Supplier Development and Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Uganda

A Case of Uganda Breweries Ltd

Master's Thesis, 2022

128 Pages, Grade: 3




1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Study objectives
1.3.1 General objective of the study
1.3.2 Specific objectives of the study
1.4 Hypothesis of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.5.1 Content Scope
1.5.2 Geographical Scope
1.5.3 Time Scope
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Justification of the study
1.8 Definition of Key Terms
1.9 Conceptual Frame work
1.10 Conclusion

2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Review
2.1.1 Theory of Constraints (TOC)
2.1.2 Resource Dependence Theory (RDT)
2.2 Overview of the study concepts
2.2.1 Supplier Development
2.2.2 Procurement Performance
2.3 Actual review
2.3.1 Supplier training and procurement performance.
2.3.2 Early supplier involvement (ESI) and procurement performance
2.3.3 Financial assistance and procurement performance
2.3.4 Buyers – Supplier Relationships
2.4. Conclusion and Literature Gap

3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of study
3.3 Study population
3.4 Sampling Procedures
3.4.1 Sample size
3.4.2 Sampling Techniques
3.5 Data sources
3.5.1 Primary sources
3.5.2 Secondary sources
3.6 Data Collection Methods and Instruments
3.6.1 Data Collection Methods
3.6.2 Data Collection Tools/Instruments
3.7 Quality control
3.7.1 Validity
3.7.2 Reliability
3.8 Measurement of variables
3.9 Data Analysis
3.9.1 Quantitative Analysis
3.9.2 Qualitative Analysis
3.10 Ethical consideration
3.11 Limitations of the study

4.0 Presentation, Analysis, and discussion of findings
4.1 Response Rate
4.2 Respondents’ Background Information
4.2.1 Gender
4.2.2 Respondent’s Age
4.2.3 Respondents level of Education
4.2.4 Number of years while working with UBL
4.3 Descriptive statistics
4.3.1 Effects of Supplier Training on procurement performance
4.3.2 Procurement Performance in UBL
4.3.3 Supplier relationship in UBL
4.4 Inferential statistics
4.4.1 Correlation Coefficients
4.4.2 Regression Models
4.4.3 Regression Coefficients
4.4 Conclusion

5.0 Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of findings
5.1.1 Effects of Supplier Training on Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms.
5.1.2Effects of Early Supplier Involvement on Procurement Performance of Manufacturing firms
5.1.3Effects of Financial Assistance on Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms
5.2. Conclusions
5.2.1 Supplier Training and Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms.
5.2.2 Early supplier involvement and Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms.
5.2.3 Financial Assistance and Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms.
5.3 Recommendations
5.3.1 Supplier Training on Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms.
5.3.2 Early Supplier Involvement on Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms.
5.3.3 Financial assistance on Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms.
5.4 Areas for further studies






Appendix III



APQC American Productivity and Quality Center

CVI Content Validity Index

EABL East African Breweries Limited

ES1 Early Supplier Involvement

GDP Gross Domestic Product

IMF International Monetary Fund

ISO International Standards Organization

KPI Key Performance Indicators

OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

RDT Resource Dependence Theory

SCM Supply Chain Management

S-CVI Scale Content Validity

SD Supplier Development

SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences

SRM Supply chain Risk Management

Std.Dev Standard Deviation

TOC Theory of Constraints

UBL Uganda Breweries Limited

UK United Kingdom

USA United States of America


The study sought to establish the effect of supplier development on procurement performance of manufacturing firms. The study specifically looked at the effect of supplier training on procurement performance of manufacturing firms, the effect of early supplier involvement on procurement performance of manufacturing firms and the effect of financial support on procurement performance of manufacturing firms.

The study adopted a descriptive cross section research design and used both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The target population was 502employees of UBL where a sample size of 217 respondents was selected using the Krejice and Morgan table. Information was solicited from respondents by use of questionnaires which was based on five-point Likert scale and interview guide. Quantitative data analysis presented using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics whereas content qualitative data was presented using verbatim.

Generally, the findings of the study clearly showed that supplier training significantly affect procurement performance of UBL (adjusted R Square =.564). Findings further revealed that early supplier involvement moderately affects procurement performance of UBL (Adjusted R Square =431). The results also showed that financial assistance significantly affect procurement performance of UBL (adjusted R Square =.652). Findings again showed that the supplier training, early supplier involvement and financial support predicts 74.3%of procurement performance in UBL (Adjusted R Squared =.743)

Basing on the findings of the study it was concluded that there is a significant relationship between supplier training and procurement performance of UBL. Any efforts put into supplier training will significantly improve procurement performance. Early supplier involvement was however having moderate relationship with procurement performance, and it was further concluded that there was a significant relationship between financial assistance and procurement performance of manufacturing firms like UBL. This was attributed to the fact that respondents agreed that providing prompt payment, advance payments and credit guarantees improves the production and supplying capabilities of suppliers thus leading to improvement in procurement performance of UBL.

Basing on the conclusion, the research recommended that there is need for the managers in manufacturing firms to periodically organize seminars, workshops and field days for the company suppliers so that they can easily interface with them. Production managers should also make use of supplier knowledge by bringing them on board during product design and constant information sharing. Procurement managers in manufacturing firms should introduce and support policies that are aimed at supporting suppliers financially. Paying suppliers promptly, giving credit guarantees and advance payments helps a lot in improving the production and supplying abilities of suppliers.

