Synthesis and characterization of drug carrier based on polysaccharides

Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2022

249 Pages




Chapter- 1
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Monosaccharide
1.1.1 Classification of monosaccharide Trioses Tetroses Pentoses Hexoses
1.2 Function in biology
1.2.1 Energy respiration
1.2.2 Aerobic respiration
1.2.3 Anaerobic respiration
1.3 Fermentation
1.3.1 Allose
1.3.2 Altrose
1.3.3 Galactose
1.3.4 Gulose
1.3.5 Idose
1.3.6 Mannose
1.4 A cyclic form of glucose
1.5 Production
1.5.1 Biosynthesis
1.5.2 Commercial
1.5.3 Physical properties
1.5.4 Fructose
1.5.5 Chemical properties
1.5.6 Physical and functional properties
1.5.7 Fructose solubility with crystallization
1.5.8 Food source
1.5.9 Galactose
1.5.10 Structure and isomerism
1.5.11 Sources
1.5.12 Glycolipids
1.5.13 Glycoprotein
1.6 Polysaccharides
1.6.1 Task of polysaccharide
1.6.2 Structure of polysaccharide
1.7 Example of polysaccharide
1.7.1 Starch
1.7.2 Glycogen
1.7.3 Cellulose
1.7.4 Chitin
1.8 Plant polysaccharides
1.8.1 Pectin
1.9 Gums and it’s classification
1.9.1 Classification:
1.9.2 Natural gums:
1.9.3 Tamarind gum
1.9.4 Locust bean gum
1.9.5 Tara gum
1.9.6 Honey locust bean gum
1.9.7 Guar gum
1.9.8 Okra gum
1.9.9 Khaya gum
1.10 What are gums and mucilage’s?
1.10.1 Advantages of natural gums and mucilage’s in pharmaceutical sciences
1.10.2 Disadvantages of natural gums and mucilage’s
1.10.3 Classification of gums and mucilage’s
1.10.4 Applications of gums and mucilage’s
1.10.5 Application in the food industry
1.10.6 Pharmaceutical applications
1.10.7 Industrial uses
1.11 Isolation and purification of gums/mucilage’s
1.11.1 Characterization / standardization of gums and mucilage’s
1.11.2 Pharmacopoeial standard specifications of gums and mucilage’s
1.12 Reasons for developing new excipients
1.13 Modification of existing gums and mucilage’s
1.14 Purpose of modification
1.14.1 To target at a particular site:
1.14.2 To make the polymers more heat or moisture-resistant:
1.14.3 To alter its solubility, more sustainable:
1.14.4 To make it more flexible, more transparent, and more compatible and/or biodegradable
1.14.5 Biopolymers may also have unique features like antimicrobial effects, which can be utilized to add value to end products:
1.14.6 To reduce the toxicity:
1.15 Derivatives of natural gums
1.15.1 Carboxyl derivatives
1.15.2 Hydroxyethyl derivatives
1.15.3 Vinyl-functioned derivatives
1.15.4 Cationic derivatives
1.15.5 Amphoteric derivatives
1.15.6 Hydrophobic derivatives
1.16 Methodological approaches and categorization of polymeric modification techniques.
1.16.1 Polymer grafting
1.16.2 Chemical grafting
1.16.3 Grafting by chemical routes
1.17 With fenton’s reagent (Fe[2]+ / H2O2)
1.18 Cross linking
1.19 Conventional pharmacotherapy
1.20 Controlled release methods
1.21 Time - controlled: modified - release formulation
1.21.1 Extended-release formulation
1.21.2 Sustained release formulation
1.21.3 Pulsatile - release formulation
1.21.4 Delivery device that releases the drug
1.21.5 Delayed - release formulation
1.22 Controlled distribution
1.23 Polymers used for controlled-drug release
1.23.1 What is drug?
1.23.2 What are excipients?
1.23.3 Pharmaceutical formulation
1.23.4 Drug delivery route
1.23.5 Drug delivery systems
1.24 Conventional drug therapy
1.25 Sustained release formulations
1.25.1 Advantages of sustained release dosage forms
1.25.2 Disadvantages of sustained - release dosage forms
1.26 Tablets as a dosage form
1.26.1 Conventional routes of drug administration
1.27 Types of tablets
1.27.1 Compressed tablets:
1.27.2 Sugar coated tablets:
1.27.3 Film - coated tablets:
1.27.4 Multiple compressed tablets:
1.27.5 Controlled Released Tablet:
1.27.6 Effervescent tablets:
1.28 Tablet ingredients
1.29 In - vitro dissolution testing in pharmaceutical analysis
1.29.1 Dissolution testing in pharmaceutical analysis
1.30 Dissolution
1.30.1 Dissolution method parameters
1.30.2 Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)
1.30.3 Dosage Form
1.30.4 Media
1.30.5 Visual observations
1.30.6 Mathematical models for drug Delivery
1.31 Analysis
1.31.1 In-vivo testing in pharmaceutical analysis
1.32 Post-marketing studies
1.33 Principles of examination techniques used throughout the present study
1.33.1 Fourier transform infra - red spectroscopy analysis (FTIR)
1.33.2 Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD)
1.33.3 Scanning electron microscope (SEM)

Chapter - 2
2.0 Extraction of okra gum and its primary modification
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Isolation of mucilage from lady’s finger by a conventional procedure
2.2.1 Petroleum ether extract
2.2.2 Chloroform extract
2.2.3 Ethyl acetate extract
2.2.4 Methanol extract
2.3 Chemistry of okra gum
2.4 Selection of okra
2.5 Physico-chemical characterization of okra gum
2.5.1 Identification tests for gums
2.5.2 Solubility test
2.5.3 pH determination
2.5.4 Moisture content
2.5.5 Viscosity
2.5.6 Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
2.6 Chemical modification of okra gum
Part -1 : Extarction of okra gum
2.7 Experimental method
2.7.1 Chemicals
2.8 Methods
2.8.1 Extraction of okra gum
2.8.2 Purification of okra gum
2.8.3. Moisture content
2.8.4 pH determination
2.8.5 Solubility test
2.8.6 Viscosity
2.9 Characterization of extracted okra gum
2.9.1 FTIR spectroscopy of okra gum
Part-2 : Preparation of Okra Phosphate
2.10 Preparation of Okra Phosphate
2.10.1 Purification of okra phosphate
2.10.2 FTIR spectrums of okra phosphate:
Part-3: Preparation of Hydroxypropyl Okra Phosphate from Okra Phosphate
2.11 Preparation of hydroxypropyl okra phosphate from okra phosphate
2.11.1 Purification of hydroxy propyl okra phosphate
2.11.2 Degree of substitution of hydroxylpropyl okra phosphate
2.12 Optimization study parameters of hydroxyl propyl okra phosphate
2.12.1 Effect of NaOH
2.12.2 Effect of temperature
2.12.3 Effects of 3-chloropropionic acid
2.12.4 Effects of time
2.13 FTIR spectrums of hydroxypropyl okra phosphate:
Part-4: Carboxymethylated of okra gum
2.14 prepration of carboxymethylated of okra gum
2.15 Results and discussion
2.15.1 An optimization study of carboxymethylated reaction parameters
2.16 FTIR Spectroscopy of carboxymethylated of okra gum
2.17 summary of okra gum and its primary derivatives
2.18 Conclusion

