The Impact of Street Market Trading on Urban Markets

Academic Paper, 2022

39 Pages, Grade: 4



1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Aim and Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Definition of Terms

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.2.1 Concept of Street Trading
2.2.2 Causes of Street Trading
2.2.3 Place Concept
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.3.1 Marxian Economic Theory
2.3.2 Central Place Theory
2.3.3 Waste Hierarchy Theory
2.3.4 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
2.4 Literature Review
2.4.1 The Perceptions of the Role Street Traders Play
2.4.2 Predisposing Influence of Street Trading
2.4.3 Patterns and Composition of Street Trading
2.4.4 Defining informal street trading
2.4.5 Growth of informal street trading
2.4.6 Sessional
2.4.7 Festivity
2.4.8 Permanently
2.5 The solution to street trading

3.1 Introduction
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sample size
3.5 Research methodology
3.6 Research instrument

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Data analysis
4.2.1 Administered Questionnaire
4.2.2 Sex of Respondents
4.2.3 Age Composition of Respondents
4.2.4 Educational level of Respondents
4.2.5 Ethnicity of Respondents
4.2.6 Type of Commodities Sold
4.2.7 Capital Base of Trade
4.2.8 Sales per day
4.2.9 Mode of Conveyance of Goods
4.2.10 Reasons for not using designated shops
4.2.11 Engagement in other works apart from Trading.
4.3 Summary of Major Findings

5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation





1.1 Background to the Study

Street trading plays a great role in the distribution of goods and services of many cities/town of the world and has been defined by scholars based on their perspectives. According to Crosss J., (2000), streets traders are those people who offer goods and services for sale on primary streets or pavement. Bogoro A. G., et al. (2012), defined street trading as a form of squatting; it involves perpetual displaying of goods along roadsides which may occur within established market places or outside, the intersection of major roads. Notwithstanding the problems constituted or caused by street trading, it plays a major role in the economic development of the third world countries. It has also contributed directly and indirectly to the urban growth and its impact is been felt both positively and negatively. Crosss J., (2000): observed that street traders play an important role in the commodity and service distribution system of most cities of developing countries. He identified the advantages to among others to include performing social role by generating employment for people, keeping them away from the evils of delinquency, crime and unemployment. A street trader serves as a training ground for entrepreneurial skills and generates revenue from the taxes collected by city authorities, However, its disadvantages are numerous and monumental., Ouwamanam M. Ac, et al (2007) defined it as the act of engaging commercial activities in illegal structures or open spaces (ground) within the building line.

Accordingly, a building line is a line set parallel to the center line of a road within which no building or structure, permanent or temporally is permitted to be erected by the local planning authorities. Informal economic activity being an umbrella of street trading activities has been a subject of controversy. There is hardly any unique universally accepted definition of the sector because theStreet trading and environmental management have become a global phenomenon and a global concern.

The situation is far from what is attainable in thiscountry (Nigeria) where street traders are harassed bythe government agencies, which gives the impressionthat the government is out for total prohibition of streettrading, for instance some states in Nigeria haveprohibited street trading as can be seen from thefollowing news captions: “ street traders defer Marwa“(tell magazine, April 26; 2019); “ curbing the menace ofstreet trading, edicts tragedy fail to free Idumota fromstreet” (Daily sketch newspaper, February 20, 2014). Inconclusion, street trading as a process of selling goodson major Nigerian cities is obvious especially within thecommercial areas e.g. MudalLawal, yet not much hasbeen done to singularly define the special component oftrading and the attendant problems of environmentalpollution.

In Nigeria, street trading has reached an alarmingstage that it is now a subject of concern to physicalplanners and city managers. Street trading causesdifferent problems such as encroachment on right of wayby the traders, traffic congestion as vehicles cannot passsmoothly on time and defacement of aestheticsappearance of the street. As the street traders continueto litter or dump their wastes on the roadsides, it seriouslypollutes the environment resulting in health problems andreduction of the road width or in drainage systems whichblock the water ways leading to flooding whenever thereis high rainfall which a times causes loss of lives andproperties and so on. In view of the above problems thispaper is set out to investigate issues like causes andeffects of street trading, and suggest possible solutions tothe identified problems .

