Proposed Shopping Mall Design in Abuja Nigeria. Application of Cooling Strategies

Master's Thesis, 2022

118 Pages, Grade: 5.0 (A)












1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Aim of Study
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.5 Research questions
1.6 Scope and Limitations

2.1 Concept of Shopping
2.1.1 Development of marketplaces
2.1.2 Evolution of markets and shops
2.2 Historical Development of Shopping Centres
2.2.1 The emergence of shopping centres in the United States
2.2.1 The emergence of Shopping Centres in Europe
2.2.2 Evolution of shopping malls in China
2.2.3 Evolution of shopping Malls in Egypt
2.2.4 Evolution of Shopping Malls in Nigeria
2.3 Classification of Shopping Malls
2.3.1 United States of America shopping center Classification
2.3.2 Europe shopping center classification
2.4 Shopping malls tenant mix
2.4.1 International Council of Shopping Center Tenant Mix
2.4.2 Shopping Center Tenant Mix according to all about architecture
2.4.3 Shopping Center Tenant Mix according to Rohan Agarwal
2.5 Architectural design consideration for shopping mall
2.5.1 Site design
2.5.2 Building design
2.5.3 Transportation and parking
2.5.4 Shopping mall design layout
2.6 Circulation patterns in shopping malls
2.6.1 Horizontal circulation
2.6.2 Vertical circulation
2.7 Cooling strategies in shopping malls
2.7.1 Fans as the cooling device
2.7.2 Air conditioning systems
2.8 Passive design strategies
2.8.1 Passive heating
2.8.2 Passive ventilation
2.8.3 Passive cooling
2.9 Architectural Design Considerations Used for Passive Cooling in Shopping Malls
2.9.1 Building orientation
2.9.2 Stacked windows
2.9.3 Shading devices
2.9.4 Evaporative cooling
2.9.6 Openings in the building
2.9.7 Building materials

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research method
3.3 Data Type and Sources
3.3.1 primary data
3.3.2 secondary data
3.4 Population of Study
3.5 Sampling Method and Technique
3.6 Data collection
3.6.1 Data Collection Instruments
3.6.2 Method of Data Analysis
3.6.3 Data presentation

4.1 Examination of Shopping Malls Design Characteristics
4.1.1 Number of anchor stores
4.1.2 Number of re staurants
4.1.3 Number of Department Stores
4.1.4 Parking space capacity
4.1.5 Number of entrances
4.1.6 Cinema screens in shopping malls
4.1.7 Multipurpose hall in shopping malls
4.1.8 Grocery stores
4.1.9 Games arcade
4.1.10 Mechanical vertical circulation
4.2 Assessment of Cooling Strategies in Shopping Malls

5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation




This work is dedicated to God Almighty for giving me the grace to go through this program, and my wonderful parents; Pastor M.A. Akande and Mrs. Grace Akande for showering me with their love and support throughout the study.


My profound gratitude goes to God Almighty the maker of the universe that made it possible for me to carry out this project and bringing it into conclusion. I also want to acknowledge my parents; Pastor M.A. Akande and Mrs. Grace Akande for their continuous support, advice and guidance. I pray that may the Lord Almighty constantly reward you.

I would also want to appreciate my wonderful siblings Temitope, Christiana and Simon Peter for always been there for me, for their support and prayers towards the success of my project.

Thirdly I would like to offer my most sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Prof. O.Oriye and my design coordinators: Arc. Dr O.F. Adedayo and Arc. J.A. Olanusi for their guidance, mentoring, advice and patience, without their support this thesis would never have been completed. They took time from their busy schedule to closely work with me to see that content of the work was correctly done. May the Lord Almighty reward your efforts.

Furthermore, I would want to acknowledge Arc. D.O. Akingbohungbe (Head of Architecture Department), lecturers and staff of the department of Architecture for their contributions to learning and character development.

My unquantifiable appreciation goes to my course mates; Joseph, Natalie, Demilade, Jamila, Timothy, Donald, David, Oyinkansola, Solomon, Ebenezer, Toluwanimi and the others. Thanks for being a part of my success story.


Shopping malls are now far more complex in terms of both space and interior operations, dispelling the notion that they exist solely for retail sales. The mall serves as a significant urban development hub and provides customers with shopping, entertainment, leisure, and recreation. Shopping malls have evolved to a closed building envelope as a result of this scale increase, necessitating the deployment of additional machinery to handle the mall's interior heat. Numerous malls in Nigeria only employ mechanical cooling systems, which raises their operational costs in terms of purchase, installation, and maintenance. Therefore, the goal of this project was to create a shopping center that used passive cooling techniques in its architecture. The objectives assessed the characteristic of shopping mall design, the cooling strategies used in shopping malls and the architectural design considerations for cooling. Thirteen case studies were selected using the random sampling techniques. Utilizing an observation checklist and the variable for each objective, data from the chosen case studies were collected. The statistical tool SPSS was used to evaluate the data that was gathered. To ascertain the percentages of various variables for the characteristics of shopping mall architecture and the cooling strategies utilized in the chosen samples, a descriptive survey method of analysis was used with an observation schedule. Findings revealed the frequency of the variables used throughout the study, and it was concluded from the chosen case studies that shopping malls in Nigeria rely more on active cooling systems than passive cooling strategies, with mechanical cooling being used in 76.9% of the malls examined and mechanical and passive cooling being used in 23.1% of the malls. Additionally, the results showed that 7.7% of the areas featured lakes, pools, and fountains, respectively. However, 76.9% of the malls lacked evaporative cooling systems. Finally, it is important to note that the focus of this thesis was on design approaches that would lessen the need for artificial means of boosting passive cooling. Accordingly, this study made the recommendation that shopping mall design incorporate passive cooling strategies through appropriate building orientation, adequate planting and installation of green landscape elements, efficient use and proper positioning of shading devices, and careful selection of building materials that allow for adequate thermal insulation.


