Flood Detection. Alert System for Flood Prevention and Reduction of Damages

Wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz, 2021

157 Seiten










1.1 Background
1.2 Literature Review
1.2.1 vehicle early flood detection-Bandar
1.2.2 automatic barrier
1.2.3 vehicle accident detection
1.2.4 smart system
1.2.5IOT-based dashboard
1.3 Problem Statement
1.4 Justification for this research
1.5 Proposed concept
1.6 Aims and objectives

2.1 To develop vehicle early flood detection and avoidance using Arduino and IOT technology. (Bandar NAJI-TP045757)
2.1.1Investigation of Materia
2.1.3 Concept design derived from fundamental engineering principles.
2.1.4Overall Concept Design
2.1.53D Concept
2.1.6System Implementation
2.1.7Constructional Details Circuit Design
2.1.8 Early warning flood information and avoidance system hardware Implementation
2.1.9 Software Implementation
2.1.10 Working Principle
2.1.11 Result and Simulation
2.1 12 Early warning flood information and avoidance system testing.
2.2 Design an automatic barrier to protect roads from flooding. (AKRAM EMAD-TP046692)
2.2.1 Introduction
2.2.2 Flowchart
2.2.3Methodology and Comparison of Tools and Techniques selected
2.2.4Code explanation
2.2.5 Results
2.2.6 Summary
2.3 To develop vehicle accident detection and tracking in flood GSM and GPS. (NAWAF BAKIL-TP048917)
2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 Flowchart
2.3.3 Methodology and Comparison of Tools and Techniques selected.
2.3.4 code explanation
2.3.5 Results
2.3.6 summary
2.4.1 Introduction
2.4.2 Investigation on Tools and Techniques
2.4.3 Microcontroller Selection
2.4.4 Wi-Fi Module
2.4.5 Overall System
2.4.6 Flowchart
2.4.7 Schematic Circuit Diagram
2.5 To design an IoT-based dashboard for monitoring purposes. (ASLAMEAI ABDULLAH-TP045405)
2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 investigation on tools and techniques used.
2.5.3 Proposed Methodology
2.5.4 Concept design derived from fundamental engineering principles.
2.5.5 Results
2.5.6 Summary

3.1 Integration system
3.2 integrated Code
3.3 printed circuit board
3.4 Enhancement
3.5 Integration results

4.1 Sustainability and Environmental
4.1.1 Social issues
4.1.2 Economic issues
4.1.3 Environmental considerations
4.1.4 Power consumption

5.1Project management
5.2 Gantt chart
5.3 Cost analysis
5.4 Entrepreneurship
5.5 business plan

6.1 Group Discussion
6.1.1 IOT implementation- Individual discussion (Alsamea Abdullah-TP045405)
6.1.2To design an automatic barrier to protect roads from flooding. Individual discussion (Akram Emad Saleh-TP046692)
6.1.3 To develop vehicle accident detection and tracking in Flood by GSM and GPS. Individual discussion (Nawaf Bakil Abdullah-TP048917)




We are really lucky and happy to have got the numerous people's generous support that helped us to a successful conclusion on our assignment task. We express our gratitude to MR. SURESH GOBEE for making it possible for us to learn more about our profession by allowing us to participate in assignments where we are required to use advanced engineering abilities. Had our lecture not provided a significant amount of help and direction, this task would not have been completed on time. We should not neglect to praise the group's hard work and cooperative spirit.


“Flood is one of the annual natural catastrophes in Malaysia and throughout the world. It is destroying the infrastructure and killing people. Flood surveillance system can monitor the level of flood and alert people of flood hazard. Existing approaches for flood surveillance include multi-satellite analysis, image classifications and wireless sensor networks. This research aims to produce a more robust and lasting system that can survive rainy weather conditions, as opposed to the present solutions. It intends to monitor the amount of water and warn the authorities and inform sufferers. To do so, the system needs fundamental information, such as water conditions and water level to identify an increase in water content during flooding. This project has created multiple main components consisting of the sensor network and data transfer. A Global Mobile Communications Systems (GSM) was utilised to pass the water level to the user and rescue team to warn the flood conditions.”


Figure 1.1: Flood detector and early warning information system implemented.

Figure 1.2: Mobile application information system (Dedi Satria et al., 2018)

Figure 1.3: Block diagram for dam door system

Figure 1.4: system diagram for SMS and IOT system

Figure 1.5: Sensor Network

Figure 1.6: Result with GRAGH

Figure 1.7: IOT block diagram

Figure 1.8: Result of the system

Figure 1.9: concept design of the system

Figure 1.10: the acting forces on the system

Figure 1.11: System block diagram

Figure 1.12: System Flow chart

Figure 2.1: methodology approach for the development of early warning flood information and avoidance system

Figure 2.2: Theoretical calculation concept diagram for water level (flood detection) sensor 29

Figure 2.3: overall concept design for the early warning flood information and avoidance system

Figure 2.4: 3D design for the early warning flood information and avoidance system

Figure 2.5: Early warning flood information and avoidance system circuit design construction

Figure 2.6: Early warning flood information and avoidance system hardware implementation

Figure 2.7: Arduino code Function call for the system within void loop software implementation

Figure 2.8: Arduino Code to detect rain, flood and call function to send SMS message and hold data and message to send to IoT software implementation

Figure 2.9: Arduino code for sending SMS software implementation.