Social ills affecting street traders have been an area of active empirical investigation. Indeed, numerous studies exist on traders who, along with their folks, are homeless, especially the children. Street trading has the potential to corrupt young minds. A child that misses school frequently fails to benefit comprehensively from the education system. This can mean poor performance in examinations and an opening to examination malpractice. This in turn leads to incompetent and unlearned graduates with consequences on the nation as a whole. Street trading may lead to behavioural patterns inimical to healthy citizenship due to much over-work and constant exposure of the body to either direct sun light or precipitation. These traders may indulge in negative activities or criminal acts, such as prostitution, armed, robbery and pick pocketing (Humert, 2009; Humphrices, 2010).

Aderinto (2017) linked the phenomenon of street trading to socio economic status of poverty who subsists at the periphery of the urban economy. According to the International Labour Organization (2013) street trader is broadly defined as “a person who offers goods for sale to the public without having a permanent built-up structure from which to sell”. Street vendors may be stationary in the sense that they occupy space on the pavements or other public/private spaces or, they may be mobile in the sense they move from place to place by carrying their wares on push carts or in baskets on their heads. In this work, the term ‘street vendor’ includes stationary as well as mobile vendors and it incorporates all other local/region specific terms used to describe them. The activity falls among the Small and Micro Enterprises (SME) that form the main thrust for economic development in developing countries. In Africa, the sector has operated outside the mainstream economic development, and falls within the informal economic activities. In view of the difficult economic situation that has faced Africa with reduced external support and increasing levels of poverty, many countries have begun considering the sector as one of the channels of fostering the private sector’s contribution to both growth and equity objectives of development. Estimates indicate that in the developing countries 40 to 80 per cent of the urban workforce is in the informal workforce, ILO (2003).

Varied economic, social and political forces that function in our society have led to trading coming into existence over time, ILO, (2003). Informal street traders fall within the informal sector and, as rapid urbanisation takes place in most developing countries; more people migrate to urban areas in search of better opportunities.

Urbanism usually results in social instability, insecurity and anonymity, which leads to individualistic survival mechanisms among urban residents, Geoffrey (2005). Hence, it is seen that people living in urban areas turn to the informal sector as a means of survival as it requires very little money for them to start up operations. However, there are failures to accept the role that informality plays in survival strategies of the poor and that it has a form and logic which may not conform to the norms of modernity, but is nonetheless a rational response to poverty and marginalisation on its own terms (Harrison et al, 2008). Informality has mainly been seen and associated with underdevelopment and considered as something that exists in the present with no meaningful future (Leton and Omotosha, 2004). It is thus observed that developing countries try to do away with informal street trading in cities as a means of achieving development and measuring the extent of development that has been achieved by comparing their cities to western ones. Nevertheless, urban areas usually face a problem of reconciling the growth of informal economic activities on one hand and modernising while un-polluting the urban eco-system on the other hand (Onibokun and Moemeka, 1996). Thus, it is observed that cities face problems of integrating the growth of informal trading into their urban development without necessarily rejecting this activity as that which pollutes the urban environment and holds back the cities from achieving modernity.

Nigeria being amongst the developing economies in the world with the accompanying effects of unemployment, poor infrastructural facilities, and insufficient human empowerment has seen most of her populace living in abject poverty. Therefore, because of the low socio-economic status of most families in Nigeria and the high rate of poverty, most parents cannot help but push their wards into the streets where they spend long hours, at the mercy of environmental elements, selling pure water (sachet water), fruits, confectioneries, beverages and so on; so that the proceeds may contribute to family upkeep. These have resulted in urban environmental problems. Informal street trading is considered to be associated with being unsightly, vast amounts of litter, obstruction and congestion of pavements, crime, unhygienic surroundings and deterioration of infrastructure, Babayemi and Dauda (2002). For this reason, the City of Uyo is determined to remove informal traders from trading randomly on the streets but at the same time create appropriate locations where street vendors can still sell their commodities and earn a living. Through the regulation of hawking, some traders have been moved into built markets, while others occupy stalls along streets and others just sell on vacant available spaces within trading zones. This move may have helped to clean up some of the streets of congestion but has also damaged the livelihoods of traders by removing them from passing foot trade and forcing them into overtraded markets, Ogwueleka (2009). It therefore implies that with the development of formal markets, stalls and specific trading zones trading anywhere and anyhow in the city is prohibited.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Street traders are visible in urban public spaces all over the world, but the total population of people who work as street traders is hard to come by (Sally and Caroline, 2016). Yet, where available, labour force statistics show that street traders account for a substantial share of urban employment a situation depicting unemployable influx of people into urban centre.

