Internet culture. Social networks and their usage by young people

Seminar Paper, 2023

65 Pages, Grade: 1



1. Social Networks
1.1.Technological determinism
1.2.The most popular Social Networking sites
1.3 The Advantages and disadvantages of Social Networks

2. Internet culture
2.1 Rules creating Internet
2.2 Division of Internet users
2.3 Braking of new commons
2.4 Project Creative Commons
2.5 Convergence culture

3. Young People in Internet
3.1 Millennials Generation
3.2 The Internet in hands of Millennials
3.3 Internet as a tool of communication, business and information gathering




This paper describes the phenomenon of Internet culture in a context of the young Internet users. This subject gains in importance especially nowadays because the global world forces the usage of more and more modern technological devices. They offer numerous options and possibilities but also they can bring risky behaviors of the young people.

That is why it is important to analyze this aspect through the proper construction of this paper. It consists three domains, each of which refers to different aspects which are important for the Internet culture.

The first chapter presents current social networks. First of all, this part explains the notion of technological determinism which determines the development of Internet devices. Next, this chapter describes also the most popular social networks and their characteristic features. The last part of this chapter relates to advantages and disadvantages of the phenomenon of Social Networking.

The second chapter describes the elements connected with the Internet culture. It refers to such aspects, as rules which are important in Internet, types of Internet users, creative commons and new commons. The last fraction of the second chapter analyzes the convergence culture.

The third chapter of this paper concerns different activities and usage ways of Internet undertaken by young people. This chapter describes the generation of so called Millenials. Besides, it refers also to the way in which this generation treats Internet and the possibilities offered by this tool. The last fraction of this chapter presents Internet as an instrument of communication, information gathering and business solutions.

1. Social Networks

Social networking instruments, for instance Twitter, are beginning to present their abilities as tremendous communication and cooperation instruments in social, political and educational spheres. As smart phones and mobile computing appliances become cheaper and more potent, they will also become more omnipresent and predominant. In case of economical questions, institutions will have to adjust themselves to learning experiences that can appear in many different contexts and over multiway canals. Disposing of more technologically fluent learners will also force teachers and instructors to create more innovative methods to merchandize and to popularize students’ active learning and righteous engagement in class discussions. Given the heightened popularity and sharp development of such social networks as Twitter, teachers and instructors have begun to examine and to test its abilities for communication and cooperation, both in and out of the classroom. (Corbeil & Corbeil 2011: 13)

Social networking or social media, as their name suggests, play also a communicative function which connects different societies. They seem to be an organization which supports human interactivity, interrelations and peoples’ mutual relationships. It is therefore worth to mention that social networking has a lot in common with public relations. In turn, public relations are described as a communication process that emphasizes creating relationships, maintaining image, minimalizing reputational risks, monitoring crisis situations, and eventually supporting organizational survival. (Reitz 2012: 42)

Organizational survival is determined by many factors. However, system theorists are convinced that organizations which function in form of open system have a better possibility to survive than organizations which occur in form of a closed system. Open systems are more flexible and adapt better to environmental changes through the transposition of inputs and outputs. Besides, open systems are able to undertake adaption and aligning processes in order to change because they use mutual comprehension and two-way communication tools. Additionally, it should be said that closed systems are not compatible with environmental change, it means that they do not depend on this change. (Cutlip, Center, Broom 2000: 37-40)

The dialogic attitude which refers to public relations underlines such aspects as exchange, mutuality, and understanding of each other. The term “dialogic” signalizes a communicative give and take, where the process is open and consulted with an organization and its publics. Because the concentration on the dialogic approach is going to popularize development of the communication between an organization and its publics, the approach adjusts itself to an open system model. Organizations dealing with an open system model are able to adapt to counterpoise or to customize environmental variations. According to those statements it has to be said that both the organization and its environment are subject to change. Moreover, relations which occur between organization and its publics are progressing because of reversible feedback. (Reitz 2012: 43)

Last followed public relations scientific descriptions focus on the term of dialogue and social media. The analysis suggest that organizations which use social media may inspire practitioners to popularize dialogue and two-way conversations as contradictory aspects to past models of one-way monologues. Besides, analysis suggest that practitioners will have to adapt and adjust to the supply of information and judgments being shared within the dynamic environment. Grounded on these findings, it should be claimed that organizations which are engaged in social media and which encompass its intrinsic dialogic character, can function more easily in the area of an open system and its publics. (Mersham, Theunissen, Peart 2009: 23-30)

