TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.2 Statement of the Study
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Question and Hypotheses
1.4.1 Hypotheses Formulated
1.5 Significant of the Study
1.6 Scope and delimitation of the Study
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Framework
2.1.1 Human Resources Management and Employee Performance
2.1.2 Teachers’ Training and Professional Development
2.1.3 School Environment
2.1.4 Recognition Program and Teachers’ Performance
2.1.5 Appraisal and Teachers’ Performance
2.1.6 Work-life Balance and Teachers’ Performance
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1 The Theory of Resource-Based (TRB)
2.2.2 Two Factors Theory by Herzberg
2.2.3 Hierarchy of Needs by Maslow
2.3 Empirical Review
2.4 Appraisal of Literature Review
3.1 Design of the Study
3.2 Area of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
3.6 Validity of the Instrument
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection
DATA ANALYSIS PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data Analysis
4.3 Regression Analysis
4.3.1 Model Summary
4.4 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
4.5 Coefficient of Determination
4.6 Test of Hypothesis
4.6.1 Hypothesis 1
4.6.2 Hypothesis 2
4.6.3 Hypothesis 3
4.6.4 Hypothesis 4
4.6.5 Hypothesis 5
DISCUSSION OF SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Discussion of Findings
5.2 Implication of the Study
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study
Appendix 2:Letter of Request for the Numbers of Teachers
Appendix 3: Numbers of Teachers in Senior Secondary School Apapa LGA, Lagos
This research work is dedicated to the Almighty God, who gave me the strength and zeal to start and finish my academic dream. Unto him be all the glory, power majesty now and forever more, Amen. Also, to my lovely wife and children for their support during the course of study.
I wish to acknowledge, first and foremost, the Almighty God the father, Jesus the Son and the Holy Spirit, who inspired me during the course of this research. My profound gratitude goes to my amiable project supervisor, Dr. (Mrs) Florence Ogonna Udeaja, for finding time out of her tight schedule to thoroughly supervise my research work. I am grateful for your support. May God replenish you in many untold ways, Amen. My gratitude goes to my beloved wife, Mrs. Stephen Onyemowo, my children Master Stephen Ifechukwu Roland, Miss Stephen Chimamanda Tamara and Master Stephen Chimdindu Derrick for their patience and prayers for me throughout my studies and being a blessing to me in the course of the research.
I want to thank my parents Mr. and Mrs. Chianumba and my siblings most sincerely Engr Emmanuel Chianumba for his support and encouragement in all ramifications, may God continue to strengthen you.
This lead me to thanking appreciatively Dr. Stella Ahunanya who not only imparted me with knowledge but also encouraged me I say a big thank you to you. Special thanks to Mr. Charles Olajide Adebayo the Tutor General/Permanent Secretary of Education District IV for granting the Administrative department the permission to furnished me with the required information, your lifting shall never cease, Amen.
Special thanks to the entire teaching and non-teaching staff of senior secondary schools in Apapa, Lagos for you undying cooperation during the data collection. My God will enrich you all. Amen.
The study examined the Impact of Human Resource Management on Teachers’ Performance in Senior Secondary School in Apapa Local Government Area, Lagos State. The research design used was strategy design with a population of 134 respondents across the 6 senior secondary schools in Apapa Local Government Area. Slovin’s formula was used to determine the sample size, totalled 101 respondents. A questionnaire of 30 research question was administered to the 101 respondents to determine the extent of the impact of human resource management on teachers’ performance. Only 93 questionnaires were returned. Therefore, the sample size was determined at 93 respondents. Descriptive statistical tools, Analysis of Variance (ANVOA) and multiple regression analysis to test the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable were used and generated using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 17.0. The finding shows that there is significant relationship between human resource management and teachers performance.
Base on the findings among other recommendations was that Schools/organisations management should ensure schools/organisation carry out training and development programs for tasks leading to successful operation, do an in-depth understanding of the institution environment, an insight regarding training and development options and career development approach to weld in teachers into schools’ effectiveness and knowledge sharing to improve the performance of teachers.
Key words : Human Resources Management, Teachers’ Performance, Training and development, School environment, Employee recognition, Performance appraisal and Work-life balance.