Figure 2.10: Arduino code for sending data to IoT software implementation

Figure 2.11: IoT PHP code to receive data (rainfall and flood) and store in database for internet display.

Figure 2.12: flood detection and avoidance using Arduino and IoT technology working principle.

Figure 2.13: Early warning flood information and avoidance alert system hardware result

Figure 2.14: Early warning flood information and avoidance alert system serial monitor result.

Figure 2.15: Early warning flood information and avoidance alert system SMS message to alert flood control department result

Figure 2.16: flood detection and avoidance using Arduino and IoT technology analysis for flood detection.

Figure 2.17: flood detection and avoidance using Arduino and IoT technology analysis for rain detection.

Figure 2.18: Flow chart

Figure 2.19: proposed system

Figure 2.20: Initialization code

Figure 2.21: Void loop

Figure 2.22: Result with Graph

Figure 2.23: Block diagram for vehicle accident detection

Figure 2.24: Code for the vehicle accident detection

Figure 2.25: LCD and GSM code

Figure 2.26: accelerometer code

Figure 2.27: code values

Figure 2.28: Accident detection result

Figure 2.29: Accident detection result

Figure 2.30: Overall System Methodology

Figure 3.31: Flowchart

Figure 2.42: Schematic Diagram

Figure 2.33: Drone Flying

Figure 2.34: IOT block diagram

Figure 2.35 IOT flowchart

Figure 2.36: Database and Wi-Fi connection

Figure 2.37: GUI home page

Figure 3.1: Integrating system

Figure 3.2: Integration code

Figure 3.3: integrated code void loop

Figure 3.4: A Servo motor code

Figure 3.5: PCB

Figure 3.6: integrated part one

Figure 3.7: integrated part two

Figure 3.8: integrated part three

Figure 3.9: integrated part four

Figure 3.10: integrated part five

Figure 5.1: Gantt chart


Table 1.1: Table of result

Table 1.2: Weight and components

Table 2.1: Microcontroller material comparison

Table 2.2: Flood sensor material comparison

Table 2.3: Rain sensor material comparison

Table 2.4: SMS module material comparison

Table 2.5: Wi-Fi Module material comparison

Table 2.6: Data Collection for Early warning flood information

and avoidance system

Table 2.7: comparison of tools

Table 2.8: list of components

Table 2.9: Table of the Result

Table 2.10: comparison of tools

Table 2.11: list of main components

Table 2.12: Microcontroller Selection

Table 2.13: Wi-Fi Modules

Table 2.14: Comparison between a different microcontroller

Table 2.15: Comparison of different platform

Table 4.1: power consumption for the system

Table 5.1: Minutes of meeting 1

Table 5.2: Minutes of meeting 2

Table 5.3: Minutes of meeting 3

Table 5.4: Minutes of meeting 4

Table 5.5: Minutes of meeting 5

Table 5.6: Components prices



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1.1 Background

Flooding is the meteorological hazard ubiquitous all over the world. It may occur virtually everywhere. Flood is defined as water overflow to the dry area. It has frequently been considered that the flood was caused by excessive rainfall, but many means of causing flood rises, which are not directly tied to ongoing meteorological events such as dams, snowpack melting and tsunamis. In addition, the increase in the flood from the precipitation is defined as the flood resulting from the precipitation. This flood happens when the average rainfall is more than that of the dry land. Generally speaking, the threshold for rainfall produced by floods was proportionate to the average annual precipitation for an area. However, this document will solely cover precipitation flooding.

In Malaysia, floods are the most catastrophic natural disasters every year, devastating many places, especially the lowlands since the 1920s. In previous studies, almost 22% of the total Malaysian population living within a total region of 29 800 km2 susceptible to floods are projected to be disastrous. The floods in Malaysia are caused by a number of factors, namely the increase in rainfall and the rise in sea levels. Climate change in Malaysia has an average annual rainfall of around 3,000 mm in regions of the nation. Malaysia's floods have been ranked in two categories: flash and mozon floods. There are two sorts of Monsoon floods: South-West Monsoon from May until August and South-East Monsoon from November until February (Yusoff, 2018). The difference between the two disasters is the duration of the flow of the river to normal levels.

The overall system will consist of five main task to help with protection and monitoring the floods, the first will be to a vehicle with the task of detecting and avoiding the floods, second is a barrier for protection from high level of water by blocking it from the roads. Third is accident detection in vehicles in the case of the cars get flopped during floods, forth victims rescuing system and lastly is IOT system that will integrate the tasks together form the monitoring tasks.