Social media are defined as a collaborative environment concentrated on exchange of content. This environment is exceptional and outstanding in the fact that the organization and its publics can function as sender and receiver of information. Social media have disguised the character of daily communications by delivering a platform for individual characters and for organizations because they signed up both in a dynamic, synchronized and multidirectional dialogue that embodies different voices. This kind of environment is near to an open systems pattern because the organization delivers output and gets feedback from its publics. Hence, the organization and its publics gather different pieces of information while being included in dialogue. (Reitz 2012: 43)

Social media have transferred the method of communication, interaction, sharing and leading peoples’ relations with family, friends, collaborators, politicians, celebrities, news media, and companies. Social media are outstanding platforms that motivate active involvement in the building, progress and promulgation of information. Social media can be presented as a synthesis of sociology and technology, separating communication from monologue and changing it into dialogue, and changing people from content readers into publishers. Social media are elastic enough to equal social possibilities. They have caused the growth of the new ways of managing group action. Social media tools incorporate social networking sites, video sharing sites, blogs, message boards, virtual communities, online games, and instant messaging. (Bulik 2008: 12)

1.1.Technological determinism

According to technological determinism media technology form thoughts, feelings and actions of an individual who is a member of society, as well the functioning of society which moves from one technological age to another. (Mcluhan 1962: 23)

Individual explanations claim that people think, learn and feel in the common way because they get many massages via the present technology which is accessible nowadays. People have to do with different media. The radio wants human beings just to listen and to care for sense of hearing. Television, by contrast, uses both hearing and visual senses. The people move then those developed senses into the common life and they are going to use them again The medium is then supposed to be peoples’ message. (Mcluhan 1962: 23)

Aside from mentioned individual explanations there are also some metatheoretical concepts, namely:

-Ontological concepts;
-Epistemological ideas;
-Axiological concepts. (Mcluhan 1962: 24)

Ontological concepts state that people do not dispose of free will. Tools which society is using in order to communicate will also be used by individuals for communication. For that reason people will adjust themselves to the medium they are employing so that they are able to dispatch and to get messages like other society members. (Mcluhan 1962: 24)

Epistemological concepts claim that people are aware of the fact that there is one trueness which is realized thanks to observing the occurrences which happen over time. The change of the medium causes the change of the way of communication which is used by society. People can only employ the medium in the way for which it was established, for instance phone for talking over lines or electronic mail for communicating through computer and Internet. If the medium is not personalized, like television, then the message is also abstract and indifferent. (Mcluhan 1962: 24-26)

Axiological concepts are the aspects as a part of which everyone wants to act and feel the same. It is not important what the used medium delivered. Key issue is that people are using the same medium. Values are not embrangled because evidence can be noticed through observation. (Mcluhan 1962: 28)

Technological determinism claims in generally that the technology has a meaningful impact on peoples life. This conception connects apparently to such aspects as popular imagination and political rhetoric what is expressed, for instance, by the fact that the Internet is totally changing economy and society. Technological determinism has also had a long and arguable history in the social sciences area. Critics of that concept claim in contrary that technology itself depends on social determinants, that technology and social structures develop simultaneously in a non-deterministic, emerging process or that the results of any given technology is determined by the way of its implementation which is, in turn, socially defined. Given the expansion of new technologies in modern, mostly capitalistic communities, the technological determinism discussion is still overstayed. (Adler & Borys 1993: 657)

Technological determinism refers to the conceptions of determinism and technology as well as their connection. Each of them makes up some conceptual and experiential challenges. (Adler & Borys 1993: 657)

Determinism is contrary to some other potential philosophies. First of them is the one which concerns free will. It says that social changes are conceptualized by human will in individual and global form. Besides, determinism is contrary to the concept according to which social structures and technologies develop in unforeseen, nascent patterns. Some researchers are also convinced that determinism holds the load of persuading skeptics that there is possibility of objective knowledge of casual structures. (Adler 2008: 396)

Determinism appears in harder and softer varieties. In discussions, this distinction is typical for visions of technology’s effects and its reasons. In its appraisals of technology’s effects, soft technological determinism states that technology is one relevant powers among others. Hard technological determinism claims in contrast that technology is the primary or the only meaningful driver. The ideas that are opposite to technological determinism affirm that technology passes for neutral, and that its effects are mostly or completely a function of social background. As concerns technology’s causes, one pattern of soft technological determinism enables that social factors may set technology, although, once formed, technology’s effects are determinate. Hard technological determinism asserts that social impacts have limited effect on the character of technology. The theories against technological determinism emphasize the social powers that form the design and the stride of technology. (Adler 2008: 397-398)

