Evaluating measurement properties of collage research

Development of brand representations


Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 2006

21 Pages, Grade: 1,7


Excerpt

Index

Abstract

1 Development of brand representations and collage research

2 Collage research – Classification and definition
2.1 Qualitative research
2.2 Visual research
2.3 Characteristics of the collage technique

3 Measurement properties in general and evaluating measurement properties in collage research
3.1 Objectivity
3.2 Reliability
3.2.1 Forms of obtaining reliability
3.2.2 Conclusions for the collage research
3.3 Validity
3.3.2 Content validity
3.3.3 Construct validity
3.3.4 Criterion or instrumental validity
3.3.5 Theoretical validity
3.3.6 Consultative validity
3.3.7 Conclusions for the collage research

4 Subsumption and outlook

5 References

Abstract

This paper investigates the evaluation of the measurement properties of collage research. After a classification and an introduction about the qualitative and visual research, the collage technique is described. Different characteristics and aspects of a collage are shown.

Then, the classical measurement properties are explained in detail: Objectivity, reliability and validity. A conclusion is always pointed out of the results for the collage research. All in all, the classical measurement properties cannot be adapted simply to the collage technique. Finally, the most important issues are resumed and an outlook for further researches is taken.

The analysis is focused on expert literature like market research papers and different textbooks. The difficulty was to develop guidelines for the collage research based on the classical measurement properties. Besides, a discussion with a researcher enforced the results in a qualitative way. Finally the soundness of the findings is guaranteed due to the continuous review of the sources and the data.

1 Development of brand representations and collage research

The collage research becomes more and more important nowadays. Some issues are difficult to solve without a holistic brand definition and view. This is the case when it comes to the development of brand representations. Children often cannot express themselves textual but rather through pictures and emotions. The question about the different brand views and their development has to be examined in a fundamental and qualitative manner. It can be argued that a collage research is adequate to find out more about this phenomenon.

2 Collage research – Classification and definition

2.1 Qualitative research

Collage research is a method of visual research, which is a form of qualitative research.[1]

Qualitative research is a set of research techniques in which data are obtained from a relatively small group of respondents. By contrast, in the quantitative research a large group of respondents provide data that are statistically analyzed. The hypothesis that qualitative research neglects numeracy is not correct but it is more concentrated on field than on laboratory researches.[2] Furthermore, it merges different research methodologies.[3] Qualitative methods are used to define a problem and identify determinants. They can be better than quantitative research at probing below the surface for affective motivations because they are able to provide realistic results and show the natural emotions of people.[4]

The most important qualitative research techniques are the narrative and the visual research, which is still often neglected.[5]

2.2 Visual research

The visual research is a part of the qualitative research and becomes more and more important in this time. Everywhere we are confronted with pictures, photos, posters, flyers or logos. In general, nowadays a lot of information is communicated visually. Nevertheless, brand research and marketing research, in contrary to psychology and sociology, still do not emphasise enough the visual research methods.[6]

But it is obvious that no fundamental picture-theories or sciences already exist, unfortunately it is just developing now. In most cases too much information is connected with less precise knowledge. There are different reasons which support a visual interpretative research.[7]

The first one is that brands are created: The brand represents different perceptions and beliefs of the consumer and he could even “tinker” his own brand collage. The purpose is to analyse the semantic and episodic memory. But it is often difficult or impossible for the respondents to express all their feelings and cognitions through talking and explaining, so pictures can support this process.[8]

The second reason for visual research methods is that brands are experienced or even lived. The spectrum for developing a visual brand collage reaches from products, advertisements and news to stories and especially to own experiences. The involvement and the connection to the brand are even higher if the consumer experienced it himself. Based on this, the respondent creates his own view of the brand.

The last argument refers to the actual need of understanding the brand: The integrative marketing view states that the brand has to be an information and identification tool for all target groups including consumers, shareholders, employees and distributors. On the one hand a strong brand motivates the employees and provides self-confidence; on the other hand everyone can be a representative for it.[9]

Different visual research methods are for example photo-elicitation (autodriving), psychodrawings, ZMET or the collage research.

Pictures are also used as a stimuli for the storytelling test, which is a narrative research methodology. In the practice the visual and narrative research are often combined because the respondents also want to explain the storyline in their own way.[10]

2.3 Characteristics of the collage technique

„The collage technique refers to a method in which participants are asked to represent a topic or phenomenon visually by composing and gluing together a collage of images, drawings and texts on a piece of cardboard of paper. This collage is then used projectively, as a stimulus and probe for subsequent interviews with the participant on the topic“.[11]

It is also called brand bricolage and defined as an aesthetic-technical method that combines different elements to a new association. The test persons have to construct collages of material like magazines, prospects or pictures.