2.1 Building materials and their thermal properties

3.1 Sample size and location

4.1 Parking space capacity of different shopping malls

4.2 Number of the entrance of different shopping malls

4.3 Number of grocery stores in different shopping malls

4.4 Number of vertical mechanical circulation services in shopping malls

4.5 Method of cooling in shopping malls

4.6 Method of cooling in shopping malls

4.7 The use of water bodies in shopping mall design

4.8 The use of soft landscape elements in shopping mall design

4.9 The use of insulation materials in shopping mall design

4.10 Building orientation of shopping malls

4.11 Evaporative cooling in shopping malls

4.12 Spatial requirements for shopping mall design

4.13 Spatial sizes for each level in shopping mall design


2.1 Urban Mall Tenant Mix

2.2 Sub-urban mall tenant mix

2.3 Convenience center tenant mix

4.1 The variation in the number of anchor stores

4.2 The variation in the number of restaurants

4.3 The number of department stores in shopping malls

4.4 Percentage number of cinema screens in shopping malls

4.5 Number of multipurpose halls in shopping malls

4.6 Percentage number of games arcade in shopping malls

4.7 Number of floors against the number of vertical mechanical circulation systems in shopping malls

4.8 Types of ventilation systems in shopping malls

4.9 Location of windows in shopping malls

4.10 The use of indoor plants in shopping malls

4.11 Double banking of spaces in shopping malls

4.12 Types of shading devices for building orientation of shopping Malls

4.13 Stacked windows in shopping malls


I Shopping mall design layout

II Strategic positioning of anchor stores to generate footfall

III Two-level dumb-bell arrangements allow circulation past all shopfronts

IV Stair arranged with seating beneath the landing at White Rose

V Shopping mall ramp

VI A pair of crossed escalators, Great Northern Experience, Manchester

VII A pair of travellators span across the water feature

VIII Arial view of Ikeja shopping mall without buffer zones

IX Novare gateway mall lugbe headroom

X Jabi lake mall wall material

XI Novare central mall floor material

XII Novare lekki mall ceiling material

XIII Novare central mall wuse ceiling material

XIV Bubble diagram showing the spatial relationship

XV Ground floor plan spatial organization

XVI First-floor plan spatial organization

XVII Second floor plan spatial organization

XVIII Third floor plan spatial organization

XIX Building orientation on-site plan

XX Shading devices on elevation

XXI Stacked windows on elevation

XXII Fountain within the shopping mall

XXIII Fountain outside the shopping mall

XXIV Vegetation on the shopping mall site

XXV Vegetation within the shopping mall

XXVI Headroom height of the shopping mall

XXVII Insulated hollow concrete block

XXVIII Ceramic floor tiles

XXIX Plaster of Paris ceiling material in a shopping mall

XXX Long span aluminium roofing sheet


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten



1.1 Background to the Study

Shopping is a necessary part of daily life, since it has existed since before man began to live. There has been a need for the exchange of goods and services, buying and selling which later gave room for the creation of marketplaces. As a result of industrialization during the 18th century, these marketplaces later evolved into shopping centres and shopping malls as we have today. The idea that shopping malls are just for sale and sale is long gone. Today shopping malls are major urban development centre that entertains, they serve as platforms for meeting various classes of people, and social hubs for interaction. As a result of this development, shopping malls have now had greater demand for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning due to enclosed building envelope.

Cooling and heating systems within large commercial buildings like shopping malls, offices, hotels, and other public buildings account today for high energy consumption. Nigeria has a peak demand of 2000GWH of electricity per day. Usually, about 70% of energy is been utilized with the aid of heating system, ventilation system, and the use of air-conditioning systems (HVAC) to improve the quality of the indoor environment of shopping malls. The 30% of energy that is left of energy is utilized for other types of energy consumption (Harper, Smith, & William, 2006). According to Akande (2010), mechanical indoor cooling availability accounts for a large percentage of energy consumed in a lot building.

In accordance with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE, 2004), mechanical cooling devices have more maintenance and least replacement lifecycle compared to natural cooling strategies. Nonetheless, cooling of buildings via passive strategies will encourage better utilization of natural features and reduction of reliance on mechanical cooling devices which has better cost-effectiveness and easy maintenance.