Other notion which is important in the area of technological determinism is technology. Different determinisms stand in relief different drivers, namely: nearby technology, other social scientists have also distinguished economics, culture, geography, biology, and language. Technological determinism and the emerging discussions concentrate on technology as instruments and devices. Thus, previously reformulated raw materials should also be incorporated. More precisely, technology means the knowledge that is transformed into these artefacts. Feasibly, the knowledge should be also engaged that is demanded in order to make use of such artefacts, by extension, the principles of productive organization should be also engaged. Formally, workers’ skills – the replenishment to devices in the Marxist idea of powers of production – are expelled from this group. (Adler 2008: 399-401)

Some technologies are internally less elastic than others and therefore might be awaited to have more determinate effects: great complicated hard-wired agreements can be confronted on this dimension with more separated, elastic, ductile computer-based technologies. For some scientists, such explanatory elasticity makes the whole technological determinism undertaking suspect. Furthermore, information society and technological determinism theorists claim that computer-based information technologies have intent effects exactly because of their plasticity. (Adler & Borys 1993: 659)

Technological determinism has been affirmed at different levels of testing. At the widest level, technological determinism has acquainted many analyses of changes in socio-economic composition: the gateway between feudalism and capitalism, changing professional and skill structure of the labor force in the 20th century, the appearance of post-industrialism in the reality after the World War II, the alternating appearance of the information society, post-Fordism, and globalization. For some, technological development embodies the condition of the incremental emancipation of human beings from the liabilities of needless disease and labor. For others, the same track embodies a lost the whole humanity, framing the people in ever more complex, discouraging, and perilous technological webs. (Adler 2008: 402)

Another group of positions on technological determinism states that technology does in fact conceptualize much, perhaps even too much, in the current society, but that this power is typical for only certain historical period. This is standard determinism: capitalist or industrial society has chartered technological innovation, but has yet to put into place the devices required to give it the tools social guidance. (Adler 2008: 402)

One important variant of technological determinism is inspired by Marx. On the doctrinal work interpretation of Marx, the powers of production (technology and workers’ possibilities) shape the base for both the structure of relations of production and the superstructure of politics and culture; the capability of the powers of production has a tendency to develop gradually; the general direction of this change is largely self-contained and not connected to the social structure, although the latter can bring forward or delay the rate the change; and, supplementary, the relations of production and the superstructure are obliged to adapt to take into account further technological change. (Adler 2008: 404)

At a more micro level, a significant tradition of organizational studies has emphasized the role of technology in forming organization structure. That contingency theory has been the target of many challenges to its essential technological determinism. More current work in the transaction costs economics tradition delivers into organizational theory the technological determinism of quintessential economics in the form of external, technically circumscribed qualified specificity. Technological determinism can also find oneself in many areas of micro organizational behavior or social psychology research on the effects of a proposed technology on psychological operating and interpersonal relations. (Adler 2008: 404-405)

It is sometimes bouncing around that technological determinism gets to be more credible the longer the time scaffold and the more expansive the totality in question. Softer options of technological determinism may enable that in shorter time settings and smaller-scale background and circumstances, technology’s effects could be overwhelmed by social powers. Nevertheless, it should be noticed that such a presumption mirrors a materialist view of history, and idealists perceive things in accurately opposite conceptions: for those who give priority to concepts, culture, or the role of eminent individuals, the scope for technological determinism is limited to the local and short-time perspective. (Adler 2008: 408)

Technological determinism has been criticized by scientific theory. With reference to explanatory power it gives an explanation when new systems of technology are expanded, the culture of society is instantly changed to mirror the senses required to employ the new technology. Predictive power predicts that with each new system of media technology, society will change and adjust to that technology. There is also a straight reason and effect analysis between the implementation of new technology and the changes in the way how society thinks, feels, acts and believes. The theory could be validated incorrect if a new technology is discovered and nothing changes. There is a consistent flow of arguments displayed over time. It is known that something has been developed and changed. The theory delivers the way to see why this has happened. (Mcluhan 1962: 29)

