira Story Centre, wall painting)

The Autonomous Region of Madeira is located in the northern Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal. The Madeira Islands are made up of the islands of Madeira, Porto Santo, Desertas and Selvagens. Madeira is the largest island of the group with surface area 789 km 2, the population is 260,000 people, and most of whom are catholic. The largest city in Madeira is the capital city Funchal with about 130.000 inhabitants. Funchal was made a city in 1508 and it is now the main centre for trade, tourism and culture in the whole archipelago. Madeira’s climate is subtropical, warm in the summer (22°C -26°C), and mild in the winter (17°C-22°C) (Madeira Tourist, 2008).

Madeira is known, originally from the Romans as the “Purple Island” and was rediscovered by Joao Goncalves Zarco and Tristao Vaz Teixeira, Who discovered Porto Santo first in 1418, and one year later in 1419 Madeira (Madeira Archipelago, 2008).

Nowadays in Madeira the tourism industry was expanded to become the islands’ prime source of revenue and contributes 20% to the regions GDP. The island is based on tourism, and on touristic products, like flowers, tropical fruits and the Madeira wine. According to the Ministry of Economy and Innovation, one of the main visions is that Madeira is one of the fastest-growing destinations in Europe, driven by a value proposal based on country’s distinctive and innovative characteristics. Another reason is that Madeira is mainly based on tourism, and the growing importance in the economy, constituting one of the key drivers of social, economic and environmental development at regional and national level (Ministry of Economy & Innovation, 2007).

It has already been mentioned that Madeira is a fast growing destination in tourism, the local aims and objectives have changed in the last few years. The attractiveness for the island is increasing; the location is premium for the cruise market. The access of availability- ferry, cruise, and airplane- is increasing. Direct air connections mean that there are often more headways, and more points of departure from other countries. The local entertainment, cafes, restaurants, hotels and spas are also increasing. The Madeira Tourism Board pointed out that in the next few years they would like to have more spas and wellness facilities (DRTM, 16/04/2008). The interest is improving conveniences, like touring around the island, relaxing on the beach in the sun, nature tourism - long walks along the Levadas-, and not least nautical tourism – the more frequent arrival of cruise ships. And furthermore the developments of the other islands like Porto Santo, which has a beautiful sunny, sandy beach. The local objectives are supporting the aims. The island has a wide diversity of touristic products for example the walks in the Levadas, the experience of the spas, the cable car, and the Madeira Story centre. The products are remit the health-wellness, the residential tourism – new hotels, spas, rebuilt the old hotels – and the international overnight and tourist arrivals are increasing (DRTM, 16/04/2008).

4. The Product

Currently there are quite a few products available for tourists in Madeira available, like round trips, museums, and the cable car and so on. However, products especially for cruise tourists are very rare or not available.

On this account, there is a need for products for this special target group, which have just a small time-frame of approximately 7-9 hours.

4.1 The project aim

The aim of the project will be the development of touring-information-voucher guide, called “FUNCHALoCITY”.

This is a small touring guide who includes tours and vouchers for different target groups. Like families, senior citizen, sport fascinated people and nature lovers.

4.2 Strategic objectives

To reach the project aim, it is necessary to define different strategic objectives.

As mentioned, there is a lack of products for cruise tourists.

Cruise tourists have to be informed on the website of the tourism board about the options they have, when they cruising to Madeira.

That will lead to the first objective of this project, an improvement of the website of the Direcção Regional do Turismo da Madeira (DRTM).

For sure, the websites provides a lot of information. However, there must be a section just for off boarding cruise tourists. With a listing of all possible activities cruise tourists have in different time-frames, a list of restaurants, bars, cafes ordered by price, nationality and distance from the port. Maybe also some touring tips, an interactive city map with stereoscopic pictures of the main attractions.

This sub-page of the website has to offer quality products and no user-generated-content, because it should be just an information page.

The second strategic objective is the advance information on the cruise ships. One day before arriving in Madeira, a guest speaker has to introduce the passengers to their next destination. At different times, that speaker has to present a video, PowerPoint etc. to attract their passengers’ attention to Madeira.

Furthermore brochures, information material and maps of Madeira must be available on the cruise ships, so that it will be possible for the passengers to familiarise themselves with Madeira before they arrive.

The third objective, which is essential for the following product, is the development of a network of small local businesses, which offer local and unique products. This network should be an initiative with the name “Business initiative of independent local tradesmen”.

This network should include primarily locals, for example tradesmen, museums, hotels, gastronomy and tourism product providers.

The goal of this network should be a closer linkage between these interest groups, to develop future projects concerning tourism in Madeira and to attract customers, for example street festivals and a further development of the following product.