Chapter - 3 Hydrogel preparation
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Literature review gums grafted with acrylic acid or its derivatives
Part-1: Preparation of hydrogel from hydroxypropyl okra phosphate by using acrylic amide as monomer
3.3 Materials and methods
Table 3.1: Raw Materials
3.4 Methods
3.4.1 Preparation of hydrogel from hydroxypropyl okra phosphate by using acrylic amide as monomer (Hydrogel-1).
3.5 Properties of Hydrogels:
3.5.1 Swelling property:
3.5.2 Mechanical properties:
3.5.3 Biocompatible properties:
3.6 Characterization of derived hydrogel
3.6.1 Moisture content
3.6.2 pH determination
3.6.3 Solubility test
3.6.3 Viscosity
3.7 Degree of substitution of hydrogel
3.8 FTIR spectroscopy
3.9 Thermo gravimetric analysis
3.10 Scanning electron microscopy
3.11 Powder X-Ray Diffraction
3.12 Method of partical size distribution
3.13 Result and discussion:
3.13.1 Optimization study parameters of hydroxyl propyl okra phosphate cross-linking with acrylic amide monomer (Hydrogel-1)
3.13.2 Effect of CAN:
3.13.3 Effect of temperature:
3.13.4 Effects of acrylic amide:
3.13.5 Effects of time:
3.14 Water absorption studies:
3.14.1 The water absorption was calculate:
3.14.2 Swelling ratio:
3.15 FTIR spectrums
3.15.1 Hydroxylsethyl okra phosphate by cross-linking with acrilcy amide
3.15.2 Thermo gravimetric analysis hydrogel-1
3.15.3 SEM (scanning electron microscopy)
3.15.4 Powder X-ray diffraction
3.15.5 Partical size distribution
Part-2 : Preparation of hydrogel from carboxymethylated okra gum by using haydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as monomer (Hydrogel-2)
3.16 Preparation of hydrogel from carboxymethylated okra gum by using haydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as monomer (Hydrogel-2)
3.16.1 Properties of hydrogels:
3.16.2 Mechanical properties:
3.17 Characterization of derived hydrogel
3.17.1 Moisture content
3.17.2 pH determination
3.17.3 Solubility test
3.17.4 Viscosity
3.18 Degree of substitution of hydrogel 2
3.19 FTIR spectroscopy
3.19 Thermo gravimetric analysis
3.20 Scanning electron microscopy
3.21 Powder X-Ray Diffraction
3.22 Method of partical size distribution
3.23 Result and Discussion:
3.24 Optimization study parameters of carboxymethylated okra gum cross-linking with haydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) monomer (Hydrogel-2)
3.24.1 Effect of CAN:
3.24.2 Effect of temperature:
3.24.3 Effects of haydroxyethyl methacrylate:
3.24.4 Effects of time:
3.25 Water absorption studies:
3.25.1 The water absorption was calculated by:
3.26 Swelling ratio:
3.27 FTIR spectrums
3.27.1 Hydroxylsethyl okra phosphate by cross-linking with acrilcy amide
3.27.2 Carboxymethylated okra gum by cross-linking hydroxyethyl methacrylate
3.28 SEM (scanning electron microscopy)
3.29 Thermo gravimetric analysis hdrogel-2
3.30 partical size distribution analysis hydrogel-2

Chapter: 4 Application of okra gum and its derivatives
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Pharmaceutical dosage forms
4.1.1 Importance of dosage forms
4.2 Solid dosage form
4.2.1 Tablets
4.2.2 Tablet ingredients
4.2.3 Additives are classified according to functions as follow
4.3 Method of preparation of compressed tablets
4.4 Materials and method
4.5 Drug profile
4.5.1 Diclofenace sodium: (Phenyl acetic acid derivative NSAID)
4.6 Methods
4.7 Preparation of tablets
4.8 Evaluation of granules
4.8.1 Angle of repose
4.8.2 Bulk density
4.9 Evaluation of tablets
4.9.1 Hardness
4.9.2 Uniformity weight
4.9.3 Friability
4.9.4 Uniformity of drug content
4.9.5 In-vitro drug release studies
4.10 Mathematical models for drug release studies
4.10 Results and discussion
Part – 1 Cross-linked hydroxypropyl okra phosphate with acrylic amide
4.10.1 Angle of repose
4.11 Bulk density
4.12 Hardness
4.13 Friability
4.14 Uniformity of drug content
4.15.1 The standard curve of diclofenac sodium drug
4.16.2 Cumulative % of drug release
4.16.2 Mathematical models for drug Delivery
Part – 2 Cross-linked Carboxymethyl okra gum with hydroxyethyl methacrylatele
4.10 Results and discussion
4.10.1 Angle of repose
4.11 Bulk density
4.12 Hardness
4.13 Friability
4.14 Uniformity of drug content
4.15 Uniformity of drug content
4.16 Zero order release Cross-linked Carboxymethyl okra gum
4.17 Higuchi model of Cross-linked Carboxymethyl okra gum
4.18 Mathematical models of Cross-linked hydroxypropyl okra
4.19 Mathematical models of Cross-linked Carboxymethyl okra gum okra
4.20 Conclusion

Chapter: 5
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Future aspects:

List of figures

List of tables



The title of the thesis “Synthesis and Characterization of Drug Carrier Based on Polysaccharides” clearly reflects the objective, which is an approach toward preparation of excipients were defined as ‘the substance used as a medium for giving a medicament’, that is to say with simply the functions of an inert support of the active principle or principles. The specific application of natural polysaccharide polymers in pharmaceutical formulations include to aid in the processing of the drug delivery system during its manufacture, protect, support or enhance stability, bioavailability or patient acceptability, assist in product identification, or enhance any other attribute of the overall safety, effectiveness or delivery of the drug during storage.

Today we have several pharmaceutical excipients of plant origin, like starch, agar, alginates, carrageen an, guar gum, okra gum, xanthan gum, gelatin, pectin, acacia, tragacanth, and cellulose. These natural excipients find applications in the pharmaceutical industry as binding agents, disintegrates, sustaining agents, protective’s, colloids, thickening agents, suspending agents, emulsifiers, gelling agents, bases in suppositories, stabilizers, and coating material. A large number of plant-based pharmaceutical excipients are available today. Many researchers have explored the usefulness of plant-based materials as pharmaceutical excipients. Ability to produce a wide range of material based on their properties and molecular weight, natural polymers became a thrust area in majority of investigations in drug delivery systems Natural gums can also be modified to meet the requirements of drug delivery systems and thus can compete with the Natural gums and mucilage is composed of many constituents. In several cases, the polysaccharides, resins or the tannins present in the gum are responsible for imparting release retardant properties to the dosage form.

Okra gum, obtained from the fruits of Hibiscus esculents, is a polysaccharide consisting of D-galactose, L-rhamnose and L-galacturonic acid. Okra gum is used as a binder. In study okra gum has been evaluated as a binder in paracetamol tablet formulations. These formulations containing okra gum as a binder showed a faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation than those containing gelatin. The crushing strength and disintegration times of the tablets increased with increased binder concentration while their friability decreased. Although gelatin produced 4tablets with higher crushing strength, okra gum produced tablets with longer disintegration times than those containing gelatin. It was finally concluded from the results that okra gum maybe a useful hydrophilic matrixing agent in sustained drug delivery system. Various strategies were developed in order to overcome these issues, offering the opportunity to tailor the physical and chemical properties of okra gum thus yielding materials that may find a wide range of applications. Many approaches dependent on chemical modification of okra gum were aimed at meeting the requirements of special applications and included derivatisation reactions such as methylation, sulfation, hydroxyalkylation, carboxymethylated, or phosphorylation. However, native okra gum has also shortcomings such as, uncontrolled rates of hydration, high swelling, thickening effect, instability upon storage, high susceptibility to microbial attack and the difficulty to control viscosity due to relative fast biodegradation. Various above said strategies can be employed in order to overcome these issues. On other hand hybridization of the natural polymers with synthetic polymers is of great interest because of its applications to biomedical and biodegradable materials. The chemical reaction mass of natural and synthetic polymers yields new materials, which could have desirable properties including biodegradability.