1.2 Literature Review

1.2.1 To develop vehicle early flood detection and avoidance using Arduino and IoT technology. (BANDAR NAJI-TP045757)

Therefore, there are different techniques that has been proposed for flood detection and information system, whereby, most of these techniques either provide information through mobile technology or personal computer, according to (Dedi Satria et al., 2018), the new trend for providing early warning flood information is through mobile and web technology such as using android application, windows or Apple, however android is very common among all and is possible that many users can access early flood information though android application and windows desktop application ( web browser). Therefore, in order to facilitate the public as to detect and known the information about the floods that is happening on certain road and flood prone point, it is necessary to have a flood detection device and application that help to share flooding information of various places, roads and community in real time among people using web or mobile application, therefore, (Dedi Satria et al., 2018) proposed flood early warning information system that can detect and provide flood information for multiple location in real time using android mobile technology. The main focus of the author is to design an early flood warning information system from multiple location in real time and share information to users using mobile application and Internet of Things (IoT) technology, the work also focusses on the development of a prototype model of flood monitoring information system which will base different sensors such as water level detector sensor, temperature sensor, rain sensor, moisture sensor and also focus on using GPS technology.

For the method applied in this work, the design of the system prototype considers having done in two stages, these are flood detection design stage and early flood warning information systems stage. In terms of the flood detection stage, this is more ofthe hardware and prototype construction stage in which the system is constructed by using rain sensor, ultrasonic sensors, GPS technology, DHT11 sensor (humidity and temperature soil sensor), the system also include Arduino Microcontroller that help to collect GPS and sensors

information and send to flood early warning system information, therefore, this is the stage two of the design in which the information send from microcontroller to internet or server for information sharing is carried out using ethernet module, the early flood warning information system comprises of database, PHP code, Google map API, PC and the information system flood location based.

Based on the implemented system, the system will collect and store flood detector system from different location to the information flood early warning system server, this will then share on screen for the community to view using their mobile application such as android phone, according to the result, the system is able to detect flood using rain sensor, ultrasonic sensors, DHT11 sensor (humidity and temperature soil sensor) and the location information for each flood detected is possible to read using GPS module, the final design and implementation also indicated that, the system can detect the level of water content above and inside soil in order determine if there is flood whereby this information is successfully receive at server side using internet network and information can be share and view through mobile application.

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Figure 5.1: Flood detector and early warning information system implemented. 3

(Dedi Satria et al., 2018)

[Note from the editor: This image had to removed due to copyright concerns.]

Figure 1.6: Mobile application information system (Dedi Satria et al., 2018)

1.2.2 to design an automatic barrier to protect roads from flooding. (AKRAM EMAD- TP046692)

The autonomous dam and drainage system is a system that must not run manually. Today, tide-related water logging has become a big concern. An automatic dam gate system was presented in this research to regulate dam gates automatically without human effort. The technology has designed an autonomous dam gate system to safeguard the lowlands from the tide water and may also be utilised in irrigation ducts, power plants, industries, etc. The technology can detect drainage water and tidal water. It operates a pump to irrigate extra water by detecting drainage water. For control of the movement of dam gates, DC motors are employed. As a CPU, Arduino UNO is utilised. A control box is supplied to regulate and monitor the entire system's status.

The ater management system is a major problem nowadays. Reasonably restricted water supply, preservation, and sustainability regulations together with the complexity of infrastructure to meet consumer and irrigation requirements at a level of quality make water management a challenge. Water supply, processing, transportation, and distribution by various agencies are often managed separately. These subsystems are designed and managed with distinct aims and timeframes. In view of the increasing need for water savings, hydraulic engineering employs automated control techniques to improve the performance of open-channel systems in real-time. Many cities across the world have seen large amounts of water logging in recent years, in particular for multiple tidal impacts as well as excessive rains. This initiative is considered as a significant technique to resolve water harvesting in order to overcome this predicament. Once the article written on automatic dam gates has been analysed, it is discovered that PLC has been used for motor control in systems such as and some other systems have been created using wireless sensors. In fact, however, it is quite expensive and difficult for projects with modest dam doors. However, three-phase induction motors were used in some systems for door movements that expand the complexity of the system. To tackle these issues, this research proposes and develops an autonomous dam door system that can autonomously open and close doors if necessary and thereby lessen the tidal water effect. With those restrictions in mind, the autonomous Arduino dam gate technology has been built with a low-cost sensor that improved the detection of the water level and is accordingly used to protect lowland regions from tidal water or excessive water during the flood, as well as against adequate drainage.

The project aims to build an autonomous dam door system and this study aims to demonstrate a system to automatically regulate the dam so that it is able to manage the flood autonomously so that water is utilised effectively both in the irrigation system and in flood control. Figure 1.3 displays the system's general functioning process, using a water level sensor to monitor the water level and provide the Arduino a signal. In addition to the incorporation of a micro switch to detect the door position, it is either open or closed. The primary processor is Arduino UNO, which analyses the data given from the water level and the micro change and sends a signal to the motor driver L293D after the analysis process, which controls the motor to open or shut the dam, depending on its output. The water level sensor on the drain side detects the drain water level, and this sensor delivers the level information to the CPU again. In the control box there is an LCD monitor to indicate the water level status. According to the data acquired, a DC pump will automatically activate if the water level is measured above Arduino. Push switches of the control panel are also connected to the system that is used to open or close the door manually.