1.0 Introduction

The Uganda Breweries Limited case study was used in this study to examine the impact of supplier development on the procurement performance of manufacturing firms. Companies are relying more on their supply chain as a source of competitive advantage in the highly competitive business environment. The importance of purchasing and supply management has increased, but so has the reliance on suppliers. Because it plays vital roles in manufacturing organizations and is heavily involved in establishing a competitive advantage, supplier development is important for suppliers because their activities have a favourable impact on the procurement performance (Jabbour, 2009). Businesses need to design operational strategies to make sure they maintain and grow commercial ties in order to compete successfully and thrive in the global market. They must create an operational strategy to make sure they uphold and cultivate commercial ties with a capable and competent network of suppliers and derive the most benefit possible from these connections. The buying firm may need to engage in supplier development to establish and maintain such a network and to enhance capabilities required for the buying organization to meet its growing competitive difficulties.

The study's background, problem statement, general and particular objectives, research questions, research hypothesis, study scope, definitions of important terminologies, conceptual framework, and conclusion were all covered in this chapter.

1.1 Background of the study

Supplier development may significantly improve procurement performance, which is a comprehensive process for guaranteeing that the value of procurement increases in any procurement organization (Weele, 2000). In order to improve quality of goods, value for money, punctuality, and client satisfaction—all crucial elements of successful procurement performance—suppliers are trained, given the necessary capital or equipment, fairly counseled, and technically supported (Nagurney, 2010). According to Monczka et al. (2008), an organization should hold seminars and workshops at least once per fiscal year and should contact its suppliers to arrange for the necessary training, particularly with regard to how the organization handles its inventory, stock management, supply chain performance, and other related tasks. They always inform the suppliers to go above and beyond so as to improve performance.

Due to their collaborative working relationship, an improvement in supplier performance translates to an improvement in the purchasing organization.

The supplier development idea emerged from the Japanese automobile sector following World War 2, claim (Lubale & Kioko, 2016). Later, supplier development spread and took hold in European and American manufacturing companies beyond the automotive sector, including John Deere, Motorola, Harley-Davidson, Digital Equipment Corporation, and Marks & Spencer (Chavhan, et al., 2012).

Supplier development has become a crucial component in preserving or enhancing a company's competitiveness, which in turn leads to organizational improvement, according to (Wachiuri, et al., 2015). First, demands from technology and competition have increased the trend toward specialization. Second, competition itself has changed in character. According to Feigenbaum (2013) and others, effective global competition combines the traditional and obvious form of competition (product versus product) with a less obvious but no less effective form of competition involving companies' ability to implement and manage a total quality management process, of which suppliers are essential components. Only recently has supplier development in Africa started to attract more attention, and even then, it has largely been in the manufacturing sector.

Nowadays, the majority of businesses are aware of how crucial supplier development is to create and protect their competitive edge. Due to this, purchasing research has attempted to concentrate on supplier development initiatives and investigate how these programs affect performance, which ultimately results in organizational improvement (Humphreys, 2013). The goal of supplier development is to help current and potential suppliers generate and provide high-quality inputs to their potential customers. Since no business is able to meet all of its supply requirements from internal sources, supplier development assists organizations in meeting their current and future requirements (Fu, Zhu &Sarkis, 2012). In the majority of cases, large corporations lend a hand by providing resources to small vendors and suppliers who have shown a desire to meet the demands of their customers.

The five rights of procurement—right quality, right quantity, right place, right time, and lastly, right place—are most often used to measure performance.

Supplier development, according to Miocevic and Crnjak (2012), is any action taken by a buying firm to raise the performance of its suppliers. Blome, Hollos, and Paulraj (2014) noted that a buying firm's activities such as "objective setting, supplier evaluation, performance measurement, supplier training, and other relevant ones" may be included in supplier development. According to Dza, Fisher, and Gapp (2013), a collection of practices including formal supplier evaluation, certification, recognition, informal supplier evaluation, supplier site visits, training, and buyer sites and facilities visits were all part of direct engagement as a determinant of supplier development.

The procurement function's ability to accomplish the goals and objectives with the least amount of expense is measured by the procurement function's performance (Van Weele, 2002). In an economic downturn, the purchasing department plays an ever-more-important role in the supply chain, making it crucial to monitor procurement performance (Vonderembse & Trancey, 1999). According to (Vonderembse & Tracey, 1999), a decrease in the price of raw materials and services might enable businesses to aggressively market the price of their finished items in order to acquire business, while quality and prompt supply delivery should also be important factors. The quantity of money saved by the business serves as a clear performance indicator of the effectiveness of any purchasing department (Nyeko, 2004). Therefore, it is essential to comprehend, adhere to, and put into practice in each function and action a clear connection between the business strategy and procurement plan (Vonderembse & Tracey, 1999). According to Buvik and John (2000), procurement has always been crucial to an organization's success.

Countries like the United States, Japan, Britain, and Germany who have implemented supplier development programs have seen high performance levels in their firms (Wagner, 2006). The management of the company creates a method to increase the suppliers' productivity with the goal of adding value to the company. Countries like China who recognize the need of fostering suppliers also record performance excellence in their job, a factor that is transforming China into one of the world's industrial powers.