Thus, looking to the above background in mind and importance of the drug carriers the present communication comprises intensive investigation of the synthesis and characterization of drug carrier’s s is carried out. We have also focused on recent developments addressing three key clinically relevant issues regarding the use of drug carriers. For drug delivery facilitating the In-vivo application, Drug pro release time and maintenance of effective drug concentration levels in the blood.

Based on the above said consideration. Extraction and purification of okra gum was carried out from okra pods followed by carboxymethylated and phosphorylation of extracted okra gum was carried out along with optimization of reaction parameter of the primary derivatives that is carboxymethylated okra gum and hydroxyl propyl okra phosphate followed by drug carriers preparation by Second modification of carboxymethylated okra gum and hydroxyl propyl okra phosphate was carried out by cross linking acrylic acid, N, N-methylene acryl amide, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) respectively synthesized cross-linked polymer were further investigated as drug carriers by formulating as tablet for sustained drug release The drug release of different formulation was measured in relation to time and also compared with the standard drugs. Further mathematical modeling was implemented to know the order of release behavior of formulated tables.

Chapter- 1

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Monosaccharide

Structure of monosaccharide may be (1) Straight or open-chain (2) Cyclic or ring structure.


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Figure 1.1 Straight or open-chain structure

Here two ends remain separate, so it calls open-chain structure in these six carbon atoms of glucose kept in a straight chain. The types of, open-chain structure (a) Structure given by fitting and Baeyer (b) Structure given by Fischer called fishers projection formula. Fishers projection prepared by Hermann Fischer in 18911. This projection is introduced for illustration of carbohydrates; it is used by chemists for organic, inorganic chemistry.


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Figure :1.2 Cyclic or ring structure

In this structure, atoms are arranged in ring form. This formula is introduced by Haworth in nineteen twenty-nine so this formula known as Haworth’s projection formula. There are forms of ring (a) Furanose ring–it contains five members (b) Pyranose ring - it contains six members.

The molecular formula is (CH2O)n. In this structure central carbon molecule is bonded with 2 - hydrogen, 1 - oxygen. Hydroxyl group is present because oxygen is bonded with hydrogen. Carbon molecule can also bond together because of carbon form 4 bonds. Among the carbon one of the carbon form double bond with oxygen, so there presence of carbonyl group.

Carbon atom double-bonded with an oxygen atom (C=O), it calls as carbonyl group. It is an organic functional group. A monosaccharide is said to be aldose family if carbonyl faction is present at last part of a chain. If carbon molecule dual attachment to oxygen molecule and single bonded to a hydroxyl group. It is referred to as carboxyl group. A monosaccharide is stated to the ketonic family if one's carboxyl organization is present in the middle of the chain.

Common monosaccharide in nature is glucose, it use severy foam of life, glucose is a simple monosaccharide, and it constitutes of six carbons. Glucose is fallen under aldose family because the carboxyl group is present in the last part of the chain. Monosaccharide containing additional 5 carbons is in the form of a ring in a solution of water. It takes place by the reaction of fifth carbon with first carbon, hydroxyl faction of fifth carbon react with first carbon and give hydrogen atom. Oxygen which is double bonded with first carbon forms bond with new hydrogen and second bond of carbon be broken down, and this will form a secure band of carbons 2.

1.1.1 Classification of monosaccharide

Classification of monosaccharide is completed in two ways (a) on top of the number of carbon molecule present (b) on top of the centre of the presence of the carbonyl group. Trioses

Monosaccharide having 3 carbon atoms is called trioses. Its molecular formula is C3H6O3. Trioses are sugary in taste. They are soluble in water. They may contain an aldehyde group or a ketone group. They are simple sugar, for example - glycerose and dihydroxy acetone. Tetroses

Monosaccharide having 4 carbon molecules is called tetrose. Its molecular formula is C4H8O4. Tetroseis sugary in flavor. They are soluble into water. They may contain an aldehyde group or a ketone group. They are crystalline forms. For example - erythrose. Pentoses

Monosaccharide having five carbon atoms is called pentoses. The molecular formula is C5H10O5. It is the main section of nucleic acid. Pentoses are soluble in water. They may contain an aldehyde group or a ketone group. They are into crystalline forms, for example, ribose, deoxyribose, and ribulose. Hexoses

Monosaccharide having six carbons is called hexoses. The molecular formula is C4H8O4. Hexoses are soluble in water. They may contain an aldehyde group or a ketone group. They are crystalline forms, for example - glucose, fructose. Glucose

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Figure1.3 Structure of Glucose

In 1747, Andréa’s marg graf was the primary person who has isolated glucose 3. Glucose into the list of world health organization’s essential medicines. It is a very important medicine in the basic health system 4. The molecular formula is C6H12O6. Glucose is prepared up and about of 6 carbon molecules, 12 hydrogen and 6 oxygen molecules. It contains 6 carbon atoms, so it falls under hexes. IUPAC name of glucose D-glucose. D-glucose and D-isomers is called dextrose, which widely occurs in nature, but L-glucose and L-isomers do not occur naturally, other names of glucose are blood sugar, dextrose, corn sugar, D-glucose, grape sugar. Hydrolysis of carbohydrates like milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar (sucrose), cellulose, maltose, and glycogen produce glucose.

Commercial manufacturing of glucose can be done from corn starch upon hydrolysis using under pressure scorching at restricted pH 5. It gives both structure and energy to an organism; glucose is an important monosaccharide. Glucose is formed during photosynthesis, water, carbon dioxide utilization of energy from sunlight. If the group does not need power than glucose is able to be stored along with other monosaccharides, this long-chain can be stored as starch in the plant. It can be separated as and further used as energy. While in a crate of animal’s storage of sequence of glucose. In the polysaccharide glycogen, it can store large energy.

A polysaccharide is made by connecting glucose in long strings of monosaccharide. The plant manufactures this as cellulose is single of those molecules that are current in large quantity on the planet, we would get millions of tone cellulose, but we can weight all of the cellulose. Cellulose is used to contain each unit in plants; it will help to form unbending cell walls so that plant can place high and stay dull 6.

The energy source for the dead soul body is provided by glucose. Glucose is simple sugar as well as it being very important for metabolism in human. Glucose molecule having a small size, and since of their solubility in to the water, they can pass through the cell membrane into the cell.

1.2 Function in biology

Glucose is single of the main usually used aldohexose. Glucose has a very low tendency to react with amine groups of proteins. This effect is identified as glycation, which destroys the function of much protein; so with the purpose of glucose have more stable cyclic form compared to other aldohexoses. It takes less time than in its reactive open-chain form 7.

1.2.1 Energy respiration

Since germs to soul glucose are used as a power resource in organisms. This may be either though aerobic respiration, fermentation.