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Figure 1.3: Block diagram for dam door system

1.2.3 to develop vehicle accident detection and tracking in flood by GSM and GPS. (NAWAF BAKIL-TP048917)

The Internet of Things is built on common protocols for communication, and they are a vast network of networked things. To carry out various functions like sensors, RFID tags, etc. an item may join the network dynamically, team up and conspire efficiently. WSNs are geographically distributed independent sensors to measure the physical and environmental status of temperature, sound, pressure etc. and supported by the collection of local conditions and atmospheric information, to enable information across the network to reach its core position. The more recent networks are bidirectional and also allow sensor movement controls. Military uses have sparked WSN development and persist in diverse production and other applications.

The microcontroller is a fundamental element of this project, located in the centre of every block and carrying out all of the system's tasks. The LCD is used to display all processes in the controller. Wireless sensors are used for weather monitoring to measure temperature, water level and light characteristics. The sensors that measure all these characteristics are attached to the controller and data is transferred every three minutes to the control section. GSM data is sent via wireless transmission. The parameter values are restructured and even made public on the Internet. We may cluster information with sensor nodes to more accurately interpret facts such as water levels, water speed, etc. or any source of water.

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Figure 1.4: system diagram for SMS and IOT system

Saving lives when a disaster occurs is crucial to the early warning system. For example, if there is an upsurge, if an event is warned sooner, this might assist workers lower their water levels. Surge is a scenario in which many people suffer from the living and unlived items that match the surroundings. The only thing that individuals can assure is that they can advance the appropriate categories to guess and successive methods to alert the public about their appearance. We have numerous tools available to guess and stop them. There are a lot of tragedies, namely few big rainfall and cyclones. These rises lead to loss of money and also to human damage. The fundamental motivation behind the expansion of awareness is the implicit increase in advance, so that people may be defended by evacuating the public to secure places and the valuable possessions of the guardians. With these notions, we took WSN and IoT technologies here. The PIC16F877A Microcontroller helps manage the sensor types, such as water level, temperature and LDR. Every sensor is connected to the controller and the status of these is intermittently advised to the segment of control every three minutes. All sensors are connected to the microcontroller and the status of the sensors is regularly communicated every 3 minutes to the control section. ESP8266 has a web server control to update the data in the database. Data transfer is conducted using wireless GSM connection. In case of abnormal weather, such as high temperatures, the alert and the presentation of the condition grow immediately.

1.2.4 A Smart System for rescuing victims from flood. (MUHAMMED HANNAN-TP044149)

The following chapter offers a complete overview of the research carried out in the past on the development of surveillance drones. This chapter includes the research reviewed and current knowledge, theoretical and practical methodology found by other researchers, including new findings of substance. It will demonstrate the methodologies and the outcomes they have achieved. The outcomes and drawbacks will be related to solving the challenges when achieving a better outcome.

Researcher (Muhammad Ramizu, 2021) detects the water level using GSM technology and an ultrasonic sensor and provides data to a rescue squad as a warning. The rescue team can use the results of the point prediction model to activate timely alerts (Short Message System) and provide information to those who are affected by floods. For the warning system, an ultrasonic sensor will be utilised as a marker or detector of the river's water level, and the system will transmit an SMS alert through GSM. GSM may also be used as a modem to send data to a satellite, allowing rescuers to learn about the water level in a river that is at risk of flooding.

Most flood monitoring approaches rely on telemetry systems, which necessitate the use of transmitters and repeaters to transfer data to a central terminal. This method is costly and unreliable when equipment malfunctions in a particular sector of the region that has been felt Some alternative methods are reliant on communication. Some third-party suppliers' infrastructure makes them unstable. Consequently, there are using a wireless sensor network, a low-cost and dependable solution is required.

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Figure 1.5: Sensor Network

The ultrasonic measurement is separated into three levels, which are known as the normal level, the medium level, and the danger level, as shown in the diagram. A normal level is usually regarded as a safe level. The medium level, on the other hand, signifies an oncoming flood or river overflow, and authorities or citizens should be alert to the danger of flooding. Residents should be prepared to flee to higher ground or a safe location such as over the hill or schools if the situation becomes dangerous. Authorities should also aid or rescue flood victims more rapidly.

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Figure 1.6: Result of the system.

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Table 1.1: result for the sensor network

Ultrasonic can detect a rise in the river's water level to create a water level measurement. When the water level rises, the ultrasonography will sound an alert and send a signal to the user. The ultrasonic can usually make a measurement in the range of 10cm to 400cm for water. Ultrasonic will be connected to the Arduino in this project to manage the river's water level. However, for the time being, this project will only take measurements between 5cm and 30cm because the prototype is required for this project. This project developed an algorithm for making ultrasonic work. The measurement of an ultrasonic sensor from water to an ultrasonic sensor is shown in table.

The advocated research is the development of disaster-control technologies in Malaysia, mostly for flooding disasters, to reduce property and life losses. In comparison to existing solutions, this initiative can assist authorities in controlling the flood situation throughout Malaysia by utilising a strong sensor network infrastructure. The suggested design's prototype was created and tested successfully in-house and in the field of Sungai Perak. Using GSM technology, it was able to record the water level and relay the information to the base station.