Many advocates of technological determinism permit that capitalism or other qualities of the social structure moves the rate of technological change, but to retain the causal function of technology, they must to throw away strong social constructionist thesis that would give an explanation of technology’s general direction of progression by reference to social structure. (Adler 2008: 408)

Social construction can apparently illumine some properties of many technologies. Nevertheless, it has validated far more inconvenient for social constructionists to present that the expansive direction of technological change is completely or mostly the feature of the constellation of social powers. Technological limitations and chances simply are too strongly in the work of technological change to be moved so far into the background. The most important problem for technological determinism may be formed by the historical evidence of long periods of technological reversion, periods during which entire societies broach technological dark ages. (Adler 2008: 409)

Current research has notably increased peoples’ comprehension of the dynamics of technological change and interlinked effects of science, technology, and social impingements. Especially noticeable has been the concept that technologies progress through specific courses, but there is argument over whether these courses embody the essence of social determinants or, on the other hand, embody the outlines of an objectively given expanse of technological scope. (Adler 2008: 409)

Any given technology’s effects are connected to some degree with the social context. The context will motivate or demotivate the technology’s assimilation, and if the technology is internalized, the social context will have significant effects on the way in which technology is used and therefore on its eventual influence. Feminist research has been especially meaningful on these themes. Strong options of technological determinism are hard to retain in the face of evidence to point out that both these trends of social settlement are significant. On the contrary, the concept according to which technology has no causal meaning is equally hard to retain. (Adler 2008: 411)

Some scientists are afraid that technological determinism makes exciting supervisory and social structures occur as necessary, naturally provided. It is obvious that technological determinism has been employed in such an ideologically mode by different writers. It is less evident that this should motivate critically directed scientists to deny all kinds of technological determinism. Technological determinism in different variations has offered a wide spectrum of political opinions. Many critically directed scientists and activists have accepted technological determinism in order to get arguments which prove that history is on their side. (Adler 2008: 413)

Technological determinism bases on two assumptions. One of them claims that technological infrastructure of society determines also its social life. According to the second assumption the technological changes are the most important source of social transformations. The most analysis that concern the information society accept these assumptions in explicite or implicite form. The belief in technological determinism is undoubtedly associated with the belief in development because the development is connected to technological progression. Technological determinism refers to the opinion that proper technological solutions can deal with social problems, so the social problems can be described by technological language. (Segal 1985: 301)

Technology is supposed to be a dominant, the society influencing factor which has its own logic of development and which is independent from the politics. This kind of attitude plays only ideological role which can be perceived as one of the forms of capitalism that is characterized by numerous contradictions. However, many scientists who were involved in the development of the technological determinism theories whished nothing but making the market grow the information. The main idea was to adjust to the changes. That concept resulted from the idea that the area of social values is subordinated to the market rules. Information has namely also an economic dimension. However, the knowledge and the science are not a simple product which can be loosely interpreted, sold or acquired. The world arrangement is not so straight or ordinary. A thinking pattern cannot be substituted by other one. Schematic thinking is needed because it supports communication, nonetheless it is not methodological requirement. Technological determinism cannot, with respect to this fact, supersede traditional conversation and personal relations. (Dobrowolski: online sources: 6-8)

1.2.The most popular Social Networking sites

There are numerous social networking sites which play different functions in the society. They arise because people have been looking for methods to connect, network and showcase, but they have taken on a completely new significance in the digital century. Current relationships take often place on Linkedln, Google+ or Facebook. That means that smart businessmen have to know and use different social platform in order to remain important and to make the most of appearing chances. So, it is relevant to be aware of the most important channels and instruments which can be employed. (Milanovic 2015: online sources)

The most popular social networking sites are: 1) Twitter; 2) Facebook; 3) Linkedln; 4) Xing; 5) Renren; 6) Google+; 7) Disqus; 8) Linkedln Pulse; 9) Snapchat; 10) Tumblr; 11) Pinterest; 12) Twoo; 13) MyFB; 14) YouTube; 15) Instagram; 16) Vine; 17) WhatsAp; 18); 19) Meetup; 20) Secret; 21) Medium. (Milanovic 2015: online sources)