Over the past few decades, a lot of businesses in industrialized economies have outsourced and off shored components, products, and functions (Ehrgott, 2013) As a result, suppliers are frequently found in far-off emerging economies. Such nations are usually characterized by somewhat subpar environmental, social, and ethical standards in the supplier's operational procedures (Busse, 2014). Nowadays, suppliers' sustainability-related circumstances are a consideration as well. In the past, customers' purchasing interests were mostly based on the quality and price of the goods they acquired, as well as purchasing risks and delivery conditions. Furthermore, purchasers are under intense pressure from their stakeholders to manage their global supply chains in a way that is socially and environmentally responsible (Meixell, 2015) Particularly, supplier development is a potent tool that buyers can use to mold their supply with(Reuter, et al., 2010).

The buyer and the supplier may both need to invest time, money, and resources in the development of their suppliers. Consequently, both parties must make a commitment.

Even though they have a large manufacturing base, East African nations like Kenya have not yet built their supplier bases. Less development-related mechanisms have been employed in Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda. Yegon, Kosgei, and Lagat (2015) also looked into how supplier development affected the effectiveness of procurement.

In Uganda, efforts to address rising disobedience of delivery deadlines, disregard for the client, lack of some crucial materials in the supply chain, and provision of items that were subpar were first expressed in the form of supplier collaborations (Ntayi and Eyaa, 2010).The upgrading of the procurement system in 2003 necessitated the implementation of supplier management in public organizations. Muhwezi (2012) provides additional evidence that organizations in Uganda did not always make a significant effort to supervise their suppliers. This used to cause problems for a lot of businesses, particularly when it came to billing, costs, and supplies that were delivered late. According to Basheka (2008), however, the initiative to ensure that procurement performance improves has created a way for supplier management to ensure that issues with noncompliance with delivery deadlines, disregard for the client, lack of some crucial materials in the supply chain, supplying of goods that were deemed substandard, persistent denial of supplies, rejecting of products, and rising payment deferral are solved.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The quality and quantity of the raw material supply, which does not match the heavy machinery being used in the company, as well as the high tax charges imposed on them, have been Uganda Breweries Limited's key issues over the past few years (Kazibwe, 2020). However, only 40% of the raw materials used are sourced from local communities, and 60% of them are imported. This presents a challenge for the company given the unpredictable nature of the global economy, the constant depreciation of the Ugandan shilling against the US dollar, and the high rates of inflation throughout the nation. This raises the company's operating costs in terms of taxes and foreign exchange rates and results in unnecessary stock outs and high procurement costs (UBL, 2019).

UBL has chosen to embrace a local raw materials agenda in response to the aforementioned difficulties, and the company has worked to foster partnerships with the local farmers and suppliers (UBL, 2019). Barley producing regions have been expanded to Kigezi in South Western Uganda as a result of using local suppliers, but more work needs to be done, particularly in terms of quality, supply capacity, and delivery time (UBL, 2019). Therefore, if UBL is to stop over-relying on imported raw materials, which has already proven to be unsustainable in terms of costs, improve the quality of local supplies, and also increase the supply capacity of local suppliers, it is necessary to engage suppliers early on and to support them financially (supplier financing).

Despite the fact that many academics have studied supplier development, there has been little research on how it affects manufacturing enterprises specifically in Uganda's procurement performance. This fact calls for more research. Researchers like (Krause, 2002) and (Lysons & Farrington, 2006)have studied supplier development, focusing on how it influences procurement performance. Since few supplier development techniques were examined, a partial analysis of the issue was made. This study was done because further research needs to be done.

1.3 Study objectives

1.3.1 General objective of the study

To examine the effect Supplier Development on Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Uganda while using Uganda breweries limited as a case study.

1.3.2 Specific objectives of the study

i. To examine the effect of supplier training on procurement performance of manufacturing firms.
ii. To assess the effect of early supplier involvement on procurement performance of manufacturing firms.
iii. To establish the effect of financial assistance on procurement performance of manufacturing firms.

1.4 Hypothesis of the Study

i. Supplier training has a positive effect on procurement performance of manufacturing firms.
ii. Early supplier involvement has a positive effect on procurement performance of manufacturing firms.
iii. Financial assistance has a positive effect on procurement performance of manufacturing firms.

1.5 Scope of the Study

1.5.1 Content Scope

The research captured information concerning the effect of supplier development on procurement performance of manufacturing firms specifically Uganda Breweries Limited. In this case supplier development, which was indicated by supplier training, early supplier involvement and financial assistance was the independent variable and procurement performance which was indicated by cost savings, spend under management, sourcing cycle time and price competitiveness was the dependent variable.

1.5.2 Geographical Scope

The study was carried out at Uganda Breweries Limited on Plot 3 – 17 Port Bell, P. O Box 7130 Kampala -Uganda, along port-bell road in Luzira, Nakawa division, Kampala District because it’s a manufacturing firm that would have the necessary information for the study between supplier development and procurement performance since it carried out various supplier development schemes in the organization operations that were also convenient for the study.

1.5.3 Time Scope

The study covered information relating to the period between 2015 and 2020 because this is the period in which UBL introduced numerous products and embarked on the local raw material agenda in order to increase supplies for newly introduced products (UBL, 2016).The study was conducted from February to September 2022.

1.6 Significance of the Study

To Academicians

The study can add to the existing body of knowledge and literature on supplier development and procurement performance which can be used by other researchers and academicians. The findings can be used as a reference point by other researchers and academicians.

To Organizations

This study can provide insight to the manufacturing firms in Uganda on how they can leverage on supplier development process to enhance their procurement performance for their firms.

