Dialectal Differences of "Saraiki" Language in Punjab

A study of phonological differences in spoken Saraiki Language in various parts of Southern Punjab


Hausarbeit, 2014

20 Seiten, Note: 2

Ujala Zahoor (Autor:in)


Leseprobe


ABSTRACT

It is common all over the world that a language has more than one accent whether it is standard language like English or any regional language. Phonological features are the fundamental parameters on the basis of which varieties of a language can be analyzed. The concern of my present study is to find out the dialectal differences in a language. The basic purpose of my work is to see the accent differences and the choice of lexical items by speakers of different regions for same word or concept. To conduct this research work I selected Saraiki, one of the regional languages of Pakistan and widely used as first language in southern Punjab. I analyzed the speech of two speakers who belong to different regions of Punjab and carried out study on the basic speech patterns and features. The point to ponder is how two speakers of a same language pronounce same words differently and what features made their speyech different as well as similar to each other.

Introduction

It is common all over the world that a language has more than one accent whether it is standard language like English or any regional language. Phonological features are the fundamental parameters on the basis of which varieties of a language can be analyzed. The concern of my present study is to find out the dialectal differences in a language. The basic purpose of my work is to see the accent differences and the choice of lexical items by speakers of different regions for same word or concept. To conduct this research work I selected Saraiki, one of the regional languages of Pakistan and widely used as first language in southern Punjab. I will analyze the speech of two speakers who belong to different regions of Punjab and carry out study on the basic speech patterns and features. The point to ponder is how two speakers of a same language pronounce same words differently and what features made their speech different as well as similar to each other.

Research Question

- What are the differences in accent between two dialects of saraiki language?
- What are the lexical differences between two dialects of saraiki?

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

What is Variety?

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster. This may include languages, dialects, accents, registers, styles or other sociolinguistic variation, as well as the standard variety itself (Meecham, Marjory, Janie, 2001). “Variety avoids the terms language, which many people associate only with the standard language, and dialect, which is associated with non-standard varieties thought of as less prestigious or “correct” than the standard (Schilling-Estes, Natalies. 2006). Linguists speak of both standard and non-standard varieties. O`Grady defines dialect as, “A regional or social variety of a language characterized by its own phonological, syntactic and lexical properties.” A variety spoken in a particular region is called a regional dialect. Dialectology is the study of dialects and their geographic or social distribution (O`Grady, 2001).

Introduction of ‘Saraiki’

The language which is now called Saraiki has been given various names in the past. Western linguists used names like ‘Belochki’ (Burton, 1849), ‘Multani’ (O’ Brien, 1881), ‘Western Punjabi’, Uchi (Bomford, 1895), ‘Jataki’ (Jukes, 1900), ‘Shahpuri’, ‘Hindi’ (Wilson, 1899), ‘Lahnda’ (Grierson, 1919), ‘Lahndi’ (Smirnov, 1975) and ‘Siraiki’ (Shackle, 1972, 1976, 2007) for it. Native speakers had called it by the names of the areas where it was spoken. However, after the 1970s, it was finally decided that the word ‘Saraiki’ should be used for this language. Saraiki is a ‘Sanskritic language’ (O’Brien 1881: i) of the Indo-Aryan family spoken in the central part of Pakistan in the southern part of Punjab province.

The word “Sarāiki” originated from the word “Sauvira”(A.H. Dani, 1981), a kingdom name of ancient India, also mentioned in the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata. By adding adjectival suffix “-ki” to the word “Sauvira” it became “Sauvirāki”. The consonant ‘v’ with its neighbouring vowels was dropped for simplification and hence the name became “Sarāiki”. Grierson reported that “Siraiki” (that was the spelling he used) is from a Sindhi word sirō. Christopher Shackle also shared the view that it is derived from word ‘ sirō’ which means ‘the language of the upper Sindh’ (Shackle, 1972:67).

According to the traditional view, the Aryans came to the Subcontinent in groups and settled in different areas. They spoke dialects of the Proto-Indo-Aryan language. These dialects developed into the modern languages of the Indo-Aryan family in the Subcontinent. Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi and Bengali etc are other famous languages of this family. Saraiki, having developed from one of those old dialects, is a member of the Indo-Aryan family of languages. As Saraiki developed, it was developed, it was influenced by many other languages.

For thousands of years, the languages of the Aryans developed without outside influence. Arabic was the first outside invader in the linguistic scenario of the Subcontinent. With the beginning of the second millennium CE, the Persian-speaking Afghans, Turks and Iranians continually attacked the Subcontinent and for the next one thousand years, they ruled the Indian Subcontinent. Since Persian was the language of royalty, nobility and literature, it influenced the languages of the subcontinent for next one thousand years. In 1857, the Subcontinent became a British colony. English began to influence the languages of the area.

Geographical Distribution

Saraiki is spoken in the central areas of Pakistan. The population census in 1981 treated Saraiki as a distinct language. According to that census, it is the language spoken by about 9.83% of the total population of Pakistan (Rahman, 1996, p.1). But, Wagha (1990, p.2) opines that due to some political, economic and social factors this figure is underestimated. According to Paul (2009) the total number of people who speak Saraiki in Pakistan is 13,843,106 and in India 20,000. Haq (1967, p. 108) claims that the area in which Saraiki is spoken is 48093 sq miles. On either side of the river Indus is located the Saraiki speaking area, in central Pakistan. Haq (1985, p. 17) considers it the first language (mother tongue) of the people of central parts of Pakistan whereas the second language of almost all the rest of Pakistanis. He asserts that no other Pakistani language is spoken as second language as frequently as Saraiki is. Rasoolpuri reinforces it by asserting that Saraiki is the only Pakistani language which is comprehended and spoken in all the provinces of Pakistan.