Nonetheless, the use of mechanical systems in shopping malls can be reduced to the barest minimum by the introduction of architectural design strategies. With enhanced knowledge and awareness of the need for buildings with high energy performance in Nigeria. There is a need to integrate passive cooling strategies in shopping mall design. Passive design strategies are concepts that take advantage of the elements of climate to respond to the comfort within the building. Stewart (2009) asserts that passive design maximizes the advantage of natural climate for heating and cooling interior living spaces. Passive measures, such as natural or hybrid ventilation rather than air conditioning, can reduce energy consumption dramatically (Hatamipour & Abedi, 2008). Finally, renewable energy can be incorporated into the design to help save energy. This will in turn give rise to a healthy and comfortable environment that will shield public health and enhance commercial transactions within the shopping mall. As a result, both the external and interior environmental quality of shopping malls must be carefully monitored.

1.2 Statement of Problem

Kubwa is a residential neighbourhood in Bwari, one of Nigeria's Federal Capital Territory's area councils. It is said to be the largest satellite town in West Africa, having the highest population within Abuja. With the above characteristics, it is surprising that there is no specialized form of a shopping mall within the district. Instead, shopping plazas are what they have access to. Knowing fully well that shopping malls perform more functions than shopping, most people living in kubwa have to go to the central area where most of the shopping malls are located at Abuja for recreation, relaxation, and other purposes.

Second, in most nations, buildings account for at least 40% of total energy consumption. Especially in countries like Nigeria where the nature of electricity supply is inconsistent, most shopping malls, therefore, need to spend more to enhance thermal comfort through the use of mechanical cooling devices. As the standard of living is on the rise, people tend to achieve thermal comfort within their interior spaces using air conditioning systems. Buildings like shopping malls are not equally left out in these new trends, as the amount of energy required to run most types of equipment is excessively high. Knowing fully well that the global trend tends towards sustainability and attention to the environment, developing countries like Nigeria have failed to rapidly adopt passive cooling strategies in most of their shopping malls.

Building energy usage has emerged as a key problem in the worldwide conversation about sustainable development (Mu'azu, 2012). Therefore, the problem with shopping malls generally is the fact that the cooling strategies can become very expensive and unsustainable. Hence, there is an urgent need to integrate cooling strategies order than mechanical cooling systems in Nigerian shopping malls that will enhance the indoor air quality thereby reducing energy demand for cooling, cost of running and maintenance, preventing the high rate of dependency on mechanical cooling systems for indoor thermal comfort, and an environmentally friendly environment. Hence the need for cooling strategies in shopping malls cannot be overemphasized.

1.3 Aim of Study

The aim of this study is to design a shopping mall that integrates passive cooling strategies.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

1. To examine the characteristics of shopping mall design.
2. To assess the cooling strategies in shopping malls.
3. To evaluate the architectural design considerations used for passive cooling in shopping malls.
4. To design a shopping mall that will integrate passive cooling strategies.

1.5 Research questions

1. What are the characteristics of shopping mall design?
2. What are the cooling strategies in shopping malls?
3. What are the architectural design considerations used for passive cooling in shopping malls?
4. How to design a shopping mall that will integrate passive cooling strategies?

1.6 Scope and Limitations

This project's scope will be limited to the design of a shopping complex to be located on Arab Road in Kubwa area of the Federal Capital Territory Abuja. The tenant mix for the proposed shopping mall includes anchor stores, departmental stores, food courts, cinema, conveniences, banking facilities, relaxation facilities, and other ancillary facilities required in the design of a mall. The research findings shall be limited to architectural design strategies that can enhance cooling in shopping mall designs to reduce dependence total on mechanical cooling systems.

1.7 Justification of Study

Shopping malls are highly essential in a community, they serve as instruments of meeting the needs of people all under one roof without traveling far distances to shop for different items and experience relaxation. With Kubwa being the largest settlement in Abuja with a population of 776,298 (NPC, 2006), there is a need for a shopping mall that can meet the population demand and in turn generate revenue for the government in return.

There is a need to incorporate cooling strategies other than mechanical cooling systems that can be applied in the design of shopping malls. The reason for this is that the new design approach has resulted in increasing electricity consumption in shopping malls today. Most shopping malls now seldom depend on natural or passive means of cooling while some use only mechanical, thereby contributing to a high level of energy consumption, unlike older shopping malls that integrated passive cooling as a major means of cooling and less dependence on mechanical cooling systems like the air conditioning systems.



2.1 Concept of Shopping

The International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC, 2008) claims that ‘The mall is a closed collection of a variety of private retail outlets, facilities, and parking spaces, built and maintained by various managers. From 9000 BC, people traded in cattle and sheep. Human existence has been associated with the sharing, trade, marketing, and use of resources (Susan, 2022). From 9000 BC, people traded in cattle and sheep. By 800 BC the people had changed market places and merchants selling their goods in the center of the city of Agora in ancient Greek times. The ruins shown below originated in the ancient Greek Agora, where people could not only buy and sell but also participate in and participate in government affairs (Roth, 2014).