Upon gathering evidential proof that supplier development fosters procurement performance and hence growth, other non-manufacturing organizations can consider adopting the recommendations thereby benefiting from the study.

To Policy Makers

The results can provide avenue to policy makers on the mechanisms that can be established on enhancing the management of the brewery industry and thus the study can guide in establishing policies that can enhance their functionality of the organization.

1.7 Justification of the study

Competition is no longer limited to company versus company in an era of free trade and a market that is always changing but has instead expanded to a bigger structure that encompasses competition amongst supply chains as virtual firms in highly dynamic business environments. Thus, the development offers small businesses in underdeveloped nations like Uganda the chance to join numerous interconnected worldwide supply chains. Manufacturing companies typically invest a lot of time and energy in the development of their suppliers because their capabilities and performance are frequently less than anticipated. Despite all of the work and money put into it, supplier development is not always successful since there are few studies on the subject at hand. For this reason, the study is significant because it offers a thorough understanding of how supplier development affects procurement performance (Kadi, Tam and Ali, 2011).

Few studies have been conducted in Uganda about supplier development and procurement performance, for example a study conducted by (Bosa, 2019) of Kampala International University, and those that have been conducted, they have not considered beverage industry as a priority but they have considered other sectors/industries, the beverage industry being considered as a priority by Wagner (2006) and (Krause, et al., 2000)

Additionally, as previously stated in the problem statement, UBL's performance in terms of procurement has fallen short of expectations, particularly when it comes to difficulties with the amount and quality of raw materials delivered, which have grown to be a top priority for the organization. Therefore, it was believed that this study may play a significant role in offering solutions to issues influencing UBL's procurement performance.

1.8 Definition of Key Terms

Supplier Development (SD) is defined as the process of working with certain suppliers on a one-to-one basis to improve their performance for the benefit of the buying organization (Nair, Jayaram and Das,2015).

Procurement performance is referred to as the efficiency and effectiveness in acquiring of goods and services in the procurement function in order to change from being reactive to being proactive to attain a certain level of set performance levels in an entity (MacDuffie and Helper. 2007).

Supplier Training is defined as a program for supplier development that receives training assistance from buyers in form of workshops, field days and seminars(Chavhan, et al., 2012).

Financial Assistance according to Choi (1999) refers to the buyers’ effort towards its suppliers to continuously spot financial weaknesses within its supply base and taking the necessary financial support to avoid such supply disruptions and increase supplier financial health so as to meet his short-term and long-term financial obligations.

Early Supplier Involvement (ESI) refers to a form of vertical collaboration between supply chain partners in which the buyer involves the supplier at an early stage of the product development process so as to reduce lead times (Eisto, 2010).

Spend Under Management

Toikka (2021) describes spend under management is the amount of spend managed by procurement out of total company spend. Spend under management will never be 100% but can come close to 80% with the right approach.

1.9 Conceptual Frame work

A conceptual framework includes a brief description of the phenomenon being studied and a graphical or visual representation of the key study variables (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2009). The relationship between the independent variable, in this instance Supplier development, and the dependent variable, in this case Procurement performance, is shown, according to (Kothari, 2006), using a conceptual framework. A conceptual framework is used at the commencement of the majority of academic studies since it aids in the researcher's clarification of the issue and purpose of the study.


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Adopted from (Wachiuri, et al., 2015), (Lukhoba & Muturi, 2015), and (Kibwana &Kavale2019) and modified by the researcher.

According to the conceptual framework presented above, the study's independent variable, supplier development, was represented by the following elements: supplier training, which includes seminars, workshops, and field days; early supplier development, which involves idea generation and product design; supplier communication and information sharing; and technology sharing; and financial assistance, which includes prompt payment, advance payment inputs, and credit guarantees.

The buyer-supplier relationship is the moderator variable, while procurement performance was the dependent variable, measured by cost savings, expenditure under management, sourcing cycle time, and price competitiveness.

(Wachiuri, et al., 2017) claimed that the effectiveness of manufacturing companies' procurement departments is impacted by supplier training in the form of seminars, workshops, and field days. Procuring companies are able to teach suppliers and impart pertinent information to them through seminars, workshops, and field days, which enhances the sourcing cycle, fosters price competition, and lowers the cost of procurement.

The procurement performance in food manufacturing firms is significantly impacted by early supplier involvement, particularly in terms of product design, supplier communication, and information sharing, according to Lukhoba& Muturi's (2015) study on the impact of supplier development on supplier performance in the industry. Early supplier participation guarantees that suppliers are brought on board early during product design and that there is continual communication and information sharing, both of which are helpful to them.

In their research on the influences of supplier development on Kenya Ports Authority's procurement performance, Kibwana and Kavale (2019) discovered that financial assistance from suppliers in the form of prompt payment, advance payment, and credit guarantee has a significant impact on procurement performance. Financial aid has been proven to strengthen suppliers' capacity to deliver on time, boost price competitiveness, and save money because on-time delivery lowers the need for expensive ad hoc procurement.

The buyer-supplier relationships served as the moderating variable for this study, which also covered finding and assessing suppliers, buying advice, comparing quotes and choosing the best deal, competitive bid procedures, and many other topics. It should be highlighted that if there is a strong buyer-supplier relationship, long-term procurement performance is attained.