For future recommendations, a web application may be created in addition to the SMS system, and the number of sensor nodes may be leveraged to construct a more complete system. To have additional flood measuring parameters, several sensors should be implemented.

1.2.5 to design an IOT-based dashboard for monitoring purposes.(ALSAMEAI ABDULLAH-TP045405)

The researchers are doing another work (Uyioghosa et al.,2018). They have created a wireless sensor network-based early flood detection and monitoring system (WSN). This technique has been designed to predict floods in certain of Nigeria's prone regions. This method was developed to improve existing techniques and to enhance flood forecast efficiency.

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Figure 1.7: IOT block diagram

The study approach presented was to assess the level of water and precipitation in two separate areas. After this, a trigger is established, and the authority of that region is warned to the imminent risk, when the water level has changed to reach the established threshold either because of moves or rains or both. The system block diagram displays in Figure 1.7, since it demonstrates that the system has two elements connected to the cloud and the GUI. Each component contains two sensors Ultrasonic sensor for water level measurement and sensor for rainfall detection. Finally, the warning letter should be forwarded to the authorities as an email.

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Figure 1.8: Result of the system.

This experiment has been constructed and tested successfully; Figure 1.8 shows the result of the system. The upward aspect of each line indicates that the water is rising due to multiple rainfall intensities. The location highlighted shows the flood threshold. In each occurrence, the flood threshold was surpassed, and the warning message was received. However, this approach may be enhanced by using another alert mechanism instead of email. Using solar panels and flood monitoring can increase the system's power source and boost the ANN.

Road floods in various cities in India have been a big concern. Over the years these floods have caused a strong flow, since traffic wastes kill lives when out of control, money, time, and occasionally flooded highways. That is why researchers have created an "early flood detection system" (Kanaka Durga et al, 2018) to aid road users to avoid inundated routes on the basis of a problem experienced by passengers and vehicles.

1.3 Problem Statement

Disaster flooding is a natural phenomenon that may occur everywhere in the world. This disaster is not anything new for Malaysians because Malaysia sits near the equator. Malaysia's geographical features create excessive rainfall during the different seasons, causing floods because the river or dam water level increases. The eastern coast of Malaysia is seeing major flooding, especially in rural regions every year. When it happens, flows have caused massive losses; farming fields, residences, and roadways are being damaged. Floods also wipe it out; sometimes they kill people. In December 2014, 21 individuals were murdered and nearly 200,000 people were impacted by floods in many states of the Peninsular. It also cost more than USD 560 million in property damage (Buslima et al., 2018). The government have done a lot to reduce the impact of floods, yet some property damage and human lives still have to be lost. This is because of the strategies used to identify flood events and to inform individuals in susceptible locations. According to the Department of Irrigation and Drainage, flood detection takes place by monitoring water change and people are notified by a siren when the level of water reaches the level of threats. This strategy is successful, as the level of the water swells fast during the rainstorm and all those living in the prone regions. In addition, certain flaws have been noticed in certain systems, which are in terms of efficiency and alert procedure. These issues must be resolved in this project.

1.4 Justification for the research

Flood has a negative impact when it causes economic loss, harm to the environment and social losses. It is not possible to avoid floods in a particular area, but they may be handled and prepared to confront them before they happen. An early flood prediction and warning system is therefore recommended to reduce flood losses in the susceptible areas. The water level data are employed in this technique to estimate flood occurrence. The system is utilized to anticipate flood events early and more effectively. The technology then alerts individuals when the flood reaches alarm, issuing a warning message on social media. This will allow officials and communities more time to prepare adequately for this tragic situation. The losses of the flood can therefore be reduced or mainly negated by the loss of human lives. Engineering effort to avoid and reduce flood damage is as follows:

1) Implanting methods to guarantee the safety of people after floods.
2) serious flood issues in a town road that has paved most of its soil.
3) Mandatory placement of flood protection in floors in huge parking courts in malls, supermarkets, and cinemas to allow infiltration of water into parts of a ground which is identical in monuments and spaces around buildings.
4) Maintenance of the system will be easer since all the components used are common and can be replaced easily.
5) constant monitoring of water level and rain will result in more safe environment for roads.

1.5 Proposed concept

The GSM technology and water level sensor are used in this project to monitor water levels and to relay data to a rescue squad for warning purposes. The rescue team can get data processing based on the findings of sensors in order to trigger prompt alerts (shorter message system) and to provide public information that is exposed to floods. The technology uses the ultrasonic sensor as a marker or detector in the river and sends the SMS alarm via a GSM connection. GSM also acts as a modem for satellite communication, so the rescuer may learn about the water level in a flood-prone waterway. In this project, the water level of important rivers that are prone to floods will be detected using a sensor network. sensors are put in rivers such as 100mm. The sensor will be laid on the surface of the usual river water condition. There are three distinct levels on the sensor to indicate the level of the water. At level 1 no flood, level 2 is defined as a cautious level and a dangerous level is defined at level 3 and more. Arduino is recognized to be Node 1 and will broadcast data to the base station. At node 2, it is used as a GSM system, which is processed as an SMS and forwarded to the public or authorities. The figure illustrates how the project concept works. the water level measurement is separated into three levels: normal, medium, and hazard level. The normal level is usually characterized as a safe level. While this signals an imminent flood or overflow from the river at the intermediate level, the authorities or citizens should be careful about floods. At risk, residents should be prepared to migrate to a higher or safer position, such as above the hill and schools. The government should also respond faster to assist or rescue flood victims.