List of Tables
Table 3.4.1 Strength of Teaching and Non-teaching Staff in Apapa Local Government Area
Table 3.7. 1 Results of Reliability Testing
Table 4.2. 1 Response Rate
Table 4.2. 2 Respondents’ Gender
Table 4.2. 3: Respondents’ Age
Table 4.2. 4: Respondents’ Marital Status
Table 4.2. 5: Respondents’ Level of Education
Table 4.2. 6: Respondent Working Experience
Table 4.2. 7: Training and Development on Teachers’ Performance
Table 4.2. 8: School Environment and Teachers’ Performance
Table 4.2. 9: Employee Recognition Programs and Teachers’ Performance
Table 4.2. 10: Performance Appraisal and Teachers’ Performance
Table 4.2. 11: Work-Life Balance and Teachers’ Performance
Table 4.3. 1 Results of Multiple Regressions
Table 4.4. 1: ANOVA
List of Figures
Figure 2.1. 1: Conceptual Model of Human Resources Management on Teachers’ Performance
Figure: 4.2. 1: Respondents’ Gender
Figure: 4.2. 2: Respondents’ Age
Figure: 4.2. 3: Respondents’ Marital Status
Figure: 4.2. 4 : Respondents’ Level of Education
Figure: 4.2. 5: Respondents’ Level of Work Experience
The background of the study, the study's statement, the study's purpose, the research question, and hypothesis, the hypothesis formulated, the study's relevance, scope, and delimitation, and operational definitions of words are all included in this chapter.
1.1 Background to the Study
Human resource management is an organization's most valuable and important asset. Competence and dominance are only possible with competent, loyal, dedicated, and committed employees. Schools are established with the primary goal of promoting and spreading knowledge for the benefit of humanity in order to produce individuals endowed with quality education as well as knowledge, thereby advancing the progress of a society as a whole. Teachers are excepted to be the nation, as they are much like a pillar of a building that support everything. Qualified and competent teachers are the greatest boon for any country because the teachers' potential contributions can elevate nations to the commanding heights of progress and development. Teachers contribute greatly to the development of institutions and nations, which are considered to be the lifeblood of the educational and economic development of any nation. Their performance is very important not only for themselves but also for their colleges and institutions (Imrab, Mushtag & Qudsia 2013).
Mbithi (2018) Human resource practices are practical activities and well-thought-out plans that help firms to give better services to their employees while profits are also being improved upon. When a company's actual results or outcomes are compared to its predicted performance, this is referred to as organizational performance. Most experts agree that more and more companies' human resource procedures can be divided into two categories: operational and managerial responsibilities. People, procedures, and technology all play a part in operational performance, therefore they must be equipped with the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities.
According to Armstrong (2001), A deliberate set of people management policies and practices created and implemented to enable a company to achieve its business goals is referred to as people management. Human resource management's reputation has grown increasingly important to many firms in recent years. The level of consciousness in a system is an important factor in how well an organization performs. (Rees, in Wanjala, Wamalwa, & Edessa 2014).
Nazneen, Reema, and Sahar (2013) emphasized that education plays an important role in character formation. It is measured as the most powerful tool in making people educating citizens, alleviating poverty and also propelling society’s social and economic development. Education is an important investment for a country's socio-economic development. Nigeria is the world's seventh largest country, yet according to (World Data Atlas 2015), adult illiteracy in Nigeria increased by 21.00 percent each year from 24 million in 1991 to 41.3 million in 2015. These people are illiterate and unable to read and write. Although there are schools on practically every corner of Nigeria's streets, including Apapa, some don’t preserve the eminence of education, which is why Nigeria's educational standard is regarded low. Our government has consistently neglected the education sector over the years, allocating a relatively small fraction of the total budget to education, well below the conventional standard by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
The low educational standard in Nigeria is due to a number of issues. Despite the fact that practically every aspect of education has to be improved but, however, some factors responsible are; teacher education and training; the school environment; staff (teacher) recognition programs; performance appraisal practices; and work-life balance.
The ability to become a competent and high-performing teacher through educational training and professional development is one of the utmost important resources in every educational institution. Teachers are viewed as a professional agent and persons who are directly responsible for the learning process; they are the one who is responsible for ensuring that pupils learn from and profit from their teaching or suffer as a result of it. Because of this, in education, the instructor and the quality of his instruction have always been discussed and given a great significance. Today Nigerian education sector, as with any other educational field, when it comes to us sliding into a scenario where our educational system is unable to teach and educate exceptional learners, the entire planet is at risk. As a result of these complications, effective instruction for students at all levels is regularly a continuing necessity in education. Assuring teaching/learning processes, today's call is to strengthen teacher educational training and professional growth. Teachers are accustomed to beginning their careers as educators with minimal formal education or experience. Teachers' lack of professional training and growth can be a key source of unhappiness with the eminence of their instruction in order to prepare competent pupils with the required knowledge and abilities in many topics. Traditional schooling, which is primarily focused on theoretical educational processes, must now give way to research theory-based teaching, which informs and inspires teaching approaches. This is believed to have a big impact on education, reflecting the fact that teachers should keep up with research for future teaching innovations and incorporate new research into their teaching methods to improve learning and ensure high-quality instruction. Training and professional development of teachers are essential components in supporting innovative and useful teaching.