Twitter seems to be the straightest social media platform. It is considered to be the most fun and interesting. Messages on Twitter are reduced to 140 characters or even less but it is seen as sufficient to post a link, share a picture or even exchange thought with different celebrities or authorities. Twitter’s interface is not complicated and simple to learn and use. The registering and establishing a new profile is a short, common process which takes just some minutes. (Milanovic 2015: online sources) Twitter has more than 300 millions of users. Many top enterprises create there their profiles in order to promote themselves and their products and services, for instance Sony Music or Samsung. That channel is challenging, especially in terms of creativity and engagement. It is the most important and reliable source of information. In the present reality matters the speed of information flow, so Twitter is an ideal tool in this area. The most users of Twitter claim that it is the source of breaking news. This social medium is also a good solution for different firms because it is used in the world as a platform of advertisements. (Chochołowski 2015: 30)

Facebook is sometimes regarded as equivalent of the phenomenon of social media. However, it does not make the essence of that tool. Facebook allows to find friends, colleagues and relatives all being within easy reach. Although Facebook is primarily oriented to sharing pictures, links and swiftly thoughts characterized by personal nature, individuals can also present their backup to different marks or organizations by recounting themselves as fans. (Milanovic 2015: online sources) Besides, Facebook is treated as a communication instrument, marketing or creating the image of the company, that is, as a public relation tool. First of all, Facebook is used as a communication possibility in the interpersonal relationships. The common users locate there their pictures in order to present their success, their important moments of life, etc. Besides, they place there also their thoughts, their considerations and articles which they find important. In this way they share their life, opinions and attitudes with the rest of the society. The users of Facebook have also the possibility to hold a conversation, to present their support to some actions, products or organizations, as well as promote them.

Facebook is also the leader of marketing tools. It allows namely to integrate the activity on different levels. Hence, Facebook helps by following aspects:

-Creating the positive image of the company;
-Modern and direct communication with customers;
-Fast information flow as a part of activities which concern the group of potential purchasers;
-Surveys concerning opinions and satisfaction level of customers;
-Promotion of products and occurrences through viral marketing campaigns;
-Emergence in social media without engagement of huge financial expenses. (Dudziak 2013: 330)

That is why internet users show an increased interest in social media, especially in Facebook because this medium generates the most practicing users activity. Facebook is social network which appeared on the 4th of February 2004 as a part of activity of academic society of Harvard University. The main author of Facebook is Mark Zuckerberg. Since the beginning it has gained approval of students. The success of this undertaking in academic environment has caused an extension availability of this platform. The ground-breaking date for this social medium was 26th of September 2006. Facebook became then open for all users. The platform has experienced many different changes should adjust it to trends and needs of users. Nowadays the users who have their profiles on Facebook can share following aspects: personal data, contact data, academic record, professional career, etc. Besides, they can create photo galleries, signalize where they actually are, to write weblogs and notes. Facebook allows also to interact with other users through:

-Adding new friends to the profile;
-Creating of groups;
-Commenting activities of other users;
-Exchange of resources;
-Labeling of users who appear on pictures;
-Playing social games;
-Signalizing of relationships;
-Creating of different events and invitation of friends;
-Private conversations through internal communicator. (Dudziak 2013: 330-331)

The platform of Mark Zuckerberg has won at the competition because of its design and versatile functions. Among the advantages of Facebook following are listed: comfortable access to information, speed of communication, mobility and many others. The platform is not only technical solution but also reaction for consumers needs, for instance need of belongingness, of acceptance, of interest in privacy of other people. (Dudziak 2013: 331)

High activity on the portal is generated by external applications which may be created by everyone who has appropriate technological knowledge. Currently there are on the market many different add-ons which have various functions: 1) entertainment (social games), 2) education (discovering different places), 3) commercialism (quizzes, offer presentation) which are going to increase attractiveness. The surveys which have analyzed the popularity of different social networking sites showed that:

-Facebook generates the most numerous hits – 1 trillion in the year;
-Facebook had in 2012 over 1 milliard users;
-58 % of users uses the portal every day and average visit time amounts 20 minutes;
-600 million users accesses to Facebook through mobile devices;
-Average user of Facebook has 130 friends and the number of connections between them amounts about 125 trillions;
-The users add every day about 300 million pictures;
-Over 1 million websites are integrated with Facebook;
-80 % of world firms are active users of Facebook. (Dudziak 2013: 331-332)