Vehicle tracking systems are primarily intended to ensure the security of all vehicles during a flood. One of the primary goals of the accident notification system is to help those who are in need of help. These components enhance vehicle safety systems. The ability to monitor a vehicle's progress and the vehicle's previous activities using a GPS device is nowadays quite useful.

Car safety was improved greatly because to this new technology, which is generally referred to as vehicle tracking systems. No one on or off the vehicle will notice this equipment. When a car have an accident, location data from the tracking system may be used to pinpoint the event whereabouts and the police may be informed. As well for the IoT, it is increasingly vital to use Internet of Things (IoT) technology to solve more problems in numerous disciplines, for example, flood monitoring, weather station application, and water monitoring system.

The goal of the task is to collect data that is used to monitor and report the environmental conditions by parameters that may be applied to present circumstances. Research on the Internet of Things for water monitoring systems was done, it uses water level sensors to detect on specified parameters. They established that the signal is sent in real-time to internet when the water level reaches a particular amount. Lastly, in order to display the results in the dashboard, a cloud server is utilized which is Blynk app. Figure shows the complete integrated circuit.

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Figure 1.9: concept design of the system

The calculation for all forces operating on the system was carried out when the components are fitted appropriately on the system. The weights of all components were initially illustrated as indicated in the table below. The weight of the components is 144 grams. It may thus be argued that all components can be installed. But the manner the components are placed should be done appropriately. In order to do this, the moment has to be calculated for all forces operating on the system. The distance to the centre of the base is displayed in the table from all of these components. This distance makes the moment zero, therefore the system is balanced.

Table 1.2: Weight and components

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Figure 1.10: the acting forces on the system

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The base of the has a length of 50cm. In order to achieve the safety process, the water level sensor 3 grams and the 16 grams accelerometer sensor are installed on the front of the system. The 8.5 grams servo motor is located on the right side of the base in which the barrier may be simply and properly dispersed. In addition, the 17-gram Node-MCU is situated in the centre of the base where all sensors are readily attached. The 12 grams GSM and GPS are then inserted on the other sides of the origin. The LCD is nonetheless 139 cm from the centre to make the moment null. If you take the time at point A, which is the centre of the base, the time is zero that makes the system balanced. The force calculation is presented below. Take point C for the moment.

= (0.37) (9.81) (23) + (5) (9.81) (18) + (0.017) (9.81) (0.1) (9.81) + (0.139) (9.81) (0) + (0.07) (9.81) (0.7) + (0.085) (9.81) (16) + (0.19) (9.81) (0.24) = 0.9808 (1.1)

As it is calculated in 1.1 the system is balanced since the opposing forces are equal.

After the type of system was picked and the placement of each component was referred to as the calculation. It was time to develop the system design. All components are mounted as indicated on the system. The Microcontroller is connected to the front of the prototype, where the monitoring may be captured. The water level sensor and accelerometer sensors have been mounted to the base of the system. In addition to the servo motor, the barrier will be attached to the side of the system. The servo motor will also be attached to the bottom of the system to conveniently power it. Finally, the GSM and GPS will be connected on top of the prototype, where the microcontroller and other components may be powered. The PCB is linked to all electrical components. The circuit can be compacted in a compact form factor. All the components were selected to meet the objectives of this project based on their functionality and work.

The general components used to meet the project objectives are depicted in the block diagram in Figure 1.10. Each component's function is defined in the block diagram. Figure 1 . 1 1 depicts the total project block diagram. In the block diagram, there are multiple main components, the Node-MCU, which is the microcontroller, and the system output. The microcontroller is interfaced with the water level sensor, servo motor, and accelerometer sensor. The microcontroller reads the input information and provides instructions for the connected output. The power unit is then linked to the microcontroller. Since the Node-MCU needs around 3.3V. This voltage is generated by the power supply. the microcontroller also reads and writes instructions from and into the database, which reads and updates the inputs from the Node-MCU to the database. The GUI will then display the data as well as for the LCD. The last block presents the outputs depending on the individual inputs. The system's functioning concept is based on the flowchart presented in Figure 1.12.

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As illustrated in Figure 1.12, the system flow chart begins with power on the system. The IOT system will be launched and operational, as the system will take place and the safety system will inform the user about safety condition of the environment, information on the water level and vehicle condition in the system area will become available; also. Once the option is made, the microcontroller reads cloud information through Wi-Fi and does the needed function.

