Review of "Evaluating Webinar-based Training. A Mixed Methods Study of Trainee Reactions toward Digital Web Conferencing"

Literature Review, 2021

8 Pages, Grade: A


Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1. Purpose of the Study

2. Research Methodology
2.1. Quantitative part
2.1.1. Sampling Frame
2.2. Qualitative Part
2.3. Data collection

3. Data analysis

4. Results and Discussion

5. Weakness

6. Strength

7. Conclusion and Recommendation


1. Introduction

Nowadays, human resource management enhanced by technologies to deliver fast and relatively accurate information on time. According to Cook et al., 2010; Gegenfurtner et al., this issue; Gegenfurtner et al., 2013; Johnson et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2016; Nicklen et al., 2016; Siewiorek & Gegenfurtner, 2010; Wang & Hsu, 2008, digital technologies became common tools for human resources development purpose in general and training in specific. Among multi technological tools, webinar is used for training purpose. Webinar is used to communicate students and teachers from far places via connected platforms through voice or video communication (Gegenfurtner and Ebner, 2019). (Cornelius, 2014; Cornelius & Gordon, 2013; Ebner & Gegenfurtner, 2019; Gegenfurtner & Ebner, 2019; Gegenfurtner, Schwab, & Ebner, 2018; McKinney, 2017; Means et al., 2013; Wang & Hsu, 2008).

1.1. Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reactions of training participants toward webinars in order to contribute to the growing body of evidence on digital webinar-based training. furthermore, the study was designed to estimate satisfaction levels, a certain interest was in investigating how the estimated reactions could be used to produce empirical, evidence-based recommendations for the delivery of webinars in training, adult education and human resource development. The researcher also used mixed methods of research to make the findings widely applicable.

2. Research Methodology

The researcher conducted a research on evaluating webinar-based training: a mixed methods study of trainee reactions toward digital web conferencing. Therefore, the researcher employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods. To benefit one’s strong side and to minimize the others weakness, using mixed research methods are important. In this study, supports that the advantage of mixed methods as it can triangulate the findings where data collected via quantitative like large samples and qualitative interview and focus group discussion etc.. For example, surveys could be used to measure the satisfaction levels of trainees and interviews could be used to ask trainees about their reactions and experiences.

2.1. Quantitative part

The quantitative part of the study includes the description of the sample, the survey data collection and the statistical analysis.

2.1.1. Sampling Frame

According to (Erik Mooi, Marko Sarstedt & Irma Mooi-Reci, 2018) sampling frame is a list of individuals in the population. In addition, (Catherine Cassell, Ann L. Cunliffe and Gina Grandy, 2018) explained sampling frame as complete list of all potential participants within the specified target population. Therefore, the researcher used sampling frame, Participants in the quantitative part of the study were Nquan = 419 trainees who were enrolled in four different webinar-based, off-the-job training programs designed and administered at a large training center for adult and continuing education in Southern Germany.

2.2. Qualitative Part

The quantitative part of the study includes the description of the sample, data collection and the qualitative content analysis. From the pool of 419 participants that were included in the quantitative part of the study, a total of Nqual = 23 trainees were asked to additionally participate in the qualitative part. Of these, 14 were female (60.87%) and 9 were male (39.13%). Their average age was 36.92 years (SD = 8.14).

2.3. Data collection

Implementation of data collection refers to the sequence the researcher uses to collect both quantitative and qualitative data (Catherine Cassell, Ann L. Cunliffe and Gina Grandy, 2018). The researcher has collected data by preparing online form and to fill online questionnaire immediately after each webinar. The research also used a 4 point likert scale type questionnaire to measure and estimate the satisfaction level of trainees regarding webinar based training.

3. Data analysis

The data was analyzed the data was analyzed based on the type of questions designed and responses provided. The responses provided to the rating (scale) questions was analyzed based on the scale allocated to the factors. The rating was numerical and it ranged from one to four, in which 1=not at all and 4= very much. Descriptive statistics also employed in estimating the means and standard deviations items.