Furthermore by founding this initiative, a platform for sharing information, critique and opinions will be provided.

Figure 1

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Summary of the aim and strategic objectives (Source: self-established, 2008)

4.3 Product risk assessment

By developing a new product, different risks can face the project and the product itself.

These risks are shown below in figure 2.

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Figure 2

Particulars of the risk (Source: IRM, 2002)

These days risk management is essential, because the tourism industry is a highly dynamical environment, which can change overnight. In the case of a risk, the product can disappear very fast if there is no efficient risk management, see figure 3 (Haberberg & Rieple, 2001).

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Figure 3

Possible Risk Management Process (Source: IRM, 2002)

After the identification and analysis of these possible risks, it is essential to apply the 4 T`s which are shown in figure 4 (John Patch & Associates, 2005).

Figure 4

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The 4 T`s (Source: Lovell, 2005)

In table 1, some example risks will be shown and the best way how to mitigate them.

Table 1

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Product Risk Register (Source: self-established)

The challenge by avoiding is to identify and analyse all possible risks, developing plans to avoid risks, control them and in the case of a risk use strategies to clear this particular risk.

5. Internal Analysis

5.1 Visitor demand characteristic

For years the island has been visited by the older generations of 70 plus, mainly from the UK, France, Germany, Holland, Spain, the Scandinavian Countries, and mainland Portugal of course. Currently Madeira has seen a tendency of attracting a younger population among the 40s to 50s (Madeira4U, 2007) .

Outbound tourists from the United Kingdom and Germany were responsible for over 60% of international overnight tourists in Madeira in 2005, The United Kingdom, represented 33% of international overnights tourist’s in the region and has the second largest number of regular connections, followed by Germany-28% of international overnights tourists’ in 2005. Other regular visitors arrive from South Africa, America, Canada, Brazil, Venezuela, Belgium, Italy, and even China, Poland and Hungary are worthwhile contributors to Madeira's tourism numbers. (PENT, 2007).

Madeira caters well majorly for the silver generations; many are repeat customers, back and forth year after year. For many Europeans, Madeira has such wonderful scenery with mountainous terrain, flowers all year round, temperate climate, rich heritage that many people envy and fantastic food and drinks (Seamarks, 2007).

Figure 5

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Seasonality of demand (Source: INE-Roland Berger, 2006)

Madeira is essentially an international destination, given that the weight of international overnights tourists is 86% in total. Due to the high proportion of charter flights, the average length of stay is fairly high (5-6 days).

The average expenditure for cruise passenger is approximately 70 Euros and 35 Euros for the average tourist per day. The Tourism Board of Madeira sets an objective of tourist revenues growing at the rate of 7.5%.

Over the past decade Madeira has recorded a substantial increase in its hotel accommodation capacity. Its regional ten-year tourism development plan aims to increase bed capacity to 49,000 by 2012.

5.2 Cruise operators demand

Statistics show that the port of Funchal had calls for 264 cruise ships carrying a total of 337,601 passengers in 2007, according to Sail Training International analysis reaching its maximum capacity for the large class a ships while small vessels are still able to enter. The Tourism Board of Madeira has been programming the construction and renovation of an International terminal for arrivals and departures of cruise passengers on the rapid growth in the cruise market (Madeira Tourist, 2008).

Cruise clients are mostly elder people aged above 60 who also come from the UK and Germany. Based on the forecast by the Tourism Board of Madeira, more and more younger families will join in the cruise ships to Madeira in the near future (PENT, 2007). The peak season of the cruise market runs from April to October every year.

5.3 Economic impact of tourism

The impact of tourism demand in GDP is the most significant in Madeira’s economy since it directly contributes 25% to the economy. This can be explained by the early tourism development in the region since the 1960’s, responsible for high multiplier effects. These reflect the existence of a mature Madeira tourism sector, giving rise to a group of tourism related activities, namely, restaurants, entertainment, transportation, local handcrafts and construction (Madeira Tourist, 2008).

5.4 Tourism inventory


Visitors can dine well and inexpensively on Madeira, especially on a diet of fish and vino verde (light white wine) (Concierge, 2008). The Madeira Tourism Board listed 49 restaurants in Funchal, all types and categories.

In Madeira and Porto Santo there are restaurants for every taste, from modern and sophisticated ones with international cuisine to regional restaurants and traditional taverns. (DRTM, 2008)


In order to get to Madeira there are a number of direct flights from European destinations, that are growing in numbers due to low cost airlines. The island has two airports, one in Santa Cruz (known as Funchal airport) and one in Vila Baleira on Porto Santo. Most of the flights are operated from Lisbon or Porto, but there are also the low-cost carrier flights from the European destinations like Edinburgh, Manchester, London Gatwick, Heathrow or Stansted. Furthermore, there are flights from countries like Brasilia, Venezuela and South Africa (Madeira4you, 2008).