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Figure 1.12: System Flow chart

The Node-MCU module must be linked to the WIFI first and the server second before the IOT platform begins the system, and the server is used in the mid­operation the GUI. The first set of information's to be sent is the operations, when the operations starts with the beginning of the system, when the system starts operating from the Node-MCU module to the server and displays it in the GUI. The GUI that shows the information from the server and the system each has its own page to display the output.

1.6 Aims and objectives.


The aim of this project is to develop a vehicle flood detection system that can help to improve road transportation for car drivers.

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2.1 To develop vehicle early flood detection and avoidance using Arduino and IOT technology. (Bandar NAJI-TP045757)

Early warning flood information and avoidance system may serve as a tool of decision-making in order to determine location where is flood disaster and can also act as flood disaster management tools for the government and individual, is also a material or tools consideration of the community to understand and provide disaster location and prepare people include road drivers for flood disaster. Flood disaster can happen on road when there is continuous heavy rain fall especially on road that has a bad drainage system, in order to control this disaster, government have advised and encourage people include public and private sectors to develop a device or tools that can help to provide early warning formation (R. J. M. Mercado, 2017).

2.1.1 Investigation of Materia

This part of the report describes the investigation of material though a comparison table for material selection and also help to justify the reason why selected material were chosen.

Table 2.1:Microcontroller material comparison

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According to the above table, comparison of three different microcontroller were put into consideration in order to select one that might be suitable for the prototype application, this include three type of Arduino Microcontroller, named Arduino Uno, Arduino Nana and Arduino Mega, these three microcontrollers can be programmed using Arduino sketch and code can upload in similar way through USB, however, in terms sized, it is observe that Arduino Nano is the smallest, however Arduino Uno have more input and output pin when compare with Arduino Nano, while Mega have more I/O's compare to both Uno and Nano, however Arduino Uno is cheaper when compare with Arduino Mega but a bit expensive when compare with Nano, all these controllers have UART but Arduino Mega come with 4 inbuilt UART while Nano and Uno come with just single UART, however, the selected Microcontroller is Arduino Uno for individual prototype construction due to it rugged in nature, cheap and available, also it has more I/O when compare with Nano and less expensive when compare with Mega. Uno also come with analogue pin that is enough for sensor reading and can easily migrate to Arduino Mega in case the system development required more UART or I/O.

Table 2.2:Flood sensor material comparison

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According to the table above, this is the comparison and selected material for flood detection or water level detection on road, during the investigation, two type of sensors consider for the measurement of the water level on road, this include ultrasonic sensor and funding water level sensor, based on the investigation that was carried out, it was analysed that, in terms of water level detection and measurement, funding water level sensor is more accurate and cheaper, therefore, funding water level sensor is selected for flood detector sensor over ultrasonic sonic due to its accuracy, price, consume lesser energy can work with 3.3V DC to 5V DC which provide flexibility for input voltage.

Table 2.3:Rain sensor material comparison

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According to the comparison table above, this describe sensor investigated for detecting rain fall in order to understand if there might be flood or just water flowing on road, both sensor investigated to see which one is more suitable for detection of small or heavy drop of rain at any time, investigation is based on accuracy, sensitivity, operating current, operating voltage and price for Funduino water level sensor and YL-83 Arduino rain water sensor, the investigation reveal that, YL-83 Arduino rain water sensor is more better because
it is more accurate, consume less energy and sensitivity can be adjust, therefore, the selected sensor for rain detection is YL-83 Arduino rain water sensor.

Table 2.4:SMS module material comparison

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According to the comparison table above which compare three different SMS module that can help to send SMS to fire department in case if flood is detected at a certain road, the SMS module are SIM800L, SIM808 and SIM900A, based on the investigation that was carried out, it was learnt SIM900A is the cheapest and smallest among all, while this module also come with a SIM card slot, all of these module can communicate with microcontroller through UART using AT command and they all operate on 5V DC, therefore, due to size and price, SIM900A was chosen as SMS module and this Module is very reliable and consistent in terms of send SMS to mobile phone is Arduino Microcontroller.

Table 2.5:Wi-Fi Module material comparison

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The table above is the comparison table for Wi-Fi module, this section include the investigation of 5 different type of Wi-Fi module that can help to collect sensor information and send to server side using internet technology or Internet of Things (IoT), based on the comparison table, the selected module is ESP8266 because it is easy to find, the price is cheap and have similar accuracy when sending and receiving from server using internet, ESP8266 also consume less current when transmitting and receiving data and can easily circuit to any type of microcontroller which include Arduino Uno Microcontroller .

2.1.2 Methodology

This section describe the methodology approach for the development of early warning flood information and avoidance system, Floods occur due to the heavy rainfall, from the melting of ice and snow on mountains, or from the combination of all these when exceeds water carrying capacity of the Lake, River or Sea into which it flows, the project is to develop an early flood detection system which will have to place at every road side in order to detect heavy flow of water in order to improve transportation system while this system will then be sending the level of water status on road to IoT website so that every buses and taxi driver heading to that location where flood Is occurring will see it and they can easily avoid that route or use another route that is safer for them.