The ancient Romans also used the same market. Romanum Forum and Trajan's Forum were the two stadiums in Rome during the time. There was a huge Trajan Market there, comprising many tent-making buildings that served as shop establishments, and was built around 100-110CE on four storeys. (Coleman, 2006). The first example of a former trading place was definitely the Roman court. Local farmers were the principal market in the Roman world. Those who lived in large areas permitted traders to enter their farms' gates, allowing them to avoid going to local markets.

2.1.1 Development of marketplaces

The first markets, known as bazaars, were recorded around 3000 BC (around 5000 years ago), while they are thought to date back even longer. As trade routes were created between towns, civilizations, and eventually continents, bazaars and markets flourished and grew rapidly. (Bosch, 2018). The Tabriz Bazaar was the Amazon of its day in the 16th century, attracting and uniting traders from all over the world. This market was much more than a place where people congregated to sell products and services; it was a place where people could get anything they needed at the time, a one-stop shop. (Stark, 2021).

This market solved numerous difficulties for a variety of people; as a farmer, you might sell your gold hoard in order to pay tribute to the king, or as an innkeeper, you could acquire unique, uncommon spices that are difficult to come by. The bazaar even acted as a supermarket for the common people, allowing them to shop for their daily necessities and obtain products at reasonable prices and of good quality. (Friedman, 2017). Bazaars and markets were social and cultural hubs where new ideas and innovations were shared, with the potential to change the world.

2.1.2 Evolution of markets and shops

The Forum was a rectangular plaza in the heart of the Roman cities. It was lined with businesses and the basilica, a public building. At the forum, there were also markets. Some motorways in Rome's large metropolis were clogged with stores (Lambert, 2021). There were no glass windows in Roman stores (the glass was a luxury). They were replaced with wooden lids that could be closed when the store closed. Some shops sold foreign goods, while others, such as bakers, produced their own wares. Customers would usually stop on the street outside the store and have their purchases delivered over the counter by the shop owner (Stobart, 2010). There were few permanent stores in the Middle Ages, but every city had a market. When you needed to buy or sell something, you usually went to the local market. Annual shows are also held in many places. Exhibitions were similar to marketplaces, except they only happened once a year. To buy and sell products, people traveled enormous distances. Customers entered Medieval Stores from the front door (Miller, 2019). There were no windows with glass. There were dozens of artisans in medieval cities, including carpenters, bakers, butchers, blacksmiths, bartenders, barbers, hairdressers, and dentists. On most streets, the same types of artisans lived together. In the 17th century, the number of shops increased. Every town had numerous small stores selling a variety of commodities by the 18th century. Shoemakers, drapery, mills, merchants, bakers, food vendors, fishmongers, booksellers, and artists were among the types of shops in the 18th century. Shopping malls were established in numerous British cities in the late nineteenth century.

Supermarkets had grown ubiquitous by the end of the nineteenth century. Although most stores were still family-owned at the turn of the century, chain stores were growing in popularity. In the United States, the first store opened in 1930. In 1937, the shopping cart was invented. In 1948, Britain's first supermarket opened its doors. Shopping malls were established in the United States in the 1950s. The first retail mall in the United Kingdom was constructed in the 1960s. The Bull Ring Center in Birmingham was the first. Supermarkets can now be found in almost every town and city in the United Kingdom (Lambert, 2021).

2.2 Historical Development of Shopping Centres

2.2.1 The emergence of shopping centres in the United States

The Arcade in Providence, Rhode Island, asserts to have been the nation's first shopping centre in 1828 (Gerend, 20212). A new shopping mall was built far from the city with the growth of urban and automotive culture in the United States in the middle of the 20th century. After World War II, the concept of a city shopping mall became popular in the United States, and huge shopping malls, such is the 1947-opened, 550,000 square foot (51,000 square meter) Broadway-Crenshaw Centre in Los Angeles. May Company California and a five-story Broadway.

Bergen Mall in Paramus, New Jersey, was the first shopping mall to be named a "shopping mall." The mall, which was opened in 1957, was decommissioned in 1973. Harundale Mall (1958) in Glen Burnie, Maryland, was the first major retailer to close outside of the Southdale Centre (Walker, 2007), and Big Town. Store (1959) Mesquite, Texas, Chris- Town Mall (1961) in Phoenix, Arizona, and Randhurst Centre (1962) in Mount Prospect, Illinois. Some of the first supermarkets were converted into shops away from the crowded, commercial city to more densely populated areas. This forum (a gated community with linked retailers, located outside of town and only accessible by automobile) has become a popular strategy to increase sales all over the world.

In the United States, developers like A. Alfred Taubman of the Taubman Centres continued to embrace the concept in 1980, with terrazzo tiles, indoor fountains, and two levels that allowed the buyer to complete the circuit at Short Hill Mall in New Jersey. shops. The carpet, according to Taubman, exacerbated the conflict, slowed down customers, and was eventually removed. Daylight that has been subdued by glass panels is augmented by progressive electric lighting, giving the impression that the afternoon is going longer and encouraging customers to stay longer (Johnson, 2010).