Collage research is appropriate to recreate brand-knowledge and in contrary to spoken words multidimensional. Originally, collages and photography belong to the modern art. A collage is a collection of combined, real objects. It is never complete and depends also on hazards. The question of right and wrong looses relevance and the possibilities of creating are unlimited. But it is important that something is constructed which bases on an idea. Collages or pictures are also understood as brand messages.[12] At the moment the pictures still play a more important role in cultural research but results can be generated for brand research methods, too. Especially when people are not able to express themselves perfectly with words, for example children, pictures and collages can help to figure out ideas of more emotional and sensible brand expectations. But the people have to understand the message, relevance and interpretation of the brand. In addition to that, the visual research and collage research cannot be standardised easily because collages, pictures and visual impressions are always subjective, interpretative and abstract.[13]

Finally, in a lot of cases, three aspects of brand-collages are existent: People, services offered by the brand and other brands.[14]

All in all, the following assumptions of the collage technique can be made: The communication is often nonverbal and thoughts are based on images and pictures. Moreover even metaphors are expressed through pictures and emotions and cognitions merge in the mind of the consumer.[15]

But before the quality of a qualitative or a collage research can be figured out, the measurement properties have to be evaluated.[16]

Besides, the reliability and validity are important requirements for a method to evaluate brands. Other requirements in general are for example the future orientation, the efficiency and practicability, the quantitative output and the discovering of the key-factors.[17]

3 Measurement properties in general and evaluating measurement properties in collage research

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

[18], 19

Mathematical illustration:[19]

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

In general an additional confidence interval provides more consistent results because the impact of the systematical error is typically bigger than the random error.[20]

3.1 Objectivity

Sometimes discussions on validity also revolve around objectivity of research. In cultural research, this way of thinking about validity is problematic because it is believed that knowledge is never value-free and that no method can deliver an ultimate truth about the state of matters in social life.[21]

We simply have no access to the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, about how things are.

In the context of the heuristic assumption it means that “everything in the universe can, in principle, be explained in terms of causality.”[22]

In the natural sciences objectivity is given when on the one hand the test is explained clearly and explicitly and on the other hand when the findings are theoretically substantiated. However, the “positivist” view says that in the external world exists the one and only truth.[23]

Objectivity is the independence of the measurement from subjective influences, like for example the researcher, and can be divided into three steps.[24],[25]

At first, objectivity is required during the implementation of the research. This fact is given when the answer-behaviour or the behaviour of the test-person in general is not influenced by the researcher, neither in data-generation nor in the test preparation.[26]

The risk of exerting influence on the test-person is higher if the interviewee is directly from the organisation. Almost all employees have interests, for example new marketing decisions or brand implementations, and if the researcher is company-intern it could have an impact on the process. Besides, consumers answer more honest and objectively if the interviewee is not part of the explored company, especially when it comes to uncomfortable or even embarrassing topics, like the question of the reason for not being consumer of a brand or product.

[...]


[1] Blümelhuber, Christian (Visuelle Markenforschung, 2004), p. 92, 96

[2] Kirk, Jerome; Miller, Marc L. (Reliability and validity in qualitative research, 1986), p. 10

[3] Kirk, Jerome; Miller, Marc L. (Reliability and validity in qualitative research, 1986), p. 12

[4] Kirk, Jerome; Miller, Marc L. (Reliability and validity in qualitative research, 1986), p. 9

[5] Blümelhuber, Christian (Visuelle Markenforschung, 2004), p. 578

[6] Blümelhuber, Christian (Visuelle Markenforschung, 2004), p. 573f

[7] According to Banks, Marcus (Visual methods in social research, 2001), p. 1ff

[8] Blümelhuber, Christian (Visuelle Markenforschung, 2004), p. 573f

[9] Blümelhuber, Christian (Visuelle Markenforschung, 2004), p. 576f

[10] Blümelhuber, Christian (Visuelle Markenforschung, 2004), p. 581

[11] Moisander, Johanna; Valtonen, Anu (Qualitative Marketing Research 2006), p. 96

[12] Blümelhuber, Christian (Visuelle Markenforschung, 2004), p. 582

[13] Sykes, W. (Validity and reliability in qualitative market research, 1990), p. 294

[14] Blümelhuber, Christian (Visuelle Markenforschung, 2004), p. 578ff

[15] Zaltman, Gerald (Rethinking Market Research, 1997), p. 424-428

[16] Moisander, Johanna; Valtonen, Anu (Qualitative Marketing Research 2006), p. 21

[17] Trommsdorff, V. (Verfahren der Markenbewertung, 2004), p. 1866

[18] According to Hüttner (Grundzüge der Marktforschung, 1997), p. 14

[19] Homburg, C.; Krohmer, H. (Grundlagen und Prozesse der Marktforschung, 2003), p. 223f

[20] Kuß, Alfred (Valide Daten – die Grundlage für aussagefähige Marktforschung, 1993), p. 17f

[21] Moisander, Johanna; Valtonen, Anu (Qualitative Marketing Research 2006), p. 24

[22] Kirk, Jerome; Miller, Marc L. (Reliability and validity in qualitative research, 1986), p. 10

[23] Kirk, Jerome; Miller, Marc L. (Reliability and validity in qualitative research, 1986), p. 13f

[24] Homburg, C.; Krohmer, H. (Grundlagen und Prozesse der Marktforschung, 2003), p. 223

[25] Wyss, Werner (Marktforschung von A-Z, Eine Einführung aus der Praxis 1991), p. 54f

[26] Morgan, David L. (Focus Groups in Qualitative Research, 1998), p. 48f

Excerpt out of 21 pages

Details

Title
Evaluating measurement properties of collage research
Subtitle
Development of brand representations
College
LMU Munich
Grade
1,7
Author
Year
2006
Pages
21
Catalog Number
V131168
ISBN (eBook)
9783640367030
ISBN (Book)
9783640367351
File size
551 KB
Language
English
Tags
Evaluating, Development
Quote paper
Daniel Lehmann (Author), 2006, Evaluating measurement properties of collage research, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/131168

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