In a typical school environment, physical and behavioral components are essential components. Elements related to teachers' ability to physically connect to the school environment are called physical environments. While the staff's squatter tags are linked through the behavioral environmental components.
The school atmosphere has a favorable impact on individual teacher conduct. As a result, the quality of the work environment has a substantial impact on teacher and student motivation, productivity, and achievement (Sharma, Dhar & Tyagi, 2016). Levels of motivation, innovative behavior, absenteeism, engagement of teachers with other teachers, and job retention are all influenced by how devoted they are to their school. The most pressing worry presently is teacher performance, in a number of ways, which is impacted by the working environment. It may have a positive or negative effect depending on the physical circumstances in the workplace. The working environment in the education industry in underdeveloped countries is often dangerous and hurtful. A good example is the ongoing kidnapping of students and teachers in Nigeria, particularly in the north-west (Kaduna State) of the country. A healthy and safe work environment, on the other hand, can play a critical role in increasing teacher performance; unfortunately, most school administrators regard this as an extra cost and do not devote significant resources to maintaining a pleasant working environment. Employee productivity is affected by workplace elements such as furniture design, ventilation, noise control, lighting, supervisor help, workplace communication, and fire safety protocols. For a great class teacher and their students, receiving recognition is indeed a tremendously satisfying experience. Some of the most well-known extrinsic and intrinsic motivation theories are used to recognize teachers. It gives instructors who are working to enhance student learning outcomes hope for real recognition. Providing recognition and award programs for great teachers has been proved to be beneficial. The researcher likewise tends to find out whether a major shortage of these programs affects the performance of teachers in senior secondary Apapa. Teachers who have received recognition and rewards for their work have lauded recognition programs as motivators to keep teaching at a high level. In terms of teaching, school leaders should consider recognition' to be an important element of their curriculum.
Schools have traditionally been required to improve student achievement and provide a high-quality educational environment for all pupils. There is indication that “teacher quality is the most important school variable affecting student achievement” (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] in Elliott 2015). Improving student achievement is recognized by the key role played by teachers in classrooms. Because of this, "teacher appraisal can be an important lever to raise the focus on teaching quality" (OECD in Elliott 2015) and given that numerous reforms have failed in the past, an understanding of the various facets of successful appraisal is critical. Performance evaluation is a continuous process of defining, assessing, and developing an individual's performance against an organization's strategic goals (Aguinis, in Elliott 2015). Career development, professional learning, and feedback are examples of formative parts of appraisal that focus on performance development. On the other hand, summative elements evaluate performance for the sake of professional advancement, probable promotion or demotion, and termination. A performance appraisal that detects and improves instructional quality is the optimal quality assurance tool when utilized for both accountability and instructional improvement.
Employees play a critical part in any business start-up, thus it's critical to build an enabling atmosphere at all levels in order to meet the organization's stated objectives. However, in recent years, the demand between work and home has been a big worry for workers. Part of this anxiety stems from shifting demographics and workplace changes, particularly among employed women who are expected to work longer hours (Azeem & Akhtar, 2014).
Work-life balance is a critical issue that is of paramount importance to every employee at various levels, be it in the public or private sphere. The problem is far more than prioritizing work role and personal life. It has equal potential to affect an individual's psychological, social, economic, and ultimately spiritual well-being. Nonetheless, work-life balance will be reflected in employee performance, which invariably impacts their productivity in the workplace in the long term if not managed properly (Ojo, Salau & Falola, 2014), as cited in (Mathew, Oladajo & Ashogbon, 2018).
Basically, work-life balance techniques are an important aspect of human resources management that evaluate jointly and appropriately considered by government, employers and researchers. This is because it is a strong motivator for increased organizational responsiveness when it comes to implementing and managing work-life balance measures. It's also linked to a teacher's ability to balance the amount of time and energy he or she gives to work and personal pursuits in order to live a balanced life. Work-life balance techniques are used to improve stability between work-related stress and effective management of life outside of the workplace, as well as a flexible work environment.