Another possibility to get to Madeira is travelling by ferry. There is no regular passenger ferry, but a ferry can be taken to get to Porto Santo to visit its sunny beach. Furthermore, there is a seasonal ferry service between Madeira and the Canary Islands. (Cheap Flights, 2008)

There is no train service either in Madeira nor in Porto Santo, so if a tourist wants to go on a trip around the island, there is the choice between buses, taxis or hiring a car. Of course, organised excursions are offered as well. There are five different bus companies operating on Madeira and one is situated on Porto Santo. Furthermore, the tourist will find hundreds of taxis coloured in yellow and blue. Several taxi companies display their prices online before booking.


Madeira has a relaxed character that brings people back year after year. Funchal abounds in hotels as the Madeira Tourism Board listed 114 hotels, just in Funchal all categories can be found. (DRTM, 2008)

The Pestana Casino Park for example is situated on a cliff top with view over Funchal Bay and five minutes’ walk away from the town centre. This hotel is abounded in internal facilities (tennis courts, library, spa) and offers a wide range of excursions. The hotel is ideal for all kinds of events, from small work meetings to large conventions. (Pestana, 2008) This hotel might be a possible cooperation partner for FUNCHALoCITY.

Ancillary services

The ancillary services are institutions which are important for tourists. Madeira has many banking institutions, independent, national, and international. The normal bank hours are Monday to Friday 8:30am - 03.00pm, with the possibility for later appointments and other services. The Foreign Exchange office works every day including Saturday. Outside this period the hotels are allowed to exchange currency (Madeira4you, 2008). The main Post office “Correios de Portugal” is situated in the centre of Funchal (Madeira Tourist, 2008). The shops in Madeira are open from Monday to Friday including a small “siesta” and some of the shopping centres are open every day. In Madeira there are 67 health centres around the island and one is in Porto Santo. There are two hospitals in Funchal. The chemists are open Monday to Friday and on Saturday (Madeira Tourist, 2008). Furthermore, according to observation, wireless internet access is available all over Funchal.

5.5 Attractions inventory

For cruise tourists, there are several attractions and sites available in and around Funchal, which can feasibly be visited. There are museums, excursion boats, gastronomic offers or natural resources like the parks and gardens. The following examples are chosen just to give an overview of the inventory and some of them will be explained further.

Table 2

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Cable car (Source: Madeira Cable Car, 2008)

Madeira Story Centre

Madeira Story Centre is located near the Cable car station in the harbour area and is one of the most international attractions in Funchal, as its signposting is multi-lingual and very modern, with multimedia and interactivity. It costs 9.00€ to get in and takes about 1.5 hours to explore the whole building.

Table 4

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Old Blandy Wine Lodge (Source: Symington Family, 2008)

Monte Palace Tropical Gardens

The Monte Tropical Gardens are located on Monté next to the Cable Car hill station and are privately owned. The signposting is sufficient in the major tourist languages and it costs 7.50€ per person for an unlimited visit.

Table 6

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Monte Palace Tropical Gardens (Source: DRTM, 2008)

“Santa Maria de Colombo”

The originally reverse-engineered Pirate’s Boat takes its tour along the south coast of the island for 2 hours. It departs from Funchal harbour and costs 27.50€ per person including Madeira cake and wine. It is privately owned and has space for more than 100 people. The leaflets are multilingual but for the activity itself, there is no need to signpost, as there is no action on the boat. Still, it is popular not only for international tourists but also as for locals.

Table 7

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Santa Maria de Colombo (Source: Madeira Web, 2008)

“Carros de Cesto do Monte”

The carriage slides from Monte downwards are one of the oldest attractions on Madeira. The carriages depart from Monte near the Cable car hill station and take around 10 minutes to get down to Funchal. It can carry two to three people and costs 30.00€ per slide.

Table 8

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Carros de Ceste do Monte (Source: Frommers, 2008)

5.6 Image

It is important to consider Madeira’s image in the internal analysis part and to begin with, Madeira’s stereotypical image can easily be found in international tourism blogs, such as or and, where people post their experiences concerning the island and its attractions. There are words used describing Madeira as an island for elderly people, as pensioner island (Focus Online, 2008 and, 2008). But in this source also states that this cliché crumbles as new attractions have changed the island so that it is more attractive for the younger generation. The local tourist office for example is aware of Madeira’s image and is trying to give a makeover to the island to change its reputation as a retirement island” (, 2003). But there are also voices that call for the authorities to “clean (..) up Madeira’s image” (, 2007).