1.10 Conclusion

In conclusion, chapter one provided an overview of the study and some insight of what was expected in the subsequent chapters. It introduced the research topic of Supplier development in relation to procurement performance of manufacturing firms. The researcher’s main aim for this research is to find out whether supplier development is of benefit towards the procurement performance of a manufacturing firm. It also showed the scope, justification and conceptual framework in details.

2.0 Literature Review

This chapter is a review of related literature on supplier development and procurement performance. The chapter starts with the theoretical review, actual review based on objectives, and finally the conclusion. It has been carefully selected from published journals on the internet, textbooks and other relevant presentations.

2.1 Theoretical Review

This section focuses on historical theories, models, and research that have been conducted on the idea of supplier development and how it affects, particularly, the effectiveness of procurement. It is noted that these theories may be based on several academic fields, including sociology and strategic management (Ochieng, 2014) A highly strategic choice, supplier development can be described by a variety of strategic models and theories (Lysonet, et al., 2006). Several theories include:

2.1.1 Theory of Constraints (TOC)

The Theory of Constraints (TOC), according to Mabin (1999), is a management and improvement theory that was created by Eliyahu Goldratt and first published in his book The Goal. It is based on the observation that, like a chain with a weak link, there is typically just one feature of any complex system at any given time that is preventing it from accomplishing more of its objective.

The Theory of Constraints has been providing businesses all around the world with astonishingly concrete outcomes since 1985. Huge results were routinely attained, according to Pfeiffer's independent analysis on Theory of Constraints implementations worldwide published in 1995. Pfeiffer, et al., (1995) The concept was first put up by Eliyahu Goldratt as a technique to run businesses more profitably. Existing staff can utilize the Theory of Constraints, a tried-and-true technique, to improve throughput, dependability, and quality while reducing inventory, late deliveries, and overtime. The Theory of Constraints is a decision-making tool used by successful organizations to aid in tactical and strategic decisions for ongoing progress. UBL can use the idea to optimize its procurement performance through supplier development.

For a firm, the current time period can be efficiently addressed using the notion of limitations. Because it considers real-world circumstances, it can only consider immediate repercussions. You must look at the long-term implications of your work on the limits that the theory outlines in order to get around this restriction. If the immediate impact persists the idea may be correct in suggesting a strategy if the short-term effect holds true over a longer time period. You must find alternative restraints that, if eased, would have long-term benefits if the short-term effect is short-lived or results in long-term worsening in other company variables.

It is necessary to identify this constraint and manage the entire system with it in mind for that system to experience any appreciable progress. According to the survey, this restriction may be divided into three categories: a delay in the delivery of supplies of the proper quality, a lackluster information integration, and a lengthened lead time brought on by supplier weakness. The purchasing firm thus looks to uncover the procurement process's limitations that result from subpar supplier development, such as a lack ofsupplier training, lack of early supplier involvement and lack of financial assistance; and then work collectively to eliminate this constraint thus improving the functions and aspirations of each, more specifically, procurement functions for the buyer.

When viewed as a whole, the TOC Thinking Processes offer an integrated approach to problem-solving that tackles not only the creation of solutions but also the necessity for cooperation and communication that successful fulfillment of procurement functions necessitates. Powerful generic solutions have been developed using this theory to address a variety of procurement inefficiencies, including extended supplier lead times, incoming quality issues, delayed or erratic deliveries of raw materials or purchased parts, shortages of raw materials, and subpar quality, to name a few.

In light of this, there is a significant possibility that a company's constraint rests in the supply chain it depends on, as well as the procedures and policies governing its interactions with suppliers. Getting what the organizations require from the vendors is the main problem.

The theory does, however, have certain drawbacks, including the fact that (1) variable elements are not taken into account. Demand for a product, for example, may change regardless of any actions performed by using the idea. Resources expended on driving up product demand may have been better used to increase production capacity if it turns out that the demand constraint is only temporary and rises as a result of market dynamics. To determine whether the limits targeted by the theory will continue to exist, more evidence must be used, such as market studies. (2) Determination of performance-reducing limitations. How to find those restrictions is a big challenge. A limitation that is actually induced by another constraining factor may be the subject of the theory, or it may be the emphasis of the theory.

2.1.2 Resource Dependence Theory (RDT)

RDT, the resource dependence theory that Pfeffer and Salancikin advocated (1978) is the study of how an organization's external resources impact how well it performs. According to RDT, actors who are short on necessary resources would attempt to form connections with (and rely on) others in order to acquire those resources (Medcof (2001). Additionally, organizations make an effort to change the reliance relationships by reducing their own dependence or raising the dependence of other organizations on them. According to this viewpoint, organizations are seen as coalitions that alert their organizational structures and behavioral patterns to secure and keep necessary external resources. When an organization needs external resources, it must adjust its dependence on others, either by making others more dependent on it or by lessening their dependence on the organization (Hillman, Withers, & Collins, 2009).

RDT is based on a number of presumptions, such as the idea that organizations are made up of internal and external coalitions that form as a result of social interactions in order to influence and regulate behavior. It is presumed that the environment contains valuable resources that are rare and crucial to organizational survival. As a result, the environment presents the issue of organizations dealing with unpredictability in the procurement of resources. It is thought that organizations strive to achieve two linked goals, namely, gaining control over resources that increase other organizations' dependency on themselves and control over resources that reduce their dependence on other organizations. Achieving either goal is regarded to have an impact on how powerful an organization is in the exchange between organizations.