2.2.1 The emergence of Shopping Centres in Europe

According to Jean-Louis Solal, the first modern retail center in Europe, a pioneer of the modern shopping mall, was established in Sweden in 1950 and was called "Välling by Centrum." However, the first true regional centers were created in the late 1960s, with Parly 2 (Paris) and Cap (Nice) following the American shopping mall style (Sulmajster Sodic, 2008). The first European shopping complex with a hypermarket opened in 1974, and the concept has since been adopted by numerous retailers in southern Europe, particularly Spain, Portugal, and Italy, and is still popular in Eastern European countries.

"Commercial parks" can be found all over Europe are expanding and expanding the concept of traditional shopping malls and include theatres, ballrooms, gymnasiums, hotels, restaurants, and other leisure and recreation facilities (Sulmajster Sodic, 2008). Shopping centres significantly improved during the economic growth period before September 2008. During the 17th century, businesses and shopping malls replaced produce markets more and more, changing how consumers buy(Cox, 2007). A proposed shopping centre is The New Exchange, which Robert Cecil designed and which debuted in 1609 on the Strand. Along with the theatre, shops started to play a big part in bringing Londoners together and fostering social interaction. (Cox, 2007). Nicholas Barbon and Lionel Cranfield are examples of speculative architects, luxurious structures became billboards for social status in Restoration London.

2.2.2 Evolution of shopping malls in China

Shopping malls in Hong Kong developed slowly and it was too late in China, and their origins and progress differ greatly. The forerunners of the modern shopping mall originally developed in China in the late 1980s, when certain department stores wanted to improve their performance and financial performance by raising the value tenants who work as restaurants and entertainment concepts, due to severe competition. These modifications, however, had no effect on their primary business strategy, and these vendors continued to operate as supermarkets. Unlike supermarkets in Europe and the United States, Chinese supermarkets do not normally have standalone stores. In general, supermarkets charged admission fees for factories or retailers, as well as fees based on a percentage of each store's sales (Guo, 2008).

2.2.3 Evolution of shopping Malls in Egypt

With ancient Egyptians, as for any other community, trade and exchange were fundamental aspects of daily life. Farmers and free craftspeople who were not closely tied to the temples accounted for the majority of the local economy. At the same time, highly specialized settlements such as the workers’ village at Deir el Medinah could not be expected to be self-sufficient. With no currency, many essential and non-essential goods were available only through barter. However, the evidence we have for trade and exchange in ancient Egypt is relatively meagre. Our understanding of Egyptian marketplaces comes mostly from the ‘market scenes’ which decorated several elite tombs. These markets usually occurred on the Nile riverbank, where the mooring sites of ships became natural locations for exchanges. Oil, wine, olives, fish, cucumbers, salt, clothes, and papyrus are among the items carried by ships, according to textual evidence.

These markets functioned as a primary source for goods that were not obtainable locally - for instance, wine production was exclusive to the Delta and Fayum (Wong, 2017). The first shopping mall in Minnesota, which opened in 1956, transformed the shopping experience, and today's top specialists, at least when it comes to Egypt and the Middle East, are doing the same.

2.2.4 Evolution of Shopping Malls in Nigeria

Shopping in Nigeria evolved out of our traditional market system. Earlier in Nigeria markets, people traded, buy, and sell goods and services on periodic days known as market days. The influence of this new system was so great that it changed our thoughts and patterns against the traditional market system that has been in existence over the years. The need for everyday buying and selling arose, instead of buying and selling only on periodic market days.

To this day, most of our towns still practice such. As industrialization occurred over the years, foreigners brought civilization into our commercial activities which in turn led to a new form of the market system evolved which is known as shops, supermarkets, department stores, and shopping malls. The first shopping mall in Nigeria is located in Nigeria’s biggest city, which is Lagos. The palms Shopping mall was built in the year 2005, the mall has a total number of 69 shops and 3 anchor tenants. Today Nigeria has several shopping malls all across the country.

2.3 Classification of Shopping Malls

2.3.1 United States of America shopping center Classification

There are three primary types of shopping malls, according to the American branch of the International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC): There are three types of properties: general purpose centers, specialized purpose centers, and limited purpose properties (ICSC, 2017). General-purpose center

General-purpose centers are in five categories according to their function. The Super­Regional Shopping Mall is the first. A retail center that is bigger and offers more options than a regional center is called a super-regional mall. Three or more anchors are typically used to encircle it, variety, and deeper merchandise. Super-regional malls are usually multileveled and are dominant shopping venues for shopping in their region (Agarwal, 2021). According to the International Council of Shopping Centers, a regional mall with a gross leasable area of more than 800,000 square feet is made to serve a sizable population (74,000m2).

The second is a regional mall, which is a type of store with a broad and deep selection of services and general products (of which fashion makes up a sizable portion). A typical regional mall is often enclosed, with parking surrounding the outside perimeter and the retailers facing inward and connected by a shared corridor(Agarwal, 2021). The International Council of Shopping Centers defines a regional mall as having a gross leasable area of between 400,000 square feet (37,000 square meters) and 800,000 square feet and being intended to serve a large number of customers (74,000m2).