As a result, the researcher intends to evaluate the impact of human resource management on teachers’ performance in senior secondary schools in Apapa, Lagos'.
1.2 Statement of the Study
Teaching is a critical task that requires extreme attention. Teachers help shape the future of children because they are the future of society. Most nations of the world have therefore invested heavily in early childhood education to help them achieve international educational goals. However, there are growing concerns that the teaching profession in Nigeria is in crisis. Teachers are the engine of the national development agenda, yet the conditions that govern their performance have been largely ignored. Studies have shown that human resource management applied to teachers can determine their level of motivation and improve their performance. However, the impact of human resource management on teacher performance has received little consideration.
While practically every teacher attempts to address his or her personal requirements, he or she also wishes some level of job satisfaction because job performance is affected. The ability of teaching to meet the demands of instructors and boost their productivity is referred to as performance in this context. The researcher intends to go into the matter further by investigating the impact of human resource management on teacher performance in Apapa secondary schools. Teachers must be highly compensated, trained, and developed, according to the study, in order to work at their best and give high-quality services. Furthermore, there is a requirement for performance.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The goal of this study is to see how human resource management impact on teachers' performance in senior secondary school in Apapa, Lagos. The specific goal is as follows:
- To determine the extent to which training and professional development affect teacher performance in senior secondary schools in Apapa.
- To determine the extent to which the school environment affects teacher performance in Apapa secondary schools.
- To determine the impact of staff recognition programs on teacher performance in senior secondary schools in Apapa.
- Investigating the impact of performance appraisal practices on teacher performance in senior secondary schools in Apapa.
- To determine the extent to which work-life balance affects teacher performance in Apapa senior secondary schools.
1.4 Research Question and Hypotheses
The researcher formulates the following research questions:
- To what extent does training and professional development affect teacher performance in senior secondary schools in Apapa Local Government Area?
- To what extent does the school environment affect teacher performance in senior secondary schools in Apapa Local Government Area?
- How do employees' recognition programs affect teacher performance in senior secondary schools in Apapa Local Government Area?
- What is the impact of performance appraisal practices have on teachers' performance in senior secondary schools in Apapa Local Government Area?
- How has work-life balance affected teacher performance in senior secondary schools in Apapa Local Government Area?
1.4.1 Hypotheses Formulated
Ho1: There is no significant impact of training and development on teachers' performance in secondary school in Apapa Local Government Area.
Ho2: There is no significant impact of school environment on teachers' performance in secondary school in Apapa Local Government Area.
Ho3: There is no significant impact of employees' recognition programs on teachers' performance in secondary school in Apapa Local Government Area
Ho4: There is no significant impact of performance appraisal on teachers' performance in secondary school in Apapa Local Government Area.
Ho5: There is no significant impact of work-life balance on teachers' performance in secondary school in Apapa Local Government Area.
1.5 Significant of the Study
Policy Makers: This study will help policymakers track staffing practices in educational institutions to improve teacher performance and the existing educational scenario by introducing better training and development and performance management regulations. Furthermore, it would be extremely beneficial to policymakers in the Department of Education in developing and implementing employment regulations that are aligned with human resource management practices in firms.
Teachers: The information, ideas, and recommendations that emerge from this study will be important for school leaders and staff to understand the importance of human resources management and its impact on performance.
School Managers: In any educational institution, the human resources function's overall goal is to recruit, develop, retain, and encourage workers to achieve the school's mission. It establishes the school's "human goals." As we enter the twenty-first century, however, many schools have yet to grasp the full scope of human resource management functions. The goal of this research is to determine how essential human resource management techniques will be in schools. The investigation uncovered functions such as professional development, recruiting, selection, induction, compensation and performance, review/evaluation, job design and description, collective bargaining, and school staff retirement and termination. It will also give school administrators some important insights on how to strengthen and rethink their human resource policies in order to acquire better results from their instructors. Researchers: This study will also be of immersive relevance for academic researchers as it aims to provide important factors for the application of human resource management and its impact on teachers’ performance in educational institutions. This research would also be of value to researchers and scholars as the study goals to advance the body of knowledge in this area.
1.6 Scope and delimitation of the Study
The impact of human resource management on teacher performance at senior secondary school Apapa Lagos in the year 2022 will be the focus of this research.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Employees' recognition programs: These are employer initiatives to reward its employees for achievement, behaviors, anniversaries, and milestones.