In the view of Olokor C.O (2001), he believed that theinability of most streets traders to afford the rent ofcharges of market stalls is another possible cause ofstreets trading. Ouwamanam M. Ac, et al (2007)observed that street trading was alien to the traditionalYoruba city and perhaps to pre-industrial cities. It is aproduct of unplanned urban growth, which failed toprovide adequate space and accommodation for retailtraders as well as appropriate locations Bogoro A. G., etal. (2012). Street trading causes trafficcongestion by congregating at points in the city andmarket places where there are heavy flows ofpedestrians and vehicular traffic. Street traders posepotential problem of hygiene and sanitation. They couldtransmit disease such as cholera as regards to food orfruits sellers. Streets traders burn the waste generated by their activities, thereby lead to air pollution. Streetstraders also cause noise pollution like those who selltraditional medicines and sometimes clothes becausethey use loudspeakers.

In the study by Ekpenyong and Sibiri (2011), street trading and child labour, reflected on chronic urban poverty which can compel parents/guardian to send their children/wards of school age to work to boost family income for many hours each day. The study shows that 64% of the traders are females while 36% of them are males. The implication is that more females engage in street trading than males. Results of the study also show that 98% of the respondents are from very poor families as a means for survival driven occupation. Ogbuagu (2004) carried out a study in Awka and the findings of his study show that people engage in trading due to lack of income and education of their parents. Nsisong and Erne (2011) carried out a study on juvenile street traders in Uyo. Results of the study show that juvenile street traders develop maladjusted patterns of behaviour which in turn may impair their academic, moral, social, physical and psychological growth and development thus affecting their future negatively. Aderinto and Okunola (1998) carried out 3 studies in Ado-Ekiti, South Western Nigeria and they identified problems like truancy, exposure to hazards of weather, fatigue, high potential for accidents, exposure to kidnappers, rape and recruitment into trading drugs by drug barons, early unwanted pregnancy and contraction of STDs. Ashimolowo, Aromoran and Inegbedion (2010) carried out a study on street trading activities and its effects on the educational attainment of its victims in Epe Local Government Area of Lagos State. The findings show that waste is generated by street traders as a result of indiscriminate dumping along the streets; gutters and drainage. Also, the study indicates that children who engage in street trading perform badly in school.

From empirical studies, a lot of work has been carried out on Street Trading, however, majority of surveys and studies carried out in Nigeria on street trading are focused on mostly the effect of street trading on child labour. The yardstick for measuring in most research work of this magnitude has been the academic performance, health, and welfare of various children involved in trading. Very few studies have been carried out in explaining the environmental effect of street trading. Surveys have shown that the environment is the main victim of street trading because of its geographic sense (ILO, 2008). The effect of trading on the environment, has not been given adequate scholarship research, its lacuna this study entreats to fill by analyzing the impact of street trading in urban market using terminus as a case study.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of street trading in urban market: a case study of Terminus. This is achieved through the following objectives.

i. To identify the socio-economic variables influencing street trading within Terminus market.
ii. To examine the pattern of street trading in the study area.
iii. To assess the environmental implication of street tradingwithin the study area.

1.4 Research Questions

The research is set out to answer the following questions;

i. What are the socio-economic factors influencing trading within Terminus?
ii. What is the pattern of street trading across the different trading zones in the study area?
iii. What are the environmental implications of street trading activities in the study area?

1.5 Significance of the study

The study seeks to dig out the street trading activities within urban market, theirsocial practices and their actions for day to day survival. Further, the study tries to investigate the probable causes that force the traders to choose the urban street as their trading location. So, it’s the study from how they belong to the street, to everyday survival activities, to their perception, to the whole society and the ways of reintegrating them to mainstream business enterprise.