According to the International Council of Shopping Centers, the third type is the Community center, a little larger center with a gross leasable area of 125,000-400,000 square feet (11,600-37,200 square meters). Depending on their size and design, community centers are typically laid out in a straight strip but can also be arranged in a L or U configuration.

The fourth category is the neighborhood center, which often contains a major drugstore and/or supermarket as its anchor and has a gross leasable area of between 30,000 and 125,000 square feet (2,800 and 11,600m2). In order to serve residents' daily requirements, neighborhood malls are frequently built in residential neighborhoods. Strip/convenience is the fourth type (Gerend, 20212). A strip mall is an open-air shopping area with a walkway in front where multiple businesses are frequently clustered in a row. It is sometimes referred to as a shopping plaza or an arcade. Typically, they are constructed as a single structure with a sizable parking area in front. According to the International Council of Shopping Centers, its gross leasable space is less than 30,000 square feet. Specialized purpose center

A special purpose center can fall into one of four types. The first is referred to as a "power center." According to the International Council of Shopping Centers, it only contains a few modest tenants and category-dominant anchors like bargain department stores and wholesale clubs. Between 250,000 and 600,000 square feet is the gross leasable space. The second kind of mall is a lifestyle mall, which includes an upscale national chain specialty store as well as outdoor food and entertainment. The International Council of Shopping Centers estimates its gross leasable area to be between 150,000 and 500,000 square feet. The processing plant output is the third, this is a sort of mall that arrangements with producers and retailer's discount shops selling brand name products at a markdown. It has a gross leasable area of 50,000-400,000 sq. ft. While the last class is known as the Theme/celebration: A mall that arrangements with relaxation, vacationer, retail, and administration situated contributions with diversion as a bringing together subject. Frequently situated in metropolitan regions, they might have adjusted from more seasoned once in a while memorable structures and can be essential for a blended use project. It has a gross leasable area of 80,000-250,000 sq. ft. (Gerend, 20212).

2.3.2 Europe shopping center classification Traditional shopping center

As indicated by the European mall characterization, the conventional retail plaza comprises of four typologies which are: exceptionally huge, enormous, medium, and little retail plaza. The exceptionally enormous mall is a universally handy plan that can be either encased or outside and is characterized by size, approximately 80,000 square meters of gross leasable space. The enormous retail outlet is a universally handy plan that can be either encased or outdoors and is grouped by size, with a gross leasable area of 40,000-79,999sq. m.

The third typology is the medium-size mall is likewise a huge retail plaza is a generally useful plan that can be either encased or outdoors and is grouped by size, with a gross leasable area of 20,000-39,999sq. m. The last typology is known as the small shopping centers, it consists of light retailers who generally sell chic attire and footwear, family products, gadgets, normal things, toys, extravagance merchandise, gifts, and other willful things. These focuses are ordinarily essential for a bigger shopping center, potentially situated in a downtown area. It has a gross leasable area of 5,000-19,999sq. ft. Specialty shopping center

The specialty mall is characterized into three which are: retail park, industrial facility outlet, and topic arranged focus. The retail park mall is otherwise called the "power focus." An adaptable, organized, and oversaw open plan that primarily includes proficient medium and huge retailers ("enormous boxes" or "plugs") free (disconnected). As with other open spaces, and ample paved parking lot is located in front of the shops and near the site on the ground floor. The factory outlet is made up of an open and/or closed center that includes manufacturer and retailer stores that sell brand name products at a discount - usually selling residual stock, pre-season sales or sub-sales, and especially material designed.

The third is the Theme oriented center. Based Entertainment - Structurally designed, redesigned a managed system that combines specific units of sale as well usually focuses on a small but profound choice for sale within a particular category of sale. The amusement place is typically set up by multiplex film close by cafés and bars with any blend of bowling, wellbeing and wellness and other sporting thoughts utilizes (ICSC., 2017).

2.4 Shopping malls tenant mix

Tenants' mix refers to a combination of business centers that take over a shopping mall to build a platform that generates sales, hiring, social assistance, and the ability to finance a shopping mall business.

2.4.1 International Council of Shopping Center Tenant Mix urban mall

The importance of the food store and leisure element (such as a movie theatre, children's play area, bowling alley, etc.) in the tenant mix of an urban mall, careful selection of the food element based on the type and size, and DIY aspects are not given prominence. Figure 2.1 depicts the tenant mix percentage.

- Focus on fashion & accessories
- Importance of food store & leisure component (Cinema, Kidsplay area, Bowling, etc.)
- Careful selection of the food component (type and size)
- DIY element not a priority

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Figure 2.1: Urban Mall Tenant Mix Source: ICSC, (2014) Sub-urban retail complex

A mix of pedestrian attractions, public transportation stops, and vehicle destinations make up the suburban retail complex. It is important to have a wide supply with strong anchors to attract customers from a distance - hypermarket, DIY store, electronics store, furniture store, sports store, etc. Different anchors from the fashion and footwear business, as well as the leisure sector, restaurants and cafes, should be carefully evaluated and picked. Figure 2.2 depicts the tenant mix percentage.