Work-life balance: This means an aspect of employee well-being relates to the employee's ability to manage both personal and professional commitments with adequate time for rest and leisure.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter summarizes the conceptual framework, the empirical review, and the theoretical framework
2.1 Conceptual Framework
Personnel management as we know it now originated in the 18th century. The British Industrial Revolution, which spawned enormous companies, resulted in a surge in labor demand that had never been seen before. Because many of these employees work long days (typically around 16 hours), it became evident that employee satisfaction had a substantial positive relationship with productivity. Employee satisfaction programs have begun to be introduced in order to maximize return on investment. In addition, factory working conditions, safety, and workers' rights have all become legal hot topics. Human resource management departments were commonly used to refer to early human resources departments within corporations in the twentieth century. Employee satisfaction and workplace safety initiatives were also introduced by human resource management departments, which addressed regulatory compliance and employee-related issues. Human resources departments in the United States studied Army training programs after World War II and began to prioritize employee training. In the 1970s, human resources departments began using the term "Human Resources." Effectively communicate and accessing individual employee information is the ability of technology which separates human resources from human resource management.
According to Irene (2014), human resources encompass a variety of terminology and functions, including human capital, manpower, staff, and current human resources. The small variations in these phrases have an impact on how human resource managers develop their people management strategies. Human resource management has evolved over time, from a time when individuals were exploited in slave-like working conditions to a time when employees are valued and acknowledged as key partners in the enterprise. It is important to first fully know the definition of human resources and human resource management so as to understand the development of human resources management. Many firms define human resource as a word that encompasses typical administrative human resource tasks as well as performance, employee relations, and resource planning (Sharma in Imrab, Mushtaq & Qudsia 2013).
Human Resource Management (HRM) is a strategy and practice that governs the "people" components of human resource management, such as recruitment, selecting, training, rewarding, and evaluating employees (Dessler in Imrab, Mushtaq & Qudsia 2013).
The conceptualization of the research is based on the postulation that human resource management affects teacher performance in the Apapa Local Government Area, Lagos State. Teacher performance is the dependent variable and training and development are the independent variables are, with workplace environment, employee recognition programs, performance appraisal, and work-life balance as intervening variables. The connection between the variables is shown in the Figureure below;
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 2.1.1: Conceptual Model of Human Resources Management on Teachers’ Performance
Source:Researcher’s Design 2021
2.1.1 Human Resources Management and Employee Performance
Human Resource Management (HRM) techniques are functional activities and strategic initiatives that help an employer to deliver better service to workers (teachers) while improving revenues. A company's most precious asset and source of competitive advantage is its human resources. Good HRM practices must be backed up by good HRM systems. Human resource practices are organizational practices aimed at managing the pool of human resources and ensuring that resources are used to achieve organizational goals (Mbithi 2014).
Volatile market environment which many companies operate in and must constantly enhance their business performance to adapt with the changing climate and maintain competitive advantages (Esra 2010). Human capital is increasingly being recognized by school administrators as a source of long-term competitive advantage. As a result, many businesses rely on assessment tools like workforce scorecards to see how their people are adding value. Most academics believe that most firms' HR practices fall into two categories: operational and management responsibilities. An organization's effectiveness is largely determined by its operational performance. People, procedures, and technology all contribute to operational effectiveness, therefore they must have the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities. Every business wants to attract, retain, and motivate employees to perform better.pm1
HRM operational roles refer to the tasks and responsibilities that are carried out in both large and small businesses. Planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, safety and health, performance appraisal, and employee and labor relations are among the seven key human resource management responsibilities listed by the Society for human resource management (Byars & Rue, in Mbithi 2014).
People use their collective skills, abilities and experiences in an organization to make a significant contribution to the company's success and to give it a competitive advantage. To focus on how people are engaged and managed in organizations in order to achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly engaged and capable workforce, there is need for the practice of Human resource management such as resource sourcing, training and development, employee relations, and rewards management (Armstrong & Baron in Robert 2014).
Cole in Robert (2014) Emphasizes that the contribution to value creation and organizational success in bringing the value of people to an organization is achieved by the functions of human resources. Therefore, for success, an organization relies on the human resources as its people. There is need for human resources management in schools’ to aligned with the overall strategy of the institution. Since the goals and needs of each type of competitive strategy are different. The school can thus gain a competitive advantage and thus achieve top performance (Kelleher & Perret 2001 in Mbithi 2014).