But what image do tourists and cruise passengers hold? On Madeira In 2005, there was a survey held by Madeira’s Tourism authority concerning Madeira’s image in the main markets. To sum up, positive attributes, British and German tourists associated with Madeira were calmness, nature, good weather, sea/water, gastronomy, natural beauty, hospitality and leisure infrastructure. Whereas negative attributes like excessive building, high local costs, pollution, bad quality of roads and access, traffic situation and nature destruction were also mentioned. (Presentation Ana Goncalvez, ESHTE, 30/04/2008)

But not only does the foreign tourist’s perception have to be taken into account, but also the kind of image that is communicated through pictures in tourism leaflets and promotional handouts.

As Madeira’s marketing focus has recently changed to a more spa-like image for the island, many pictures of a relaxed atmosphere can be found such as nature, clear and untouched water, people being one with themselves in their surroundings. This image is very attractive for people seeking relaxation and ease of tension.

There are many positive, sometimes grand adjectives used in cruise operator’s advertisements to describe Madeira and its attractions. Among these, there are words like splendid, charming, exciting, spectacular, classic (Thomson Cruise, 2008), breathtaking, stunning, idyllic, unspoilt and beautiful (P&O Cruise, 2008). Aida Cruises (2008) describes Madeira with words like exuberant, romantic, genuine, distinguished, picturesque and impressive, whereas Royal Caribbean Cruise (2008) uses attributes such as exciting, colourful, unique, exhilarating and world-renowned. On the Carnival cruise (2008) website, Madeira’s attractions are magnificent, breath-taking, incredible and admiring, whereas Holland America line (2008) uses expressions like lush and lovely, famous and “island of eternal spring”. However, Silver Sea cruise (2008) is convinced by Madeira’s beauty as the “Pearl of the Atlantic” and “Portugal’s Floating Garden”.

Adjectives which are used to describe Madeira in guide books and leaflets are more or less the same as they are in the cruise operators’ guides. In the leaflet given out by Turismo de Portugal called “Madeira and Porto Santo guide” (2007) for example, there are words used such as stunning, breathtaking, cosmopolitan, traditional, paradisiacal, enchanted, majestic, spectacular, relaxing and invigorating among many others.

Of course, advertising brochures only use very positive words to communicate the very amenities of the island but as mentioned before, there are also some negative images of the islands which can be experienced at site.

5.7 Organisation of tourism

Madeira falls under the Portuguese authority. Madeira Tourist Board has 13 tourist offices, three of them in the capital city Funchal, eight in the other part of Madeira, one in Porto Santo and 1 office in Lisbon.

5.8 Marketing & promotion

The marketing and promotional activities between public and private sectors on Madeira are quite different. On the one hand there is the Madeira tourism office and on the other hand the private sector.

The marketing and promotion activities of the public sector are very professional, but focus on just one target group. These are the elderly tourists, especially cruise tourists aged 50 plus. The commercialisation is focused on the whole aspect of holistic medicine, like wellness, relaxation and stress relaxation.

As well Madeira’s slogan has also changed from “All around nature” to” Within reach.” in 2004 to “Body.Mind.Madeira” in 2008 (, 2008). Also this slogan reflects Madeira’s new strategic positioning. Whereby in former times just the nature was promoted, is it nowadays Madeira as a holistic island promoting, the island itself as a natural spa, gym and museum (APM, 2008).

For sure, in changing the marketing strategy, it is also essential to change the marketing mix as well. As mentioned, the product was changed from the nature as a core product to wellness.

Indeed the former core product, the nature, is still a part of Madeira’s tourism authorities marketing strategy, because the landscape is still a part of Madeira’s unique natural resource.

Madeira is focusing a high price policy. One can find many high priced products, like restaurants, hotels, tourism activities etc.

A change in the area of promotion is also visible. The quality and design of the brochures and maps increased.

Overall the design of the brochures is very harmonic and visibly appealing. Harmonic natural scenery pictures, which show the hidden depth of the island and soft colours, are used to reflect a certain feeling of relaxation (APM, 2008, p. 16). Furthermore the waves, which can be found on the front and the back of brochures and maps, are an important graphical element to add movement and playfulness (APM, 2008, p. 15).

The design of the new information material is up to date and included maps, brochures and a DVD.

However, as mentioned Madeira is focusing on elderly people as a target group. In that context, the font size of the information material might be too small.