1.2.2 Aerobic respiration

Oxygen is required into classify to produce ATP is called aerobic respiration.

1.2.3 Anaerobic respiration

Respiration that uses electron acceptor, the oxidizing agent, is identified as electron acceptor while the reducing agent is known as an electron donor.

1.3 Fermentation

In fermentation mixture formation of bubbles of CO2 on the top is called fermentation. The human body requires energy that is obtained from glucose by aerobic respiration. It gives foodstuff power used for each gram of as regards 3.75 kilocalories 8.

1.3.1 Allose

Allose is aldohexose sugar; it is a rare monosaccharide. It is soluble in water and insoluble into methanol.

1.3.2 Altrose

It is an aldohexose sweetie D-altrose be a twisted monosaccharide. It is soluble in water and insoluble in to methanol.

1.3.3 Galactose

It is monosaccharide sugar, which is regarding as sugary as glucose and about thirty percentages as sweet as sucrose.

1.3.4 Gulose

Guloseis an aldohexose sugar, a monosaccharide so as to be extremely unusual into natural history; it is soluble in water and a little soluble into methanol.

1.3.5 Idose

Idose is hexose; it is 6 carbon monosaccharide; it is not found in nature.

1.3.6 Mannose

It is sugar monomer; it is imperative in human metabolism. The linear form of glucose form less than 3% of glucose particles in water solution. The break is 1 of 2 repeated form of glucose so as to create at what time the hydroxyl faction going on carbon 5 bond toward the aldehyde carbon 9.

1.4 A cyclic form of glucose

The bands arise since open sequence type with an intramolecular nucleophilic adding together effect connecting the aldehyde faction and whichever the C4 or C5 hydroxyl group. The effect among C-1 to C-5 yields a six - member hydro cyclic system called a pyranose. Each carbon into the band has 1 hydrogen with 1 hydroxyl attached, except for last carbon where the hydroxyl is replaced by the remainder of the open molecule 10.

1.5 Production

1.5.1 Biosynthesis

Glucose is a product in photosynthesis in plant life and several prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are a unicellular organism. The plant converts 6 water particle and 6 carbon dioxide particles into one glucose particle and 6 oxygen particles by using sunlight. Breakdown of polymeric glucose can also lead to the formation of glucose. Glucose is synthesized into animals into liver moreover kidneys by the method of gluconeogenesis. Glucose is complete in liver moreover kidneys in animals by non-carbohydrate intermediates such as pyruvate, lactate and glycerol.

1.5.2 Commercial

Commercially glucose is able to be manufactured by enzymatic hydrolysis a starch, many crops such as rice, wheat, corn, sago be every one of use as the basis of starch.

1.5.3 Physical properties

Glucose is colourless in its all forms and soluble in to the water, acetic acid and other solvents. Thinly soluble into methanol along with ethanol. Its open sequence type is unstable thermo dynamically and suddenly isomerizes toward the cyclic form. When it comes to solid-state, it depends on the condition, three main solid forms so as to be able to be crystallized from water solutions are a-glucopyranose, b-glucopyranose and b-glucopyranose hydrate 11.

1.5.4 Fructose

The word ''fructose'' was coined in eighteen fifty-seven from the Latin for fruits ''fructose'' and for sugar chemical generic ''-ose’’ 12. Fructose was found by French chemist augustin-pierre dubrunfaut in 1847. Fructose is very similar to glucose with little difference. The molecular formula of fructose is the same as with the purpose of glucose (CH2O)6, but there is a difference into their organization.

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Figure 1.4 Structure of Fructose

Fructose is resulting as of sugar cans, sugar beets and maize. Fructose is created into honey, a tree along with creeping plant fruits, flower, and berries along with the largest part source vegetables. The EUROPEAN rations security power confirmed to fructose is preferable more sucrose along with glucose. Fructose is a simple ketonic monosaccharide that creates into countless plant life in which, it is bonded with glucose to form a disaccharide, sucrose. Sucrose is complex with 1 particle of glucose covalently connected to 1 particle of fructose. With reference to 240,000 masses of crystalline fructose be twisted once a year 13.

1.5.5 Chemical properties

It is six carbon polyhydroxy ketone. Crystalline fructose has a cyclic 6-member structure that is calling D-fructopyranose. In solution, fructose exists as a balanced mix of seventy percentage fructopyranose and twenty-two percentage fructofuranose and little amount of other forms 14.

1.5.6 Physical and functional properties

The main reason that fructose is used into food along with beverages is that its relative sweetness among all naturally occurring carbohydrates. Sweetness is in rang of 1.2-1.8 times of sucrose 15 16. Fructose having 6 member rings is sweeter, fructose having five-member ring taste same as usual table sugar. If we warm fructose, then it will result in a structure of five-member ring form. Sweetness will decrease with increase in temperature.

1.5.7 Fructose solubility with crystallization

Fructoses have advanced solubility than extra sweetie moreover sweetie alcohols. Fructose is complicated toward shape up as of aqueous solution.

1.5.8 Food source

Naturally, fructose is obtained from vegetables and honey 17. Dietary resource of fructose as food are table sugar, fructose bump syrup, agave nectar, sweetie, molasses, crop moreover crop juice because these contain the main take of fructose compared to extra common food. Fructose exists in food either as a monosaccharide or as a disaccharide, glucose - fructose moreover sucrose could every current in food that’s the reason that special type of foodstuff contains varies the level of all three sugar.

1.5.9 Galactose

The word ''galactose'' is coined by Charles Weismann 18 in a mid-nineteen century from Greek galactose (milk) and chemical generic for sugar '' -ose'' 19 galactose (milk sugar) is monosaccharide sugar moreover it is since lovable as glucose moreover thirty percentage since lovable since sucrose. Galactose is 6-carbon sugar, a hexose; it has similar method as glucose but varies into the situation the hydroxyl faction going on carbon-4. Galactose is well-known since brain sugar.

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Figure 1.5 Structure of Galactose

1.5.10 Structure and isomerism

It exists in both the open-chain and cyclic form. Open chain form has carbonyl next to the ending of the chain. Cyclic forms have four isomers among that four two ''pyranose ring'' form, and other two are ''furanose ring form''. There are two anomers for cyclic form, named alpha and beta. Galactose can found in two enantiomers L-galactose and D-galactose. Enantiomers are stereo isomer so as to be connected to every other via reflection 20.

Pyranose ring means chemical structure includes a 6-member ring having 5 carbon atom and 1 oxygen molecule.

Furanose ring means chemical structure includes a 5-member ring having 4 carbon molecules along with 1 oxygen molecule.

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Figure 1.6 Structure of Alpha, Beta – D Galactopyranose

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Figure 1.7: Structure of Alpha, Beta –D Galactofuranose

1.5.11 Sources

Galactose is obtained from dairy product, avocados, sugar beets other gums mucilage’s. It is synthesized via the remains, anywhere it form fraction of glycolipids along with glycoprotein. Galactose and glucose are very important to join with lipid to form glycolipids and joining with proteins they form a glycoprotein. Glycolipids are the main section of membrane tissues of plants 21.

1.5.12 Glycolipids

Lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond. Glycosidic attachment is a style of covalent attachment so as to join a carbohydrate particle to one more faction which can before may not be a different carbohydrate.

1.5.13 Glycoprotein

It is a protein that contains oligosaccharide chains covalently attached toward polypeptide side chain. The polypeptide chain is a long continuous and unbranched peptide chain. Peptides are short-chain of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bond 22.