Exploratory factor analysis with Maximum Likelihood as the extraction method and Direct Oblimin as the rotation method were used to identify the factor structure behind the data. Differences in item and factor means per training content were calculated using one-factorial analysis of variance with the software program SPSS 24. An alpha level of p < 0.05 was used for the statistical tests reported.

4. Results and Discussion

The descriptive analyses of the survey responses demonstrate that, overall, participants were satisfied with the webinar and the webinar trainer. All items had mean estimates of ≥3.28, which is high when considering the 4-point Likert scale. The highest rated item was ‘The trainer gave warm feedback’ (M = 3.76, SD = 0.51).

Outcomes of the exploratory factor analysis indicated that the seven items loaded on two factors: satisfaction (Cronbach’s α = 0.86) and trainer reaction (Cronbach’s α = 0.76). Table 5 shows the factor loadings. Interfactor correlation was 0.62, p < 0.001. One-factorial analyses of variance were used to calculate differences in factor means per training content, with F (3, 416) = 1.927, p = 0.125 for satisfaction and F (3, 416) = 11.898, p < 0.001 for trainer reaction. The findings from interview also shows that participants articulated the wish for more interaction with the trainer and with other peer trainees during the webinar sessions and also participants appreciated that tasks were solved during the webinar and those task solutions were discussed collaboratively. But the time for task discussion should be shortened. In addition, many participants appreciated the digital recording of the webinars which afforded possibilities to follow up on the webinar content.

The second main category, content, included three subcategories: deepening of content, exam preparation and virtual consultation hours. First, webinars were perceived as viable opportunities to deepen content from previous training sessions. Second, webinars were perceived as a chance to prepare for upcoming exams and assessments, particularly in the case of early childhood education. Third, webinars were also perceived as ways to have virtual consultation hours with the trainers. The third main category, implementation, contained four subcategories: geographical flexibility, length of maximum 90 min, after-work webinars, and fast internet connections. First, all interviewed trainees from all training programs appreciated the geographical flexibility that webinars afforded. Second, trainees thought it was ideal when webinars had a length of 90 min. Finally, a technical aspect of the implementation concerned the internet connectivity needed for webinars.

5. Weakness

- The research used mixed methods including qualitative and quantitative part. However, when the researcher uses mixed methods at the same time, but unable to show clearly the results from the two analysis.
- The sample taken in qualitative part of the research method is 23 out of 419 participants. However, the researcher is not give any reason why the sample is selected and how can be representative, is it adequate sample? Or no justification is presented to explain as it is the target or the required sample out of the target population.
- The quantitative part of the study, participants invited to fills the online questionnaire about the overall satisfaction of webinar based training and trainee reactions toward the trainer who administered the webinar. But, since the researcher used mixed method research approaches, it was better to include focus group discussion and other methods which engaged participants fully. Because using only this method, the participants may not fully engaged for a survey it takes relatively long time and may not appropriately fill it.

6. Strength

- The researcher employed mixed method approaches, which is more preferable type of research methods.
- The researcher tries to integrate the quantitative item responses with the qualitative interview responses which makes more realistic findings and better to give recommendations.
- Since the study is to evaluate the satisfaction of webinar online training, it is appropriate to use as one tool online questionnaire.
- Clearly put all Marketing communication mix and see the effects regarding consumer’s attitude in each variables.
- The researcher sampling frame was adequate to draw the sample from it.
- The researcher employs likert scale type research to assess the satisfaction level of webinar training. According to Erik Mooi, Marko Sarstedt & Irma Mooi-Reci (2018) cited, Liu et al.( 2016). This type of sampling technique the most popular scale type used in questionnaires is the Likertscale. Likert scales are used to establish the degree of agreement with a specific statement.


Excerpt out of 8 pages


Review of "Evaluating Webinar-based Training. A Mixed Methods Study of Trainee Reactions toward Digital Web Conferencing"
Faculty of Business and Economics: Human Resource Management
Catalog Number
review, evaluating, webinar-based, training, mixed, methods, study, trainee, reactions, digital, conferencing
Quote paper
Tilahun Marye (Author), 2021, Review of "Evaluating Webinar-based Training. A Mixed Methods Study of Trainee Reactions toward Digital Web Conferencing", Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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