The brand of Madeira is part of the Portugal brand. The logo of Madeira consists of the map, the names “Madeira Island”, the logo of Portugal and the flower. All elements are in harmony with each other (APM, 2008, p. 8).

The big changes in marketing and promotions can be clearly seen. In addition, all partners of the Madeira tourism board like golf courses had to change their brochures.

This might be a problem for future partners, because they have to adopt the same image as the tourism board represents and not only the image and other obligations as well.

As mentioned, the private sector operates relatively independently. However, cooperation between public and private sectors is missing. This can be seen especially in the fact, that there are a lot of independent tourism information centres on Madeira, all of them operating independently.

As well the marketing and promotion activities of the private sector are quite confusing.

At the port of Funchal one can find some small booths where tourists can book round trips, whale watching tours, and adventure tours. However, some of them are not often engaged with a responsible person and their brochures are also confusing as well.

Furthermore the competition between the tours operators is quite high.

To sum up, the Tourism office and Portugal’s tourism authorities have a clear imagination of Madeira’s positioning strategy. However, the cruise destination market is highly competitive and dynamic.

Further development of Madeira’s image and positioning is required.

The private sector which operates relatively independently has to form a network, which was mentioned in the project objective, so that there is cooperation regarding doing business and future positioning.

Regarding the product, the new positioning of Madeira’s marketing brings opportunities and risks at the same time. An opportunity is the new professional layout and corporate design of the information material and the focus of the 40+ age, which is the new target group. However,

Furthermore the focusing on people with high incomes might be a risk for the project, because a product will be developed, that is affordable for everyone and for people who like to see the real Madeira, its culture and tradition.

But the tourism board did not mention one of the biggest natural resources of the destination, its locals, their culture and tradition. This is why you can find many small uncontrolled tourism businesses on the island.

5.9 Sustainability issues

Some of Madeira’s natural resources are air, water, climate, flora and fauna, mountains and lava stones/caves, which are all more or less used for tourism activities or promotion. Some of these resources are highly used by tourism, such as water (cruise ships, ferries, ships and water sports), mountains (hiking, mountaineering, canyoning) or the lava stones/caves (natural swimming pools) and so there is no big potential for further development anymore. Whereas climate for example is very much used for tourism, not tangible but Madeira is promoting its climate to attract tourists, and this resource can be developed further, as there will be no actual damage to the sustainability of the island. Damage would only happen when too much tourists come. Madeira’s Tourism Plan speaks of sustainable growth, but already now, Funchal is bursting with tourists. Depending on the season, either cruise line tourists are in and around Funchal (April/May and then again September-November) or in the high-season, the hotels are fully booked with tourists staying one week or more (May-September), after observation. According to Portugal’s Ministry of Economy and Innovation (2007), seasonality is being tried to reduce by closing gaps in direct air connections between Portugal’s main airports and Madeira as outbound market. Furthermore, seasonality should be reduced by domestic demand, guaranteeing that sustainable tourism growth will be 2.4% to 2.6% annually (Ministry of Economy and Innovation, 2007). This growth should take place in form of development of Porto Santo and enhancement of Madeira, “rather than promotion of mass-market tourism” (p.53).

In addition, it is stated that in order to reduce seasonality, the “objective is to offer wider diversity of products with a commitment to Health and Wellness, Residential Tourism and Integrated Resorts (Porto Santo) and Golf”. The segments of Meetings and Congresses and Nautical/cruise Tourism are to contribute to that.

Coming back to natural and landscape heritage, enhancement of these and bio-diversity, including nature conservation and sustainability are supposed to be fostered. The Ministry of Economy and Innovation (2007; p. 100) puts emphasis on “cleaning and de-pollution of the soil, sub-soil, water and air, control of noise levels, guarantee good sanitation conditions and the elimination of building rubble deposited on riverbanks in tourism areas”.

The existence of green areas and the reduction of environmental impact are the objectives of landscape-related actions. Furthermore, according to Science direct (2006) and due to observation of the project group, it was recognized that there is a change concerning solid waste management: the attitude of society concerning the environment, the legislation and the appearance of new technologies for waste treatment among others changed in favor of environment and sustainability. Solid waste and water waste management is seen as an obligation for communities and conservation measures are being established (Delgado, S. et al, a.i.).


Excerpt out of 70 pages


Assessment “Madeira Live Project”
The development of a product for cruise tourists
University of Birmingham
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ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
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Assessment, Live, Project”, Madeira, Portugal, tourism, development, cruise, cruise tourism, product management, marketing, destination marketing, sustainability, voucher, guides
Quote paper
Thomas Punzel (Author)Elisabeth Stockmann (Author), 2008, Assessment “Madeira Live Project”, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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