1.6 Polysaccharides

Many smaller monosaccharide’s’ are combined together and form a large molecule, is called a polysaccharide. Glucose is simply monosaccharide which is into the shape of simple sugar. Enzymes are used to attach these little monomers mutually and creating large polysaccharides. A polysaccharide is sometimes too recognized as glycan. Every part of the monosaccharides is same in polysaccharide, which knows how to be a homo polysaccharide 23 2425.

Polysaccharides are a variety of forms, depending ahead which monosaccharides are related along with which carbon connected in monosaccharides. There are 2 types of polysaccharides, one is a linear polysaccharide, and the other is branched polysaccharide. An instant sequence molecule of monosaccharide is identified since linear polysaccharide, and the chain which has armaments along with turn is identified since a divided polysaccharide 26.

1.6.1 Task of polysaccharide

Polysaccharide has a special type of functions in nature as depending upon its structure. Such a function include,

1. Storing power
2. Distribution cellular massages
3. Give support to tissues and cells Storage of power

For storage of energy, many polysaccharides are used into organisms. In polysaccharide, enzymes are used meant for manufacture of energy. Many monosaccharides are arranged in dense are in polysaccharides which is typically folded together. In monosaccharide the area shackles form many hydrogen bonds, in which water can not intrude molecules, so monosaccharide becomes hydrophobic. Due to this property, the molecules are waited mutually along with can’t dissolve in the cytosol. This will lower the attentiveness of sugar in cells 27. The polysaccharide can not only store energy but is in addition using to allow a change in a concentration gradient, which affects cellular up and about get of nutrients. Cellular communication

When polysaccharides become a connection to proteins or lipids covalently, they become glycoconjugates. Sending of signals between and within cells, glycolipids along with glycoproteins is able to be used. The special protein can be second - hand for identification of polysaccharide, which used to bind substance to the microtubule. Micro tubes and proteins tagged by specific polysaccharide within cells it takes any substance to its desired location 28. Cellular support

Lone of the major roles of polysaccharide is to provide support. Polysaccharide cellulose is recycled for supporting of everyone the plants on earth. Chitin is recycled for supporting the extra cellular matrix around the cells of microorganisms, like insects and fungi. To create more rigid, less rigid tissue, a figure of other apparatus is able to be miscellaneous by polysaccharide. Between chitin and cellulose, which is complete awake from glucose both are polysaccharides, hundreds of billions of tones is created every year by living organisms 29.

1.6.2 Structure of polysaccharide

The same basic process used for produced all polysaccharides: Monosaccharide’s are linked via glycosidic bonds. Individual monosaccharides are termed as residues in the polysaccharide. Some monosaccharides are formed in nature, which is seen below. Reaction masss of monosaccharides are joint in series depending ahead the polysaccharides 30 31.

The property and structure of polysaccharides are resulting from the structure by the monosaccharide molecule being combined. Polysaccharides are also resulting from the interaction between monosaccharide hydroxyl faction (OH), molecules configurations, and side groups. For storage of the energy, polysaccharides are recycled, and it will give easy access to monosaccharides, for keeping up the compact structure for the age of moment 32.

Polysaccharide usually gets together as long chain of monosaccharide’s, which is recycled to polysaccharides for storage of energy, which act as a fibber. Hydrogen link is created connecting fibbers, and it will build up the overall material structure 33.

In monosaccharide, the glycosidic link containing of an oxygen molecule, which is joined by 2 carbon rings. When carbon of 1 particle lost hydroxyl group, it will produce bond, while in another monosaccharide hydroxyl group lost the hydrogen atom. The glycosidic bond is produced when the carbon on top of the first particle will be replaced by an oxygen molecule as of the second molecule 34 35. As 1 particle of oxygen and 2 particles of hydrogen are removed, so water particle is produced. As water will be removed by reactants, so this kind of effect is identified since the dehydration reaction 36.

1.7 Example of polysaccharide

1.7.1 Starch

In the human body, more than 50% of carbohydrate intake will be due to starch carbohydrate. Starch is the most important source of carbohydrate. Starch is produced by plants in the form of granules. Starch is in large excess, particularly in tubers and in seeds, from where they are acting as storage in the formation of carbohydrates. During the photosynthetic activity, breaking of starch to glucose will provide nourishes to the plant 37.

The most common type of starch is potatoes as “starchy” food; another example of starchy food is potatoes 15%, corn 65%, wheat 55%, and rice 75%. Commercial starch will be available as a white powder. Starch will be produced by the mixtures of two components. One will be the amylase and second will be the amylopectin 38.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1.8: Structure of Starch

In starch, amylose amount will be the 10% - 30%; amylopectin amount will be 70% - 90%. Amylose is formed by α-1, 4-glycosidic linkages joined by d-glucose units so amylose will be a linear polysaccharide. The amylose-iodine complex will be formed because of the starch will be reacted with iodine, and blue-violet colour will appear. The small amount of starch in solution will be detected by this colour test 39.

Amylopectin is formed by α-1, 4-glycosidic linkages, but occasionally it will also be formed by α-1, 6-glycosidic linkages, as amylopectin is a branched-chain polysaccharide, in which glucose unit is primarily linked. Amylopectin is formed by thousands of glucose unit with a branching point, which occurs at about every 25-30 units. Amylopectin will not give blue-violet colour because of branching, so it will give reddish-brown colour with iodine 40.

Dextrin’s have intermediate size, which are glucose polysaccharides. In clothing, the shine and stiffness are imparted by starch is because of the presence of dextrin, when clothing is ironed. Dextrin’s have stickiness characteristic with wetting 41.

Dextrin’s are used for commercial production of infant foods, because of starch is difficult to digest than dextrin. Dextrin is easily digested. The hydrolysis product of starch will be glucose.

Starch Dextrin’s Maltose Glucose

1.7.2 Glycogen

In animal, glycogen carbohydrate is used for the reserve of energy. Glycogen carbohydrates stored in all mammalian cells. The highest amount of glycogen is stored in skeletal muscle cells, which is about 0.5%-1.0% and in the liver would be the 4%-8% by weight. In plants, starch will be present as carbohydrates, in muscle cells and liver glycogen will be present as granules 42.

Glycogen has a highly branched structure, and it has shorter branched. Glycogen structure will be similar to that of amylopectin. Glycogen has 8-12 glucose units in the structure.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1.9: Structure of Glycogen

As starch will gives blue-violet colour with reacted iodine, as similar gylcogen will give reddish brown colour when reacted with iodine. By using acid hydrolysis d-glucose sub unit will be produced from glycogen 43.

1.7.3 Cellulose

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1.10 Structure of Cellulose

In all plants, cellulose will be present as fibrous carbohydrate. In-plant cell walls it is present as a structural component. As the earth is blank eating with vegetation, in which Cellulose will be present in large amount among all carbohydrates. Cellulose has the highest amount of cotton fibrils and filter paper which would be 95% by weight. Cellulose is present in wood is 50% of the amount, and in leaves, it has to be 10-20% by weight 44.

Cellulose has many applications but the highest used in paper manufacturing and paper products. Over 70% of textile production has rayon and cotton in large excess (made from Cellulose), which is no cellulose synthetic fibers. Cellulose is a linear polymer (glucose) as amylose. However, cellulose is different from amylose as cellulose has glucose units, which are joined by β-1, 4-glycosidic linkages. Amylose has less extended structure than cellulose 45.