Hence, this study was instigated because the city wants to rid the streets in the inner city of informal street traders by keeping them enclosed in built up markets or only allowing them to trade from stalls in trading zone areas as a means of achieving urban renewal. This then led to thinking of whether there could be alternatives to managing informal street trading in the inner city other than constructed markets and if these markets take away the vibrancy of the inner city.

1.6 Scope of the Study

Street trading is a generic socio-economic challenge that cuts across many states in Nigeria. For in-depth investigation, the study limits itself to the major roads within the study area. The study covers the seven zones that make up the central business district. Various issues such as the patterns and the impact/effects of street trading on the environment/urban market are investigated.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Streets traders: are those people who offer goods and services for sale on primary streets or pavement.According to the International Labour Organization (2013) street trader is broadly defined as “a person who offers goods for sale to the public without having a permanent built-up structure from which to sell”.

Trading: Aiyehuro (2009) defines trading as a system of trading whereby the trader carries his/her wares about.

Marketing: Marketing may be described as the process of defining, anticipating and knowing customer needs, and managing all the resources of the organizing to satisfy them.

Street trading: is a form of squatting; it involves perpetual displaying of goods along roadsides which may occur within established market places or outside, the intersection of major roads


2.1 Introduction

This chapter reviewed some work and related concepts associated with the research topic, with a view to exposing what these researchers have in common, and identifying factors for assessing the Nigerian situation. The literature review and theoretical underpinning is a vital aspect of the research which has to do with reviewing of relevant literatures. However, the efficacy of literature review and theoretical framework in this study cannot be overemphasized. They constitute the central goal of this work, which takes a significant place within the development of human self-knowledge that underscores this investigation.(Aiyehuro2009) defines trading as a system of trading whereby the trader carries his/her wares about. Street and roadside trade is an important economic activity that sustains a significant percentage of rural and urban dwellers, especially within the developing countries.

Researchers have different views on street trading due to different theoretical inclinations and ideologies. This literature review centered on various aspects relevant to the study.

2.2 Conceptual Framework

Cities in Nigeria, as in most of the developing nations, are among the most rapidly urbanizing and with most rapid urban growth. While Western societies urbanized at a comparatively leisurely pace, this is in marked contrast with what obtains in many developing nations. For example, according to( Henderson 2002), 40% of the United States was urbanized in 1900, 70 % in 1960 and 75+% in 1990. Republic of Korea in contrast was 40% urbanized in 1970 and 78% urban in 1990 (20 years). What took the Unites States 90 years to attain, took Korea 20 years and Brazil 30 years. Consequences of such swift transition are monumental, as urbanization even when it is slow, is an adaptive process almost always involving dislocations in social values and conventional patterns of behaviour in a place, in which this work will base its concept on.

2.2.1 Concept of Street Trading

Street trading is a phenomenon that has attracted the attention of researchers for some time. Scholars from different disciplines have taken the issue in different directions. Some have argued in its favour, while some have argued against it. In favour of street trading, Brinkley et al.submitted that “small, mobile retailers such as produce trucks and healthy street food vendors may offer better food environment interventions because they require little start-up, can easily target schools and neighbourhoods with poor access to healthful foods, and circumvent the need to own real estate.” Their study demonstrated that kerbside produce vendors successfully supply a range of whole fruits and vegetables in a predominantly low- and middle-income African American section of Philadelphia at prices lower than conventional food outlets. Moreover, they argued that “because the majority of produce trucks have operated as stable and profitable businesses for decades and survived where neighbourhood supermarkets have closed, they may present a viable long-term solution for providing low-income neighbourhoods with fresh produce.”

2.2.2 Causes of Street Trading

There are several reasons that make people engage into street vending. Among the factors are; unemployment, lack of access to credit or funds, lack of education, poverty and to supplement their income to mention but just a few.

Lack of education

There is a marked difference in the educational profile of persons in the informal unemployment compared to those in the formal employment. Among those who are involved in the informal sector are not educated, (Stats S.A 2009). Many people have no academic qualifications to hunt for jobs in the formal employment sector. The general public in this sector have acquired the primary education though there are others who have acquired secondary or higher education but might have other reasons for joining the street trading. Those without academic qualifications are not accommodated in companies hence they had no choice than to get involved in street trading.