The target of the system is to be able to detect if there is flood on road and also send this information to IoT in order for driver to view it either with the web application or mobile application, the system focus on measurement of two main parameters, these are rain drop and water level (flood) on road, these two parameters measured using rainfall or rain drop detection sensor and flood detection sensor respectively for multiple location, the system will design to have a predefine known location for locations that the system is installed and this will program along with the system, since the location of where any of these system will be install is known, the system will then be able collect information such as rain drop information and the level of water on road which this information collected is to process using microcontroller, this information is then converted into digital format, however, there is also LED and sound that will be install along with the system at all location, in these case, whenever there is flood on a certain road, the purpose of the LED is to turn ON and their will be sound alert in the community or on road so that those without web or mobile application can understand and avoid this flood from distance, also the information collected such as rain and flood detector is then send to IoT (website) which will display if there no rainfall, less rainfall or heavy rainfall, or if water level on road is high and flood detected or there is no flood even if there is rainfall, another type of alert provided is to send SMS message to message to flood control department along with the location whenever flood is on certain road, the idea is to ensure that, flood control department are also aware of the flood and the location and they can take necessary action in order to ensure that, road, lives and property are safe at that location.

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Figure 2.1: methodology approach for the development of early warning flood information and avoidance system

2.1.3 Concept design derived from fundamental engineering principles.

Arduino analogueto digital converter can read voltages from 0 to 5 volts. The output range is from 0 to 5 where 0 represents no voltage and 1024 represents 5 volts. 512 represents 2.5 volts.We assume road as tank with depth of maximum water level of1 meter our sensor is also 1 meter in height. We know when water reaches in mid of sensor, its output will be 2.5 volts or 512 in integer. Basically, we are driving resolution of the water sensor vs the tank height.

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Therefore, 1 degree change in ADC reading of Arduino means 0.00097-degree change in depth/height of water in tank (Road)

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Figure 2.2: Theoretical calculation concept diagram for water level (flood detection) sensor

2.1.4 Overall Concept Design

This phase describe the overall concept design for the early warning flood information and avoidance system, this comprises of IoT System to Send Flood and Rain information related to detection where by, driver can monitor the location where all flood and sensor planted using mobile phone (website) or personal computer (website) with the help of cloud technology, therefore, drivers will view Flood and Rain detection information stored cloud through a dedicated website using mobile phone or personal computer, also Flood Control Department can receive flood hazard message that happen on road and the location of the flood through SMS message using mobile phone.

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Figure 2.3: overall concept design for the early warning flood information and avoidance system

2.1.5 3D Concept

This section describes the 3D design for the early warning flood information and avoidance system, this include how the system can be installed on road so that it can measure

and monitor rain and water level on road in order for driver to view this information online.

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Figure 2.4: 3D design for the early warning flood information and avoidance system

2.1.6 System Implementation

This section describes the implementation of the system, this includes the construction details of the system, working principle, result and testing of the prototype in order to ensure its performance and efficiency.

2.1.7 Constructional Details Circuit Design

Early warning flood information and avoidance system circuit design construction comprises of two main sensors, these are rainfall sensor and water level (flood detector) sensor, both of this sensor output, this is D0 pin of rain sensor and S pin of flood detector sensor are connected to Arduino pin A0 and A1 respectively while the A0 of rainfall sensor connected to Arduino pin A2, both sensors have VCC and ground which they both connected to 5V and Ground in accordance to sensors circuit requirement, the circuit also include SMS module and Wi-Fi module, the SMS module TX and RX connected to software UART RX of Arduino pin 10 and RX of Arduino pin 11 respectively while the Wi-Fi module TX and RX connected to Arduino pin 0 (RX) and pin 1 (TX) respectively. Other circuit are the indicator or alert circuit such as buzzer, LED red, LED blue and LED green which are connected as output to Arduino pin 12, 2, 3 and 4 respectively.

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Figure 2.5: Early warning flood information and avoidance system circuit design construction

2.1.8 Early warning flood information and avoidance system hardware Implementation

The hardware is constructed using polystyrene, cardboard which are glue together in order to provide a cost effective and efficient hardware construction for the system, the system presented the circuited Arduino integrated with rainfall sensor, flood or water level sensor, LEDs, buzzer, SMS module and ESP8266 Wi-Fi module (sending data to server using internet)

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Figure 2.6: Early warning flood information and avoidance system hardware implementation

2.1.9 Software Implementation

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Figure 2.7: Arduino code Function call for the system within void loop software implementation

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Figure 2.8: Arduino Code to detect rain, flood and call function to send SMS message and hold data and message to send to IoT software implementation.

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Figure 2.9: Arduino code for sending SMS software implementation.

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Ende der Leseprobe aus 157 Seiten


Flood Detection. Alert System for Flood Prevention and Reduction of Damages
Asia Pacific University of Technology and Innovation
ISBN (Buch)
flood, detection, alert, system, prevention, reduction, damages
Arbeit zitieren
Bandar Naji Ali Hezam (Autor:in), 2021, Flood Detection. Alert System for Flood Prevention and Reduction of Damages, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1321039


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