In the above structure, hydrogen bonding occurs between OH groups on adjacent chains. Because of hydrogen bonding cellulose exhibits interaction with water. Cotton and woods are cellulose carbohydrates which are insoluble in water and have high mechanical strength. As starch and glycogen will give specific colour with iodine, cellulose does not react with iodine because cellulose does not have a helical structure 46,47.

As the human body cannot metabolize the cellulose as a source of glucose, because hydrolysis of cellulose yields d-glucose. In the human body, our digestive fluid has a lack of enzymes, so β-glycosidic linkage found in cellulose will not hydrolyze, so we cannot eat grass. Cellulose can be digested by some microorganisms because they make cellulose enzyme, in which they catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose. In her bivorous animals, these microorganisms are present in the digestive system, so these enzymes help to animals for degrading the cellulose from the plant into glucose for energy 48 49.

1.7.4 Chitin

Chitin is formed by a modified chain of glucose. Chitin is a large structural polysaccharide. Chitin is found in the cell wall of fungi, exoskeletons of insects, and in spineless animals and fish. After cellulose chitin is available in large excess, by microorganisms in the biosphere chitin will be synthesized over 1 billion tons for each year. Chitin cannot be digested by vertebrate animals. Chitin is used in industrial applications such as binders for dyes and glues, surgical threads50,51.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1.11: Structure of Chitin

Chitin is strong fibers produced from monosaccharides. In cells chitin is secreted inside and outside in such manner, the fibers form weak bonds between each other, due to these weak bonds, the strength is increased in the entire structure. Keratin is a fibrous protein, while chitins made up from glucose monomer 52.

In the chitin structure, glucose exists as a ring of carbon and oxygen molecules. A glycosidic bond is formed between glucose molecules. Between substituted glucose, chitin is produced by a series of glycosidic linkages. In chitin, carbon and nitrogen is attached with a glucose molecule instead of hydroxyl groups 53.

Example of chitin is, it will present in arthropods animals. Arthropods animals have exoskeleton structure which is made up of chitin and proteins. Chitin is mixed with different proteins and makes wings of many insects. Chitin is also found in fungi which are helping to create cell wall in fungi 54.

1.8 Plant polysaccharides

1.8.1 Pectin

Pectin was first isolated by Henry beacon not, through the action of pectin to make jams. Pectin was first sold as a liquid extract, but now days, it is most often used as dehydrated powder, which is easier than a liquid to store and handle 55.

It is also known as pectic polysaccharides, rich in galacturonic acid. Several distinct polysaccharides have been identified and characterized within the pectic group. Homo galacturonans are linear chains of α-(1-4)-linked D-galacturonic acid. It is a structural hetero polysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of Terrie’s trial plants. It is obtained as white to light brown powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used as a gelling agent, specifically in jams and jellies. It is also utilized in dessert medicines, fillings, sweets as a stabilizer in milk drinks and fruit juices, and as the foundation of dietary fiber.

Substituted galacturonic are categorized by the presence of saccharide append ant residues (such as D-xylose or D-apiose in the respective cases of xylogalacturonan and homogalacturonan) branching from a backbone of D-galacturonic acid residues 56 57.

The rhamno galacturonan II is another type of structural pectin, which is a polysaccharide with a highly branched and complex chain. Rhamno galacturonan II is classified by some authors within the group of substituted galacturonic since the rhamno galacturonan II backbone is made exclusively of D-galacturonic acid units.

The molecular weight of isolated pectin has a typically 60,000-130,000 g/mol, varying with origin and extraction conditions. In nature, the galacturonic acid of carboxyl groups is around 80 percent are esterified with methanol. During pectin extraction, this proportion is decreased to a varying degree. In food applications, the esterifies to the non-esterified ratio of galacturonic acid defined the behavior of pectin. This is why pectins are classified as high-Vs. Low-ester pectins, with additional or fewer than half of all the galacturonic acid, esterified 58 59.

The free acids groups or sodium with sodium, potassium is non-esterified galacturonic acid units - the pectinates, which is produced by the salt of partially esterified pectins. If the degree of etherification is below 5 percent, the salts are called pectates, the insoluble acid form, and pectic acid.

In addition to methyl esters sugar beet, potatoes, and pears contain pectin with acetylated galacturonic acid 60. Acetylating prevents gel-formation but increases the stabilizing and emulsifying effects of pectin. The modified form of pectin is amidated pectin. Some of the galacturonic acids are converted with ammonia to carboxylic acid amide 61.

By dissolving and heating pectin, the pectin gel is formed. A gel starts to form by cooling below the gelling temperature. Syneresis or a granular texture has resulted if gel formation is too strong, but the soft gel is resulted by weak gelling. The individual pectin chains bind by the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, in high-ester pectin’s at solid soluble content above 60% and pH value between 2.8 and 3.6. These bonds form as water is bound by sugar and forces pectin strands to stick together. The macro molecular gel is created by the 3-dimensional molecular network 6263. The low-water-activity gel or sugar-acid-pectin gel is formed by the gelling mechanism.

The amidated pectin which behaves like low-ester pectin’s but need less calcium and is more tolerant of excess calcium 64. The amidated pectin is thermo-reversible gel; they can solidify before heating, where conventional pectin gels will after wards remain liquid. High-ester pectin’s set at higher temperatures than low-ester pectin. As the degree of etherification fall, the gelling reactions with calcium increases. The gelling speed is increased by lower PH values or higher soluble solids. Suitable pectin can, therefore, be selected for jams and for jellies, or SS for higher sugar confectionery jellies 65.

A large amount of pectin will be found in pears, guavas, apples, plums, quince, oranges and goose berries and citrus fruits. The small amount of pectin is found in soft fruits such as cherries, strawberries, grapes 66. The levels of pectin in plants:

1) Apples: 1-1.5%
2) Cherries: 0.4%
3) Apricots: 1%
4) Oranges: 0.5%-3.5%
5) Citrus peels: 30%
6) Carrots: 1.4%

The dehydrated citrus peels or apple pomace is used as main raw materials for pectin production. Both are by-products of juice production. The relatively small extent of raw material used is pomade from sugar beet. The pectin is extracted from such materials, by adding hot dilute acid at PH-values from 1.5-3.5. During several hours of extraction, the protopectin loses some of its branching and chain lengths and goes into solution. The extract is concentrated in vacuum, after filtering. Then by adding ethanol and or isopropanol pectin is precipitated. The precipitating of aluminum salt with pectin is a relatively old technique, so it is no longer used. (Proteins and detergents are also used in the precipitation of pectin, apart from alcohols and polyvalent captions) 67 68.

Alcohol precipitated pectin is separated, washed and dehydrated. The low-esterified pectins are produced by treating the initial pectin with acid. When this process includes ammonium hydroxide, amidated pectins are obtained. Pectin is usually standardized after drying and milling with sugar and sometimes organic acids or calcium salts to have optimum performance in a particular application 69.

Pectin is mainly used in stabilizer in food, gelling agent and thickening agent. The classical application is giving jelly-like consistency to jams. Pectin is also used in gelling sugar as an ingredient, for household uses where it is diluted to the right concentration with sugar and some citric acid to adjust PH. For home jam making, pectin is extracted or available as a solution or blended powder. High-ester pectins are used for conventional a jam that contains above 60% sugar and soluble fruit solids 70. When low-ester pectin is used, or amidated pectin is used, so less sugar is required, and diet product is obtained.