Besides, Facebook is a precious instrument for marketing activities. Its potential is in different pieces of information about a user which arise from users profile. They include for instance the age or interests. That kind of knowledge can be used in order to determine users need referring to the products which may be attractive for particular group. That allows to prepare a appropriate advertising campaign. Firms can also create the Fan Pages of concrete products or prepare advertising games which could support introduction of new products. There is also possibility to build focus groups which gather users interested in particular products or services. These groups allow also to send newsletters to all members. (Tkaczyk: 3-4, online sources)

The usage of Facebook for the marketing can be recounted in following way:

-Possibility to get through to particular groups of receivers which meet particular and selected criteria;
-Possibility to use discussion as an instrument of communication between users;
-Possibility to use such communication tool as games, quizzes, or focus groups. (Tkaczyk: 4 online sources)

Apart from that facts it should be mentioned that thanks to Facebook companies can: 1) develop the knowledge of their brand; 2) enhancement of activity of movement, subscribers and questions; 3) meeting of new business partners; 4) Improvement of position in the ranking of web searching; 5) canvassing; 6) cost-cutting in the area of marketing; 7) signing new contracts. (Stelzner 2009: 16)

The next social network site which has got a huge popularity is Linkedln. It is one of the mainstream social media sites which is intended for the business area. That is a cyberspace which connects networking groups with local business environment. It is used to find customers, to make contact with sellers, dealers, suppliers, consumers and customers. That platform is also used to recruit new employees and to notice the latest business and industry news. It is also used by people who want to find a job or to change it. (Milanovic 2015, online sources) Linkedln is concerned as the world’s largest professional network which is currently used mostly to promote potential workers and employers. This is a tool which supports the activity of so called head hunters, that means that human resources staff makes often use of Linkedln in order to find specialists, and an appropriate cadre for concrete company. The platform develops itself creating its agencies in more and more countries. It helps also to find talent and marketing solutions. Linkedln’s objective is simple, and namely, to propose connection to an opportunity. The platform gives possibility to create professional space of an user, to provide professional information, to get hired and to arrange own career. (Linkedln Announces: 2015, online sources)

Among the most popular social networking sites stands also Snapchat. This bafflingly-addictive application enables to take a picture, to put an art or text, and then to share it with other users for some time. That kind of activity allows to retain the contact with friends. (Milanovic 2015, online sources) Currently Snapchat has a highly youth character. Besides, this social medium causes the most impressible comments of the experts. The popularity of Snapchat grows still and now it amounts about 100 million users. More to the point, it is also the most popular networking site in mobile channels. (Chochołowski 2015: 32)

Uniqueness of Snapchat consists in the reaction for the typical feature which concerns the millennial generation, namely life in the present and “carpe diem” rule. That is why the young people feel the need to share everything, what is going on, with the rest of the society. The present moments define the life of Millennials. In other moment they can become other persons. Snapchat allows them to define themselves still anew. When circumstances change, atmosphere, conditions and moods of young people change, too. As a result, the identity and personality of an young individual change. The life of such person gets new definition, new expression and new conditions determining the new life context. (Chochołowski 2015: 32)

Snapchat differs from other social media because it allows to post various contents with no strings attached, without conversation history, without possibility of easy retracing users activities. Snapchat eliminates a long-term, reproducible plot. Snaps are usually for single use only. In this way Snapchat eliminates also invigilation risk. Users feel then more safe and free. On the other hand, Snapchat is a challenge for brands and firms. Transiency does not support permanent relation and image building, their retaining and nurturing. However, more and more enterprises use this social medium because it enables them to get hold of young people who are the main users of Snapchat. It should be also observed whether Snapchat will grow and mature with its users as it did in the case of Facebook. (Chochołowski 2015: 32)

Very popular social networking site is also YouTube. This is a video sharing service. It is considered as the world’s second largest search driving force. The site includes everything from first-person product assessments to publicity and sample clips, tutorials and instructions. Users can share, evaluate and comment other contents. (Milanovic 2015, online sources) It is a mature social medium but it retained its potential. Many companies have created their own channels in this service. The most of them upload at least one film in the year. Some of them communicate regularly with their subscribers. That supports knowledge of profile, products and builds relations with customers. YouTube is a perfect platform for companies which dispose of numerous videos or of finances for their realization. Users of YouTube are not only teenagers, many of them are people over the age of 20 years. The most important is that they all expect new and original content which ensure additional values, for instance needed information, instructions or entertainment. However, YouTube users currently are mainly music groups, singers and vloggers. (Chochołowski 2015: 33)