According to Woods (2015), performance is defined as the fulfilment of a work in accordance with specified standards that stipulate accuracy, cost, speed, and completeness while relieving the data subject of any contractual responsibilities. Haygroup (2008) takes a more systemic approach to performance and posits that it is a management technique aimed at ensuring harmonious functioning of the organization and all components within it in order to optimally achieve goals. An organization essentially consists of departments, workers, processes and teams, among others. The systems view therefore suggests that all processes and their respective components must be addressed in order to achieve organizational performance design.
In giving education to pupils, teachers play a critical role. Every school aspires to select talented teachers who can deliver a high-quality education for their students Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, Ronfeldt, and Wyckoff (2011). According to the experts, only highly qualified and motivated faculty or professors can produce first-class pupils who will contribute to their country in the future. As a result, schools must retain skilled or vital teachers because only certified teachers can give pupils with the greatest education.
School teacher effectiveness is dependent on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, according to Marry (2010), when there is good human resource management, infrastructure and cultural climate, instructional materials, and mentoring. According to Tickle, Chang, and Kim (2011), monitoring school activities, frequent and timely reporting at school, proper class preparation, overall punctuality, and participation in extracurricular activities can all be used to assess teacher performance. Teachers that are unmotivated do not perform as well as they should because they do not recognize the importance of their task.
According to Muzalifah and Izah (2011), by creating shared performance objectives, receiving management approval or modification of those goals, and communicating those goals to all relevant parties, performance must include measuring tools targeted at generating positive change in institutional culture, systems, and procedures. Effective human resource management necessitates the implementation of solid human resource management systems. Because it generates distinctive capabilities, human resource development contributes significantly to a company's competitive edge. Greetings, Esra (2010) human resource wealth is becoming one of the most precious assets in the corporate world. As companies move their attention away from other resources, people quality and management become increasingly important factors. (Okpara & Pamela in Mbithi 2014), to improve organizational performance, it is important to practice human resource management like selection, training, motivation, work environment management and performance appraisal.
The primary topics covered by human resources strategy, according to Huselid & Becker in Mbithi (2014), are recruiting, developing, and retaining highly qualified personnel who match the organization's strategic and operational needs. These personnel must also be capable of delivering outstanding performance, greater productivity, flexibility and innovation, and high levels of customer service, as well as fitting into the organization's culture and strategy needs to fulfill both current and future needs. Effective office design can also be utilized to motivate employees by providing them with autonomy and flexibility. This adds to the worth of your work.
Employees can be inspired intrinsically or extrinsically in diverse ways within an organization to achieve maximum performance and productivity, according to Chandrasekar (2011). These rewards can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Internal rewards are often offered for completing difficult activities, while external rewards can include honorable acknowledgment or difficult recompense. Another important tool is employee incentive to set goals (Goerg, 2015). Employees' performance improves as a result of this type of motivation, and the productivity of the company rises. Goal setting has two purposes: the first is to enhance an individual's behavior, and the second is to maintain a high level of motivation in order to effectively perform well. General objectives are less successful than specialized targets. Furthermore, when compared to an easy goal, excellent performance is gained through hard goals. Open communication is facilitated by acceptance, realistic aims, and livelihoods. Sarda and Joshi (2011).
Employee performance is a critical aspect of any company's operations. It aids in the development of the company's human resource system's ability to be competent. The outcome of a person's or organization's effort is referred to as performance. Chris and Awonusi confirmed in Matthew and Ashogbon (2018) that performance is a process of measuring and reviewing the responsibilities of people in the organization. Therefore, an organization demands an increased level of performance from its employees in order to achieve the stated goals (Turner in Matthew & Ashogbon, 2018). A business dictionary explains employee performance as the work-related events projected onto employees and the extent to which those activities have been implemented. Various empirical research supports the fact that a person contributes to the development of their organization when they enjoy a work-life balance (Oswald, 2012). It turned out that the success of any organization depends to a large extent on the performance of the employees within the system. Therefore, it is necessary for managers at the forefront of business affairs to adopt an approach that leads to employee retention. The essence of work-life balance is to foster a healthy environment that guarantees employee loyalty and ensures high levels of performance. Consequently, the combination of work schedule flexibility along with work cessation has been associated with increases in employee organizational engagement, job satisfaction, and particularly a reduction in intention to leave (Lewis & Gambles in Matthew & Ashogbon, 2018).
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