Pectin is used in medicine for increases viscosity and volume of stool so that it is used against diarrhoea. Until 2002, it is used along with kaolinite to combat diarrheal. In throat lozenges, pectin is used as a demulcent. It acts as a stabilizer in cosmetic products. Pectin is used in medical adhesives, wound healing preparations. In various oral drug delivery systems, Pectin is used. For example- gastro retentive systems and colon-specific delivery system. It was found that pectin from different sources provides different gelling abilities, due to variations in molecular size and chemical composition 7172.

1.9 Gums and it’s classification

It is produced from some shrubs and a tree by viscous secretion, which is hardened by the application of drying. It is solvable in water, and it is forms of adhesives and other products. From parts of plants like roots, leaves only a few gums are obtained by applying to heat these gums are decomposed without melting. Gums which are found in a large number of families are leguminous, sterculiaceae. Important gum producing families are combretaceae, meliaceae, anacardiaceous, rosaceous and rutaceae 73.

1.9.1 Classification:

Gums are present in varieties of plants, animals, seaweeds, fungi, and other microbial sources where it performs many structural and metabolic functions. Plants contain the highest amount of it. Gums are classified by 74

A. On the basis of the charge
B. On the basis of sources
A. According to charges:
1. Anionic polysaccharides
2. Cationic polysaccharides
3. Non-ionic polysaccharides
4. Amphoteric polysaccharides
5. Hydrophobic polysaccharides
1. Anionic polysaccharides: it is divided into two types:
A. Natural
B. Semi-natural
A. Natural:
Natural gums are xanthan gum, chondroitin sulfate, alginic acid, gum arabic, gum karaya, gum tragacanth 75.
B. Semi-natural:
Semi-natural gums are chitin, cellulose gum, carboxymethyl gums.
2. Cationic polysaccharides:
A. Natural: Chitosan
B. Semi-natural: Cationic guar gum
C. Cationic: Hydroxyethyl cellulose
3. Nonionic polysaccharides:
A. Natural: Starch, guar gum
B. Semi-natural: Cellulose ethers hydroxyethyl cellulose, methylcellulose
4. Amphoteric polysaccharides:
A. Semi-natural: Carboxymethyl chitosan, modified potato starch
5. Hydrophobic polysaccharides:
A. Semi-natural: Polyquaternium.
B. According to the sources:
- Marine origin/algal (seaweed) gums: Agar, carrageenans, alginic acid, laminarin.
- Plant origin:
Shrubs/tree exudates: Agar, alginic acid, laminarin.
Seed gums: Guar gum, okra gum, cellulose, and starch.
Extracts: Pectin
Tuber and roots: Potato starch
- Animal origin: Chitin and chitosan, hyaluronic acid
- Microbial origin: Xanthan, dextrin
Prepared gums:
- Biosynthetic gums xanthan, scleroglucan, dextrins.
- Starch and its derivatives, dextrins.
- Cellulose derivatives 76
- Starch derivatives: Starch acetate
- Cellulose derivatives: Carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, micro crystalline cellulose.
C. According to shape
Linear: Algins, amylose, cellulose, pectins.
Short branched: Xanthan, xylan, galactomannans
- Branched-on-branch: Amylopectin, gum arabic, tragacanth
D. According to monomeric units in chemical structure:
-Homoglycans: Amylose, arabinanas, cellulose
-Diheteroglycans: Algins, carrageenans, galactomannans
-Tri-heteroglycans: Arabinoxylans, gellan, xanthan
-Tetra-heteroglycans: Gum arabic, psyllium seed gum
-Penta-heteroglycans: Ghatti gum, tragacanth 77

1.9.2 Natural gums:

Gums obtained from plants. Natural gums are having high molecular weights, which are hydrophilic carbohydrate polymer. Natural gums are joined by glucocidic bonds, generally composed of monosaccharide unit. Solvents like ether, hydrocarbons are generally insoluble in oils. Gum gives a viscous solution, as they absorb water.

Arabinose, mannose is formed hydrolysis of natural gums. Commercial production of natural gums is restricted to a species of leguminosae. Seeds, seaweeds, microorganisms, seed coats or barns of corn, oats, wheat, rice, and soybeans are used for extraction of natural gums 78.

1.9.3 Tamarind gum

Tamarind gum is known as tamarind kernel powder, which is extracted from the seeds. From the seed of tamarind tree tamarind xyloglucan is obtained. By using grinding, separation, sieving, seed coat removal, the seeds are converted into the gum. Tamarind gum is a polysaccharide collected of glucosyl: xylosyl: galactosyl in the ratio of 3:2:1. In the main cell wall of higher plants, xyloglucan is a main structural polysaccharide 79.

Tamarind xyloglucan is insoluble in organic solvents and dispersible in hot water to form highly viscous gel such as mucilaginous solution with broad pH tolerance and adhesively. Tamarind gum is non-Newtonian and produced higher viscosities than other starches. In pharmaceutical and food industries, this has application as thickener, stabilizer, gelling agent and binder.

Tamarind seeds have mucoadhesivity, non-carcinogenicity, biocompatibility, high thermal stability. The magnetic microsphere is formed by cross-linking technique. Microsphere formed was in size range of 230-460 µm. The magnetic material used for the preparation of microspheres was prepared by precipitation from FeCl3 and FeSO4 solutions in the basic medium 80.

1.9.4 Locust bean gum

Another name of locust bean gum is carob gum. Locust bean gum is prepared by carob tree ceratonia siliqua, by refined endosperm of seeds. It is a tree which is defined by the legume family. Carob bean gum is gained by eliminating and treating the endosperm out of seeds of the carob tree 81.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1.12: Structure of Locust bean gum

Treating of the ground endosperm is achieved by dissolving the fine powder in boiling water and filtering to eliminate impurities. The gum is improved by evaporating the solution and tray or roll drying. Locust bean gum is plant seed galactomannan, composed of 1-4 linked β-d- mannan backbone with 1-6- linked α-d-galactose side groups. In cold water, neutral polymer is less soluble; neutral polymer required heat to achieve maximum viscosity and full hydration 82 83. By the use of galactomannan content, the physicochemical properties of locust beam are strongly influenced. The synergistic activity of locust bean gum and xanthan gum was studied by propranolol hydrochloride.

Granules of hydrochloride are prepared by using different drug: gum ratio of xanthan, locust bean gum, alone and a mixture of xanthan and locust bean gum (1:1). The xanthan locust bean gum matrices exhibited a precise, controlled release than the xanthan and locust bean gum in a controlled drug delivery system 84.

There was no chemical contact among drug and polymers in xanthan locust bean gum formulation as conformed by FTIR studies.

1.9.5 Tara gum

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1.13: Structure of Locust bean gum

From the seed endosperm of caesalpinia spinosa, commonly known as Tara the gum is derived. It is related to the family of leguminosae or fabaceae family. Tara gum is in white colour form nearly odorless powder. Tara gum is produced by grinding the black colour seeds endosperm 85. The galactomannan polymer is a major component of the Tara gum similar to locust bean gum and guar gum. Tara gum consists of a main linear chain of (1-4)-β-D-mannopyranose units with α-D-galactopyranose units attached by (1-6) linkages. The 3:1 ratio of mannose and galactose in Tara gum.