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Figure 2.2: Sub-urban mall tenant mix Source: ICSC, (2014)

Careful selection of unique anchors from the fashion & footwear sector Leisure component, restaurants and cafes shall be carefully analysed and selected Convenience center

The convenience center consists of a small catchment area of about 5 to 10 minutes’ walk and about 15 minutes by car, which requires pedestrian space. The shopping center is usually small in size, its main anchors are food operators, usually a small format with a drug store, possible exercise center, and/or playground for children. The tenant mix percentage is shown in figure 2.3.

Figure 2.3: Convenience center tenant mix Source: ICSC, (2014)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten Retail park

The retail is usually located in a downtown / suburban area - usually no pedestrian attraction. It needs critical mass, a wide drainage area, easy access by car - the location on highways/locations, and direct access to each unit in the parking lot. Its fundamental spotlight is on food, game, hardware, and other gear. The anchor size necessities: 1,000­3,500 m2, 7,000-15,000 m2, and 8,000-15,000 m2 of hypermarket space 1,200-4,000 m2 of electronics sports, kids' clothing, sight and sound, and design rely upon having the option to draw in an adequate number of items to make an appealing blend of businesses. Factory outlet

The factory outlet is otherwise called edge or away region. There is a bad situation for people on foot, it comprises of wide waste up to one and a half hours, little anchor size (roughly 500 m 2), and little unit size all through the shopping region. It is generally come by Sports and Fashion organizations for example Jaguar, Adidas, Nike, Mango, Benetton, and so forth. (Contingent upon area). It has no food anchor (can be close yet can be set in the middle) with a little eating region. Component of possible diversion - contingent upon the nation and locale (For example, the outlet park in Szczecin, Poland, and La Vallée Village near Euro Disneyland in Paris)

2.4.2 Shopping Center Tenant Mix according to all about architecture

Anchors are the main retailers that occupy the shopping mall which can be spread over two-three floors. They will demand the most premium location in the mall. The second is Hypermarket- A shop like a Spencer’s is a hypermarket. They also take a large space but do not need a premium location. The next is Retail shops- These smaller retail stores which make up the rest of the mall generally need a proper shop frontage, display areas, and a storage space for stocking their materials. Movie theatres is another tenant mix­Most shopping centres have a movie theatre with a minimum of 3 screens. These places attract a crowd and they need to have services so that they can function independently of the mall timings. Lastly, Food courts are the main crowd pullers in malls. Interestingly, most of them have a direct link to the movie halls.

2.4.3 Shopping Center Tenant Mix according to Rohan Agarwal

However, a food court—a collection of numerous cafés—is one of the most well-known features of a shopping centre. Visitors to a shopping centre can find a variety of restaurants there, from local eateries to national franchises. Scenes in a typical food court coexist with one another, with a focused standard dining area to satisfy customers. The three most frequently used methods for operating food courts are (a) next to sizable "anchor stores," (b) in a location convenient for truck deliveries, and (c) dedicating a different floor or a larger portion of a story to restaurants. Although many shopping centres contain full-service restaurants, the food court gives customers the option to sample a variety of inexpensive meal styles. (Agarwal, 2021). The second category are department store, this is an enormous retail outlet that offers a huge assortment and profound grouping and is coordinated into discrete divisions for selling, show, advancement, client support, and control. Every division sells interesting items and has its selling, records, bundling, and safety faculty (Agarwal, 2021).

The third category are stand-alone stores , by and large, in a shopping centre or retail plaza. The majority of the area is covered with satellite buildings that can be located on nearby or adjacent plots of land and include independent stores that may or may not be legally connected to the regular offices. These retailers may have separate parking lots, security setups, and sector and exit entryways, or their packages may merge with those of the shopping centre or focal point. The owners of the shopping centres (centre designers), or other creative individuals, may have planned for the stores' appearance, but the main office was always in the foreground. Even in situations when the remote structures are not technically or legally affiliated with the shopping centre in any way, the shopping centre or retail outlet and the satellite structures will frequently be perceived as a single, "unit." (Agarwal, 2021).

2.5 Architectural design consideration for shopping mall

2.5.1 Site design

The site design, which comprises the layout and layout of the buildings, the perimeter and layout of the parking lot, the landscape, drainage ditch maintenance, and several other components of the site, should be built with an integrated theme that unifies all development as a whole (Animesh, n.d.) . Commercial development and multi-use buildings with more tenants should be constructed with attached buildings or clusters, with careful consideration of the landscape, open space, and pedestrian areas. Shopping complexes should be developed as independent pads rather than a collection of different buildings, as this is a very unpopular strategy for providing integrated quality facilities (Animesh, n.d.).

Pad development refers to the private spaces created within a commercial hub. In terms of parking space, traffic and pedestrian lanes, terrain, and building structure, pad upgrades should be integrated into site construction. In terms of materials, colors, and design features, the pads should be in harmony with the environment. Local pedestrian areas, such as connecting lanes, access points, and intermediate spaces, should be constructed not only to address safety, efficiency, and efficiency, but also to provide operators with excellent information. Purchase and go to the construction site (Animesh, n.d.).