According to Marlow and Patton (2005), the availability of finance is and access to that finance is the critical element to a start up and consequent performance of any enterprise. Hence barriers to access appropriate levels of funding will have an enduring impact upon the performance of affected people.


Many African countries are suffering the alarming increasing rate of street hawkers due to the high prevalence of poverty. Those who are living below the poverty datum line have recognized street vending as the only source to earning a living (Stats S.A 2002). Moreover the issue of migration in search of better ways of earning a living has led to urbanisation. Those people end up being involved in street vending because there is shortage of jobs in the city. However, there are some who join vending as a way of supplementing their incomes. Their jobs will not be paying enough hence they choose vending as a way to make ends meet, they sell during the weekends or on vacations to supplement their salary which will not be enough to meet their basic needs.

2.2.3 Place Concept

The concept of place is very important in explaining humans and their relationship with their immediate surroundings and environment and how this has in turn influenced behaviour. Indeed, a comprehensive understanding of places is crucial to the whole being of humans (Relph, 1976). The explanation and meaning of place has been contentious over the years. In fact, Place has often been defined subjectively. In cognizance of this, Hubbard (2004) is of the opinion that “what constituted a place was seen to be largely individualistic, although attachments and meanings were often shared (simply put, a place meant different things to different people)”. Similarly, Hubbard (2004) is of the contention that place is another form of space. In this wise, it is very difficult to conceptualize place and as such the varying meanings and definitions that abound (Cresswell, 1996). Agnew (1987) has identified three meanings of the concept of place. He contends that place could be conceived of as a location where it will be referring to an absolute location or a point on the surface of the earth or a sense of place where people play out the feeling of belonging or attachment that people have towards a place. Further a place could be conceptualized as a locale where people interact and carry out their daily activities. For them, Place emerges in some distinct social spaces through naming and other distinct activities and imaginings akin to that particular social space. On the other hand, Heidegger (1958) opines that “place” places man in such a way that it reveals the external bonds of his existence and at the same time the depths of his freedom and reality”. In contrast to place being an absolute location on the surface of the earth, it can be referred to as a “center of meaning or a focus of human emotional attachment” (Entrikin, 1976). Place can thus be seen to be in interrelationship with humans who are in themselves active agents. Sack (1997) reveals that as much as the self and place are influenced by nature, society and culture, humans are not passive but very active who play a crucial role in the construction of place. Place in turn presents possibilities and limitations to humans in their daily social activities.

The concept of place can be seen to play out in the dynamics of street trading. Place in this context can be seen to manifest in the three forms or abstraction of space as highlighted by Agnew (1987) and can be seen as a point location where trading activities take place. Mostly interactions between traders and place operate at both macro and micro-scale level. That is while the traders relate with place at the macro-scale, they carve niches or there are particular locations within these spaces that they do operate at the micro-scale level. In spite of geographers; particularly Tuan (1977) in his poetic writings emphasizing that place and people do not exist in a grid of geometric relationships or scales, the use of macro-micro scales here is to show the levels at which traders often interact in their various niches.

2.3 Theoretical Framework

Theoretical framework for personality and social behaviour are the basis of a behaviour theory. Action seems more significant than perceptions and traits of character. Despite the term ‘informal sector’ stemming from an analysis of African urban economies, the ensuing theoretical frameworks will be assessed for better understanding of the behavioural and social wellbeing of street traders in this research.

2.3.1 Marxian Economic Theory

Marxian economic theory otherwise called the “political economy approach” tends to search out the experiences of those oppressed, marginalized, victimized and exploited by capitalism, including poor families and exploited children. This approach has historical undertones in that it offers a materialistic analysis of the Nigerian society (historical materialism) and conflict in human society, which play a role in the formulation of social-economic strata (Ake, 1998).

This approach identifies two classes of people: those with the means of production and those without (the working class). The social relations of production tend to be oppressive and exploitative. Those who own the means of production, the bourgeoisie or the dominant class, misappropriate the labour and products of the working class given that they are only interested in the accumulation of wealth. This creates an unbearable situation for the working class, who often have to send their children into the labour force so that they can engage in activities that will generate income to supplement what is already earned and help to sustain the family. The Nigerian economy, which is the base structure of society, reflects the consequences of this conflict including unemployment, unemployment, poverty, insecurity, and inequality. This can be attributed to the country's incorporation of the capitalist mode of production, which has rendered Nigerians dependent on western powers.