This ratio produced highly viscous solutions, even at 1% concentration. Tara gum requires heating to full dissolution; it is soluble in hot water while guar gum is soluble in cold water 86. Around the world Tara gum is used as a stabilizer and thickening agent in food applications. The use of Tara gum is in controlled drug release in the gastro retentive. Tara gum is also used in ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, nifedipine; carvedilol has been claimed in patients 87.

1.9.6 Honey locust bean gum

Honey locust bean gum is known as gleditsia triacanthos. It is related to the order leguminosae. The gum is achieved from the seeds of the plant. The seed contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates and fibers. Honey locust gum was used to produce matrix tablets at different concentration (5% and 10%) by the wet granulation method – theophyllin was chosen as a model drug 88.

The matrix tablets comprising hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethyl cellulose as sustaining polymers at the same concentration were arranged and a commercial sustained release tablet comprising 200 mg theophylline was studied for HLG performance 89.

No noteworthy change in in-vitro studies was found between tablets matrixes containing 10% HLG.

1.9.7 Guar gum

Guar gum derives from the endosperm of the seed of the legume plant cyanosis tetra gonolobus. Guar gum is prepared by first drying the pods in sunlight, then manually thus enhancing drug release 90.

A further enhancement in drug release was perceived with rat caecal contents attained after 7 days of pre-treatment. The existence of 4% w/v of caecal contents gained after 3 days and 7 days of enzyme initiate on presented biphasic drug release. The result illustrates the usefulness of guar gum as a potential carrier for colon-specific drug delivery 91.

1.9.8 Okra gum

Okra gum, received from the fruits of hibiscus esculentus, is a polysaccharide consisting of D-galactose, L-rhamnose and L-galacturonic acid. Okra gum is used as a binder. In paracetamol tablet formulations. These formulations containing okra gum as binder indicated a faster onset and greater amount of plastic deformation than those comprising gelatin. By enhancing binder concentration, the friability drop, so that the crushing strength and disintegration times of tablets increased. Although gelatin produced tablets with higher crushing strength, okra gum produced tablets with longer disintegration times than those containing gelatin 9293. It was as a final point concluded from the outcome that okra gum might be a useful hydrophilic matrix mediator in sustained drug delivery system.

In study, okra gum was evaluated as a controlled release agent in modified release matrices, in comparison with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose using paracetamol as a model drug 94. Okra gum matrices provided controlled release of paracetamol for more than six h, and release rates followed time-independent kinetics.

The release rates were dependant on the concentration of the drug present in the matrix. Okra gum compared favorably with NACMC, and a reaction mass of okra gum and NACMC or on further addition of HPMC resulted in near zero-order release of paracetamol from the matrix tablet. The result indicates that okra gum matrices could be useful in the formulation of sustained-release tablets for up to 6 h 95.

1.9.9 Khaya gum

It is a polysaccharide, derived from the trunk of tree khaya grandifoliola (family meliaceae). It is aloe vera leaves and the exudates arising from the cells adjacent to the vascular bundles. The bitter yellow exudates contain 1, 8 di-hydroxy anthraquinone derivatives and their glycosides 96. The aloe parenchyma pulp has been shown to include proteins, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, and small organic compound in adding to the singular carbohydrates. Lots of investigators have known partially acetylated mannan as the primary polysaccharide of the gel, while others found pectic substance as the primary polysaccharide 97.

Other polysaccharides such as arabinan, hamnogalactan, and glucuronic acid-containing polysaccharides have been isolated from the aloe vera inner leaf gel part. Aloe vera has been utilized for many periods for its curative and therapeutic properties. In pharmaceutical industry used for the produce of current products such as gel provision, as well as in the manufacture of tablets and capsules 98. Important pharmaceutical properties that have been recently discovered for both the aloe Vera gel and whole leaf extract include the ability to improve the bioavailability of co-administrated vitamins in human subjects. Dehydrated aloe Vera leaf gel was directly compressed in different ratios with a model drug to form matrix type tablets, including ratos of 1:1.5 and 1:2. Surrounding substance systems showed superior quality swelling properties that enlarged with an increase of aloe gel application in the formulation 99100.

1.10 What are gums and mucilage’s?

Gums are measured to be pathological products shaped following an injury to the plant or owing to uncomplimentary situations, like drought, by a breakdown of cell walls (gummosis: extracellular formation) while, mucilage’s are usually normal crops of metabolism, made within the cell (intracellular formation) and/or are formed without injury to the plant. Gums readily melt in water; on the other hand, mucilage form slimy masses. Gums are pathological products; however, mucilage’s are physiological products101102 103. Tragacanth, acacia and guar gum are instances of gums while mucilage’s are usually identified in various parts of plants. For instance, in the epidermal cells of leaves (senna), roots (marshmallow), in seed coats (linseed, psyllium), middle lamella (aloe) and barks (slippery elm) 104.

Gums and mucilage’s have some resemblances - both are plant hydrocolloids. Along with this, they are translucent amorphous substances and polymers of a monosaccharide or blended monosaccharide’s, and some of them are connected with uronic acids. Gums and mucilage’s have similar elements and on hydrolysis yield a reaction mass of uronic acids and sugars. Gums and mucilage comprise hydrophilic molecules that can syndicate with water to form viscous solutions or gels 105.

The nature of the composites consisted of effects on the properties of different gums. Linear polysaccharides reside in more space and are more viscous than extremely branched compounds of the same molecular weight. The divided compounds form gels more easily and are more steady due to broad interaction along the chains is not possible 106.

1.10.1 Advantages of natural gums and mucilage’s in pharmaceutical sciences

There are various numbers of advantages of natural plant-based materials. Biodegradable - naturally accessible biodegradable polymers are made by all living organisms. They characterize truly renewable foundation, and they have no opposing in fluence on humans or environmental health (e.g., skin and eye irritation). Biocompatible and non-toxic chemically, the majority of these plant materials are carbohydrates collected of reiterating sugar (monosaccharides) units. From this time, they are non- toxic 107. Low cost - it is constantly cheaper to utilize natural sources. The manufacturing cost is also cheaper in comparison with that for synthetic material. India and many other developing countries are reliant on agriculture. Nature - friendly processing - Gums and mucilage’s from dissimilar foundations are effort lessly composed in various periods in large quantities because of the simple production procedure simple mented 108.

Native accessibility (specifically in developing countries) in developing countries, governments supports the production of plant-like guar gum and Tara gam due to the extensive requests in various kinds of industries 109. Better patient open-mindedness along with public approval, there is less casual of side and contrary effects with natural resources in comparison with a synthetic one. For instance, PMMA, povidone. Edible sources – most gums and mucilage’s are gained from edible sources 110.


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Synthesis and characterization of drug carrier based on polysaccharides
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Author: Prof. (Dr.) Nirmal K. Patel Co-Author: Dr. Savan H. Patel Pls add author and co-author name on the cover page of book. Prof. (Dr.) Nirmal K. Patel have more than twenty years of experience in both academic and industry. He published more than fifty research papers in reputed national and international journals. Prof. Nirmal guided ten research students for Ph.D. degree and more than fifty scholars for their post graduate dissertation project works. He is an author of two books and five book chapters.
extraction of okra gum, derivatives of okra gum, hydro gel, drug carrier, in vitro drug release study
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Prof. (Dr.) Nirmal K. Patel (Author)Dr. Savan H. Patel (Author), 2022, Synthesis and characterization of drug carrier based on polysaccharides, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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