Organizations seek competitive advantage in their exchange relationships, which leads to a certain amount of dependency on the other partner. RDT contends that some businesses are more powerful than others because of their interdependence characteristics and social contexts (Pfeffer&Salancik, 1978). Similar to how buyers will rely on suppliers for outside resources and sellers will rely on purchasers for expensive markets.

An essential component of any company's strategic and tactical management is the acquisition of outside resources. Resource Dependence Theory has consequences for the buying firms' procurement efficiency, particularly in leveraging their partnership with suppliers as key and reliable partners. As a result, this theory supports the idea of supplier development and asserts that players lacking crucial resources will look to forge connections with others in order to obtain needed resources (Hillman, Withers & Collins, 2009).

Resource Dependence Theory has consequences for the buying firms' procurement efficiency, particularly in leveraging their partnership with suppliers as key and reliable partners. Similar to how buyers will rely on suppliers for outside resources and sellers will rely on purchasers for expensive markets. Additionally, organizations make an effort to change the reliance relationships by reducing their own dependence or raising the dependence of other organizations on them. According to this viewpoint, organizations are seen as coalitions that alert their organizational structures and behavioral patterns to secure and keep necessary external resources. By changing an organization's power relationships with other organizations, it can acquire the external resources it needs by becoming less dependent on others and/or becoming more dependent on others.

According to Krause, et al. (2007), RDT presupposes that manufacturing companies would develop ways to deal with the limitations and uncertainties brought on by exchange relations, interdependencies, and power disparities. Resource Dependence Theory has consequences for the buying firms' procurement efficiency, particularly in leveraging their partnership with suppliers as key and reliable partners. RDT makes the assumption that organizations will create plans to deal with limitations and uncertainties brought on by exchange relationships, interdependencies, and power disparities (Krause, et al., 2000). Purchasing companies strive to lessen the risks associated with relying on supplying organizations through supplier development.

2.2 Overview of the study concepts

2.2.1 Supplier Development

Any effort made by a purchasing company to improve a supplier's performance and capabilities in order to meet the purchasing company's short- and/or long-term supply needs is referred to as supplier development (Krause & Scanell, 2007). Supplier development should result in an increase in the total value added from the supplier in question in terms of the caliber of the goods or services provided, business operations and performance, improvements in lead times and delivery, and an increase in the overall performance of the purchasing firm (Joseph, et al., 2015).

Supplier training

Training that is backed by buyers might be thought of as buyer-supported programs for supplier development. According to the literature, different customers support their suppliers in different ways, with some providing more support than others. While some customers prioritize immediate gains, others see supplier growth as a long-term investment. According to their buyers, suppliers can choose from a variety of supplier development programs. This suggests that studies concentrating on the supplier perspective would provide the best evaluation of the kinds of training that would most benefit suppliers. Buyer-supported training programs might become more common if the appropriate training types are found. This would be so that buyers could pick the kind of training appropriate for particular supplier groupings. The appropriate training could then lead to an increase in performance for the supplier which would in turn encourage an increase in buyer-supported training. Buyer may send his employees or group of teams to train supplier or he may invite group of suppliers facing same problem for training in his own firm (Effie & Willy, 2015): Ambrose (2008).

A case study on patterns of supplier learning was done in the Malaysian automotive industry by Effie & Willy (2015). Here, they discovered that supplier development programs aid in the expansion of a supplier's capabilities, frequently with a buyer's help. Supplier interest and self-exploration are other factors that influence how a supplier develops their capabilities. Despite the fact that local suppliers do receive assistance from their customers, this support is still insufficient to increase supplier skills. Although buyers themselves have a good understanding of the training a supplier could require, when new technologies emerge, buyers no longer fully understand all of the technology that is currently being used or that will be used in the future. As a result, it's crucial that suppliers that want to enhance their expertise have access to buyer-supported training their training needs might often change as they develop their own capabilities, (Effie & Willy, 2015); Nadia et al (2011).

Early supplier involvement

Early supplier participation can be viewed as a way to integrate suppliers' skills into the customer's operations and supply chain, enabling the customer to benefit from the suppliers' technological know-how in design and manufacture (Dowlatshahi & Contreras, 1998). Given the diversity in levels of early supplier involvement—from low to high—early supplier involvement is a relative concept. Supplier participation in new product development decisions and continuous improvement initiatives enables manufacturers to share information and accelerate learning in order to find better answers to challenging, cross-company issues that have an influence on performance (Tracey & Vonderembse, 2000).

According to (Dowlatshahi, 1997), it will be too late to profit from a supplier's knowledge and skills without a time- and money-consuming re-design if a company or a supplier waits until a design specification or a bill of materials is available. According to a buyer's base of power, suppliers are responsible for 30% of the quality issues and 80% of the issues with product lead times(Burton, 1988).

Today's businesses are increasingly reliant on their suppliers to keep up with the competition as they concentrate on their core competencies (Krause and Ellram, 1997). According to (Mikkola & Skjoett-Larsen, 2003), outside suppliers may carry out various tasks at a lower cost and with a higher value added than a company because of increased complexity, increased specialization, and new technical capabilities.

Additionally, by include suppliers in the process, the buying business has access to a large talent pool that is all dedicated to meeting the needs of its clients (Leenders, 2002). Future demands of the customer-partner can be considered when suppliers make decisions about investments, new products, new processes, or new systems. It would be less likely that the wrong technique or judgment would be used.