2.5.2 Building design

Structures and designs inside business habitats ought to be created with a coordinated engineering subject that consolidates comparable materials, varieties, and configuration subtleties. The development of various structures and designs isn't supposed to be something very similar; be that as it may, plan highlights in all business improvement ought to give a steady subject (Animesh, n.d.). To accomplish a top notch design plan for a wide range of business structures, property improvement ought to be viewed as the fundamental objective of the plan guide standards (Animesh, n.d.).

2.5.3 Transportation and parking

Safe transportation of vehicles ought to be accommodated business advancement. Contingent upon the degree of improvement, there ought to be a legitimate interior flow framework in light of the rundown of driving passages and crossing points to manage effective, safe development and stopping all through. For bigger upgrades consider giving a smaller drive passage framework to design a roundabout space with twofold halls that give direct stacking of parking spots (Animesh, n.d.).

All methods of transport, including people on foot and public vehicle, ought to be considered for the improvement of business focuses. Individuals strolling or taking transports are clients and representatives. Person on foot and business offices related with business focuses ought to be based on the standards of security, proficiency, availability, and solace. Both neighborhood needs and awkward correspondence inside the quick common liberty should be tended to by all methods of movement (Animesh, n.d.). Safe landing and stacking and dumping of vehicles are a significant calculate numerous business utilizes, for example, supermarkets, pharmacies, cinemas, and home improvement communities. Removal offices ought to be coordinated into the development of business focuses with alluring clearing, satisfactory partition of vehicles and walkers, and a helpful area close to the entry to the structures (Animesh, n.d.).

2.5.4 Shopping mall design layout

There are seven different layouts for shopping mall design, according to the Time Savers standard for all building types: one magnet in a mall center, one magnet in a mall center with the magnet in the middle, cluster-type centers, double-strip centers with off-street parking, strip centers with curb parking, and introverted centers are all examples of strip centers. Plate 6 depicts the layout of a commercial complex.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Plate I: Shopping mall design layout

Source: Time savers Standard for all building types (2nd Edition)

2.6 Circulation patterns in shopping malls

2.6.1 Horizontal circulation

Creating a distinctive geometric pattern in a horizontal rotation arrangement is the designer of each new product's task (Coleman, 2006). Organizational structure planning and horizontal rotation planning are interrelated and impact each other. To establish the groundwork for designers to improve their solutions, there are fundamental guidelines for sales planning as well as a few different sorts of fundamental structures. One of the most important ways to get a solid pedestrian flow is to carefully place the footfall generators. Solid retail outlets are those that are considered to be the best. Plate II and Plate III show the horizontal circulations in shopping malls.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Plate II: Strategic Positioning of Anchor Stores Used to Generate Footfall Around a Circuit.

(Source: Peter Coleman)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Plate III: Two-level dumb-bell arrangements allow circulation past all shopfronts without retracing steps (Source: Peter Coleman)

2.6.2 Vertical circulation

The successful installation of a direct rotation is one of the most important resources in the operation of high-end shopping malls and, thus, facilitates the development of shopping located in a high-value area (Coleman, 2006). In multilevel schemes, the direct rotation should be considered, equal to the horizontal rotation, e.g. Methods of building planning and promoting pedestrians to pass through all the shops equally. Straight rotation should benefit a balance between helping pedestrians too to provide easy ways to allow shoppers to travel between lower levels A straight rotation should be placed in a straight line. It should be positioned in typical locations, typically no farther than 80­100 m (260-325 ft).

The punctuation marks in the horizontal rotation are placed in the same place as the intersection of the vertical rotation. Fortunately, direct rotation can be set by node spaces, as long as the size is sufficient (Coleman, 2006). To meet the vertical rotation needs of high-end retail malls, a combination of stairs, elevators, and escalators is commonly used. Small level adjustments can also be easily met with ramps and ground stones. Stairs for circulation

Steps introduced inside the public dissemination region are a proficient and adaptable approach to moving sightseers vertical among levels and are in many cases utilized and acknowledged in shopping centers. Steps can be disconnected or set together in lifts with different blends. For instance, steps can build up broad cycle designs by being tracked down in essential areas, along with lifts, in hub spaces. If not, the steps can be set exclusively in the center of hub spaces in a public conveyance region or inside hub space where space is kept clear lift. Steps are housed on top of the structure adaptable as the lift and give simple access one more choice to permit visitors to interface between floors (Coleman, 2006). Plate IV shows stairs with seating arranged around it.


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Proposed Shopping Mall Design in Abuja Nigeria. Application of Cooling Strategies
Msc. Architecture
5.0 (A)
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This thesis work has been approved and graded with distinction. I hope researchers will be able to use this to enhance their research work on the application of cooling strategies in architectural design
Shopping mall, Cooling, design
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Evelyn Akande (Author), 2022, Proposed Shopping Mall Design in Abuja Nigeria. Application of Cooling Strategies, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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