Prior to the colonial era, Nigerians were able to provide food and other basic necessities for their families. Following colonialism, there was a shift from local economies and sufficiency to the world economy, where Nigerians consume what they do not produce and are dependent on the global capitalist market to meet their needs. The disarticulation of the Nigerian economy accounts for the inability of Nigerian to develop a firm and solid economic base capable of sustaining all citizens. In the socio-political sphere, the general attitude of public office holders is a demanding one. The retrenchment exercise carried out in government establishments by the ruling class seeks to ensure that the gap between the ruling class and the ruled is maintained. Thus political economy approach, therefore explains the state of the ruled class, their acceptance of defeat, their inability to provide for their families, and consequently in their bid to survive, the use of their children as economic assets. This approach calls for governmental provision of equality in the distribution of goods and services. Should this be the case, over time class distinction would disappear and production would become concentrated in the hands of the majority of the nation. Global powers would lose their relevance and class antagonism would fade (Ake, 1998).

The informal economy is seen as largely assisting in capitalist accumulation. Although more recent literature often does not address these debates directly, these differences essentially remain. In Understanding Street vending, attention should be drawn on the workings of the state and provide an interesting method for assessing the impact this has on those working informally. Attention should be drawn on the factthat those working informally cannot be considered in isolation but must be seen in terms of their position within the wider economy. An average trader is seen as a working class (the proletariat) which, in Marx view are oppressed because its’ members though numerically superior, are paid below their labour productivity. As seen, an average street trader is the proletariat while the consuming population is the bourgeoisie (the ruling class).

2.3.2 Central Place Theory

Central place theory outlines the logic of systems of central places, focusing particularly upon the numbers, sizes, activities, and spatial distribution of such places and their associated regions. The notion of “central place” may be explained as follows; a chief function of country villages and towns is to be centres for their rural surroundings as well as mediators between local commerce and the outside world. Larger cities play a similar role with respect to systems of smaller villages and towns, which find in the larger places goods and services that the local country villages and towns are too small to supply. Thus, villages, towns, and cities serve in a structural relationship as central places for tributary regions. Central place theory is fundamentally concerned with the patterns through which wholesale, retail, service, and administrative functions, plus market oriented manufacturing, are provided to consuming populations. Thus, it can also be designated as the theory of urban trade and institutions or the theory of location of tertiary production. As such, it complements the theory of agricultural production originally formulated by Von Thunen, and the theory of location of industry (1826), which has its roots in the work of Alfred Weber (1950). There is a strong relationship between this theory and the street trading as an activity, as traders are seen along the major centres of settlement trading varieties of goods. The essence of location to these traders is that, centres of cities and settlement facilitates sales because it is the zone of population convergence; where goods have highest maximal demand and consumption.

2.3.3 Waste Hierarchy Theory

According to Eco-Recycle (2003) the waste hierarchy refers to the three (or four) R’s of Reduce; Reuse; Recycle; (and Recover) which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability. The R’s are meant to be a hierarchy, in order of importance. However, in Europe the waste hierarchy has five steps: reduce, reuse, recycle, recovery, and disposal. The waste hierarchy has taken many forms over the past decade, but the basic concept has remained the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. The 3R’s of reduce, reuse and recycle have been considered to be a base of environmental awareness and a way of promoting ecological balance through conscious behaviour and choices. It is generally accepted that these patterns of behaviour and consumer choices will lead to savings in materials and energy which will benefit the environment. In this context it is seen that street traders also contribute vehemently to the generation of waste. These traders dispose their waste indiscriminately without re-considering the aftermath of their act to humanity and also to the environment. An additional approach may be to reduce the rates of patronage by the consumers in order not to assist these traders dispose waste indiscriminately. It is plausible that this may have a significant impact on consumer behaviour, and may strengthen those sections of the economy and trade that are associated with such goods and services. Another method of source reduction is to increase incentives for recycling.


Excerpt out of 39 pages


The Impact of Street Market Trading on Urban Markets
Business management
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ISBN (Book)
impact, street, market, trading, urban, markets
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Timothy Christopher (Author), 2022, The Impact of Street Market Trading on Urban Markets, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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