Financial Assistance

Choi (1999) defined supplier financial assistance as the buyer's effort to help its suppliers by continuously identifying financial weaknesses within its supply base and providing the necessary financial support to prevent supply disruptions and improve supplier financial health so that they can meet their short- and long-term financial obligations. In order for suppliers to develop and perform well, financial support is essential.

According to Mwesigwa and Ndondi (2018), certain suppliers who may be having financial difficulties may be given financial support in order to enable them to satisfy their financial obligations. This can take the form of down payments, prompt payments, credit guarantees, contributions of equipment, etc., and it aids a supplier in attaining operational capability that they might not otherwise have had.

According to Effie &Willy (2015) study, the majority of businesses provided financial training to their suppliers, which had the greatest impact on improving delivery performance (68.18 percent), lowering costs (68.18 percent), obtaining materials of the right quality with few defects (63.64 percent), and shortening lead times (54.55 percent). when the provider receives evaluation comments from the buying firm for improvements, the firm needs to provide suggestions or personnel to supplier site (Krause, et al., 2000); (Prahinski & Benton, 2004). Such action of the buying firm motivates the direct involvement of their potential suppliers including financial resources (Wagner, 2006).

According to Choi (2018), customer budgetary support is the customer's effort toward its suppliers to continuously identify financial shortcomings within its supply base and take the necessary financial assistance to prevent supply interruptions and increase provider financial wellbeing in order to meet his immediate and long-term financial obligations. A fundamental success factor in provider execution and provider improvement is financial assistance.

2.2.2 Procurement Performance

A definition of procurement performance is a measurement of how well the procurement function achieves objectives and goals while incurring the fewest expenditures (VanWeele, 2002). Amaratunga and Baldry (2002) suggest that procurement performance is a key driver to improving superiority of services for any organization in order to shift its focus and become more viable, while its absence or use of inappropriate means can act as an obstruction to change and may lead to the decline of the purchasing function.

Any company's performance largely hinges on how well its procurement procedures run. In order to improve supplier efficiency, management is concerned with the quality of life of procurement practitioners. Since suppliers are generally corporate marketers, they receive significant training investment from manufacturing companies because they are aware of client demands. Additionally, the coherence of the suppliers means that even if there are just a few or none left, they can still produce more. High procurement performance is typically solely dependent on good suppliers, who deliver goods at the proper times, prices, levels of quality, and quantities (Thai,2004).

A number of studies have shown that different metrics are used to evaluate supplier performance. The performance of the suppliers was evaluated using a number of important competitive variables. As an illustration, aspects including product quality, delivery performance, price, physical distribution, services, adaptability, and relationships are seen to be crucial in determining how well a supplier performs. Mabert and Modi (2007). The main metric for determining whether supplier development methods were successful was supplier performance improvement (Gill & Ramaseshan, 2007). This study focuses on buyers' perceptions of the supplier's improvement in the areas of cost, quality, and delivery, which are the most important areas for supplier improvement. It is based on an analysis of prior work and field interviews with purchasing managers in the electrical components industry. The four (4) metrics for measuring supplier performance—quality, responsiveness, efficiency, and flexibility—include (Beamon 1999; Li 2002; Luning et al. 2002; Gunasekaran, et al. 2004; Aramyan et al. 2006). To preserve or achieve a competitive advantage, a supply chain must be flexible in its response to market changes (SCOR 2006). The capacity to adapt to environmental changes, such as shifting customer demand, is another description (volume flexibility). The speed at which a supply chain delivers goods to the customer is known as responsiveness (SCOR 2006). Customer reaction times, lead times, delivery times, customer returns, and order fill rates are responsiveness indicators in the beef supply chain. Finally, Efficiency is comprised of six variables, including labor, waste, transportation, inventory, and farm/plant costs.

Cost saving

Cost savings were once thought to be the only accurate indicator of procurement performance. However, spending reductions can only be made so far before it becomes impossible to further cut costs. As a result, procurement experts must demonstrate their worth to the company in other ways. (2002) Khalife

Cost savings continue to be a critical, core criterion for assessing the effectiveness of the procurement function, according to Khalife (2002). The Hackett Group recently conducted an analysis and discovered that world-class procurement organizations generate more than twice the purchased cost savings of typical procurement organizations while spending 21% less (up to $6 million in cost savings for the typical large company) and employing 29% fewer full-time equivalents.

Saving money on expenses may seem straightforward, but how are businesses actually doing it? A direct approach is to lower the price per purchase order. According to (Vonderembse & Tracey, 1999), a decrease in the price of raw materials and services can enable businesses to promote the price of their finished items competitively in order to attract customers. The quantity of money saved by the business serves as a clear performance indicator of the effectiveness of any purchasing department(Nyeko, 2004).

Spend Under Management

Spend under management, according to Medius (2021), is the portion of an organization's spending that the procurement team is in charge of. The management of spend under management can be examined to assist businesses reduce expenses and increase efficiency. Strategic sourcing is essential to guaranteeing on-time supply deliveries and maintaining production schedules.

Spend under management, according to Toikka (2021), is the portion of total corporate spending that is under the control of procurement. Although spend under management will never reach 100%, it is possible to achieve 80% with the correct strategy.