Such social network sites as Twitter and Instagram have gained recently popularity. Instagram is usually used by people who care for fast, comfortable connection between camera property and quality on the smart phones and all social profiles. It gives the possibility to share through Twitter, Facebook and the Instagram website, to choose from a diversity of picture filters and to enable friends to comment on the photos or conceptions. (Milanovic 2015, online sources) Instagram disposes of unlimited outreach of posted contents. That is the reason why many firms and brands decide to use this social medium in their promotion. A great incentive for the firms is the number of interactions. The amount of these interactions is incomparably higher than in other social services. The reason of this fact may be the contents which appear on Instagram which are less herded, and the increased anonymity feeling. Instagram is used mostly by fashion and lifestyle brands. Nevertheless, its potential is noticed also by other branches. (Chochołowski 2015: 31)

Well-known social medium is also Pinterest. This platform is considered as an immense virtual conception and inspiration platform which has had a major impact on development of social media in recent years. Pinterest has gained a significant popularity especially among women. It allows to share pictures, creative ideas, photos and concepts of projects which can be fastened, saved or copied by other users. (Milanovic 2015, online sources) Pinterest has over 70 million users and this amount is still growing. It is also connected to many web sites. Besides, it is planned to implement the button “buy” which will allow to generate direct process of sail and purchasing. This button should also be activated on Instagram. (Chochołowski 2015: 31)

Other meaningful social networking sites are:

-Reddit – this social networking site was created in order to entertain. Users register there to share content and direct links. It includes links to different pieces of information which occur in Internet;
-Flickr – this social network site contains mainly videos and images. Currently it has more than 3,5 million images posted every day by users. This platform makes also offer of large online photo storage; (Sareah 2015: online sources)
-GoldenLine – this social medium is mostly used by people who look for job or for employees. Users can place there their professional profile, including work experience, education level, courses, schoolings and internships. This portal has a business-recruiting character; (GoldenLine, online sources)
-Skype – this is a special social medium which was supposed to connect people who live far from each other. This platform is considered to enable free conversations with video image. It is adjusted to such devices as PC, smart phones and tablets. Skype allows also to share pictures, ideas and projects, as well as the simple chat. (Skype, online sources)

Obviously, the popularity of social networking sites may differ depending on various factors. Such factor can be the country in which the particular social medium is used. An important function has in this case also the direction of development of the concrete social medium. That is why it is necessary to follow the trends in order to be aware of the social networking sites which are used by young people.

1.3 The Advantages and disadvantages of Social Networks

The XXI century began under the sign of social networks and social media. Fast evolving sphere of Internet and its impact on whole Word is a subject of many papers. Researchers are interested in many aspects of influence of Internet on people life. They are researching for example: how Internet and especially the Social Networks Are influencing the socialization of young people, how Internet and Social Networks are changed the political discourse. Researchers also examine how the Social Media are used in business, and finally how Social Networks are evolving, and many other aspects. One of the most controversial aspect of influence the Social Networks on people is the impact on society.

Adolescents are amongst the most inexhaustible users of Social Network Sites (SNS). Recent studies discover that teenagers spend substantial amount of their time interacting with Social Media. (Ahn 2011: 1428)

The present ways of young people communication go through a unusual set of names: wall, status, posts, activity, updates, feeds, profiles, thumbs up. Those words are several of the tools that teenagers today communicate with one another. These ways are characteristic for Social Network Sites such as MySpace, Facebook, or Tweeter. SNS (Social Network Sites) are part of a set of Internet applications also know as Social Media, which use Web 2.0 principles. The Web 2.0 term describes web services (websites) that are created to:

-Rely on a contribution of gathering groups of users than central controlled content providers,
-Remix and aggregate content from a number of sources,
-More deeply network users and content jointly. (Ahn 2011: 1429 – 1430)

Young people’s use SNS (Social Network Sites) in great numbers, for example the 2009 National Survey showed that73% of online youngsters used SNS, which was an increase from 55% in 2006. Those numbers of teens that are connected to these Online Global Communities equally a alarming prospects for educators and parents and fascinating areas for social science researchers, for example parents and educators in the United States counter difficulties concerning students and Social Network Sites.(Ahn 2011: 1430)


Excerpt out of 65 pages


Internet culture. Social networks and their usage by young people
Kozminski University
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internet, social
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Anika Grudziak (Author), 2023, Internet culture. Social networks and their usage by young people, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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Title: Internet culture. Social networks and their usage by young people

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