According to AHRMM (2018), an organization's capacity to estimate costs and optimize costs grows as its expenditure under management does. Any firm can better minimize the risk of using improper products or services when spending is effectively handled. It eliminates the chance of having contracts in place that contradict with one another legally. By concentrating on expenditure that is under supervision, costs are decreased, vendor and buyer collaboration is improved, erratic spending is stopped, and overall productivity and efficiency are increased.

According to Toikka (2021), increasing spend under management requires improving visibility by looking at spend categories, what is purchased, and supplier selection. Toikka 2021) also discovered the necessity of routinely assessing supplier performance to make sure they are dependable and impartial.

Sourcing Cycle Time

The procurement cycle time is a relevant Key Performance Indicator (KPI) for operational performance. The average amount of time between submitting a request and placing a purchase order might be used to gauge this. The length of time from the beginning of the sourcing process to the date of contract signing can also be used to calculate this. The KPI is crucial for assessing the effectiveness of the department (Sollish&Semanik, 2012).

A good strategy to reduce procurement expenses is to shorten the sourcing cycles involved in acquiring goods and services. The American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC) conducted research that showed top procurement performers wait fewer days and less time to obtain products from vendors (Khalife, 2002). Automating the procurement process with suppliers can significantly reduce the time it takes to receive the ordered product. According to APQC’s research, e-commerce/e-procurement software can cut an organization’s cycle time from seven days to two. Not only does this mean you receive products needed for key projects sooner, but it can also help increase procure-to-pay efficiency (Khalife, 2002).

Price competitiveness

Choosing the supplier with the lowest price, or more generally, achieving value for money, is the primary goal of any efficient procurement program, according to the OECD (2011). Utilizing a competitive bidding procedure is the best approach to get the most value for your money while doing procurement activities.

According to Kissflow (2022), there may be minimal to no competition among suppliers, which can result in a few suppliers holding a monopoly. Long term, this may result in substandard quality and inflated prices. Therefore, it's crucial to narrow down the list of vendors to those that can give the company the best deals. Kissflow (2022) continues by arguing that closely comparing prices paid with reported market prices can be used to determine or gauge price competitiveness. can easily be ascertained or measured by carefully comparing prices paid with published market prices.

2.3 Actual review

2.3.1 Supplier training and procurement performance.

The efficiency of an organization's buying process depends on both the company's and its suppliers' performance (Wong and Wong, 2008). Consequently, it is imperative to consider the different suppliers' development practices. According to the already available literature, buyers or buying groups have assisted their suppliers by providing trainings, with some buyers offering greater assistance than others. In order to boost company productivity, the buyer creates supplier training programs with a focus on enhancing and updating suppliers' technical aptitude in terms of core competencies including quality, production methods, and management best practices.

According to Nagurney (2010), improving supplier development must start with ensuring that suppliers are trained, given the required capital or equipment, equitably counseled, and technically supported. According to Nagurney (2010), ensuring that supplier development is done is essential for any firm to remain competitive in the current era.

Specifically with regard to how the company manages its inventory, stock management, supply chain performance, and other related tasks, Monczka et al. (2008) recommend that a company hold seminars and workshops at least once per fiscal year and should get in touch with its suppliers to arrange for the necessary training. These frequently encourage the suppliers to perform better than they have been in order to increase performance. An improvement in the performance of the supplier has a positive impact on the purchasing organization because of their collaborative working relationship.

Krause et al. (2000) claim that the only approach to establish whether teaching suppliers in areas where they are deficient is important for supplier development is to conduct a supplier performance assessment. Such an assessment will always show the weaker regions and areas that require additional training. Even if the products are of the finest calibre, the supplying company is warned that late delivery will harm the relationship. Both the buying and supply sides should be trained. According to Maula (2009), the goal of training supplying workers is to improve their capacity to supply in the new organization rather than to ensure that they don't understand what they are doing.

According to Krause et al. (2000), conducting a supplier performance review is the only way to determine whether educating suppliers in areas where they are lacking is necessary for supplier development. Such an evaluation will always highlight the necessary training needs and weaker areas. The providing company is advised that even if its items are of the highest quality, late deliveries will damage the partnership. The supply and buying sides should both receive training. According to Maula (2009), the purpose of training supplying staff is not to ensure that they don't comprehend what they are doing but rather to enhance their ability to supply in the new company.

According to Gordon (2008), who supports the claims made by Krause et al. (2000), training outcomes are crucial for benchmarking in order to ensure that future areas where the buying organization wants the suppliers to improve are improved and that development efforts are made to ensure that even the buying organization is compliant. (Krause & Scanell, 2007)went on to confirm that while supplier training may initially help the performance of public procurement, it becomes extremely essential if it is combined with capital provision.

2.3.2 Early supplier involvement (ESI) and procurement performance

(Chavhan, et al., 2012) claim that providers used to develop the products, and buyers were expected to purchase them. Suppliers found several design complexity problems in this area. Additionally, there were many chances that buyers would not take the technical capabilities of the suppliers into account while developing any components, making it difficult for suppliers to exert control over the production process and quality. However, now that the concept of early supplier involvement has been developed, the buyer can gain more from the suppliers' innovation. Examples of early supplier participation activities include the development of product innovation concepts, supplier communication, and information and technology sharing.


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Supplier Development and Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Uganda
A Case of Uganda Breweries Ltd
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supplier, development, procurement, performance, manufacturing, firms, uganda, case, breweries
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Tonny Mugere (Author), 2022, Supplier Development and Procurement Performance of Manufacturing Firms in Uganda, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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