Previous Studies

Though Saraiki literary tradition is very old and strong, serious attempts to study Saraiki language were started by the British for missionary and colonial purposes (Shackle 1972: 66). Burton’s survey of Sindh (1849) was the first attempt by the British. This was mainly focused on Sindhi language but it also collected data about Saraiki.

O’Brien (1881) collected a number of Saraiki words and proverbs in his glossary. Jukes (1900) edited the glossary of O’Brien and Wilson (1903) revised it. Grierson (1919) was the ‘first serious philologist’ (Shackle 1972:72) to study Saraiki thoroughly. Before writing about Saraiki in his Linguistic Survey of India (LSI) (1919), Grierson had written about Saraki in 1895 (Shackle 1972:73). Smirnov (1975) is the last among the Western researchers who attempted to study Saraiki before Shackle. Besides two or three dictionaries, we have only a few articles and books on Saraiki linguistics. Among all these, Shackle (1972, 1976, 2007) carried out the most recent and detailed description of Saraiki.

Among the indigenous writers who worked on Saraiki before Pakistan came into being, the names of Bahl, Bhri and Varma are well-known. Bahl’s thesis (1936), in the words of Shackle, is a valuable comment on Saraiki phonology but as it was submitted in French, it has not achieved its deserved place in literature . Bahri’s articles (1962,1963) on Phonology and Phonetics are focused on northern dialects and aim to find out the derivations of words of the researcher’s speech in Sanskrit. The article by Varma (1936) is a serious attempt to explain the phonetics of what he calls ‘Lahnda’ but it was written, as the writer himself claims, with a focus only on a peripheral Northern dialect.

Since the emergence of Pakistan the pace of research and study in the field of Saraiki language has been slower. Mehr (1967) made the first serious attempt to study Saraiki. The efforts of Fikri (1971), Zimi (1963, 1970), Wagha (1990, 1998) and Mughal (1990, 1996, 2000, 2003) etc were all focused on the study of grammar, vocabulary or history of the language. We don’t find even a single comprehensive book on Saraiki Phonology written in light of the modern principles of science of language.

Local Varieties of Saraiki

Shackle (1976) classifies Saraiki into the following six varieties:

- Central variety
- Southern variety
- Sindhi variety
- Northern variety
- Jhangi
- Shahpuri

These varieties are also divided on the basis of the regions they belong to like Multani, Riasti (Bahawalpuri), Dera Wali, etc. However, all these varieties were given a collective and agreed upon name i.e. Saraiki __ a name previously given to this language only in Sindh__ in 1962 in a meeting held under the banner of Bazm-e-Saqafat (Cultural Society), Multan (Khan, 1995: 105). There is a controversy regarding the history of Saraiki. Mughal (2004) has, however, proved that this language is the oldest of almost all the language of the Sub-continent including Sanskrit, Hindi, Sindhi, Punjabi and Urdu. Kalanchvi has also declared it to be the oldest of all the languages of Indus Valley (1979: 9).

The classification of the local varieties of Saraiki is shown in Map below. According to Shackle (1976) these varieties are to be regarded as broad regional groupings of localized dialects and are differentiated on the basis of a few simple shibboleths. The areas indicated by shading on the map are provisional only: much more detailed fieldwork would be required for their outlines to confirm precisely with configuration of geographically pin-pointed isoglosses.

Map

Fig: 1

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Note: The image was created by author Ujala Zahoor herself in order to show the geographical distribution of Sariki in Upper and Lower Punjab, Pakistan

Methodology

The variety which is adopted for this project is central one. In Multan it is known as Multani and the other one is Bahawalpuri or Riasati which is also a part of central variety. I took ten minute speech of two female speakers of Saraiki. The speech of both speakers is formal. Both speakers read a short essay provided to them in their own accents. I recorded this ten minute speech of both speakers through waveform software by using my laptop. Natural pauses and stops are trimmed and speech of both speaker is analyzed. First speech is from pure Multani speaker of Saraiki who belongs to Andrun a Shehar and has typical Multani accent whereas other one belongs to Multan region but does not has a typical Multani accent. She has mixture of Multani, Jhangi, shahpuri and Bahawalpuri accent. My project is based on speech analysis of two different accents of same language. So, I would find out the differences on the basis of:

- Accents
- Lexical choice for conveying same meanings.

Speech analysis is confined only for ten minute speech. The both speakers are of same gender and the analysis is only on phonological basis.

Data of Research

“Andrun Shehr ” Speech transcription

har kɑɪ ɑːpnɽ͡ gʰɾ d̪iː vsuh nal suhnɽ lɑgd̪ea. ħəɹ kɑɪ ɑːpnɽ͡ ħɑnɾ͡jɑ̃ tʰẽ turd̪e. hr kaɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ d̪ɪ turde. hr kaɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ d̪ɪ t͡ʃgɒɪ̈ mɑnɠʰ d̪e. hr kaɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ d̪ɪ həklʰ sunɽ͡ d̪e. hr kaɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ d̪ɪ vel huken d̪e. uː sut͡ʃjə asan sarʰe ɑːpnɽ͡ gʰɾ d̪eː vsuha. apnɽ͡ ħɑn d̪e sud͡ʒʰla apnɽ͡ na d̪ɪʝa d̪ɪ t͡ʃɠeɪʝa. ɑːpnɽ͡ na d̪əʝa hkla tˈ ɑːpnɽ͡ ɑːpnɽ͡ na d̪ɪʝa vəlɑ hk aɟʰrk ej bʰʝe d̪e rɳg ed͡ʒʰ ɑːpnɽ͡ htʰe rɳg t͡ʃɽ͡u. val asɑ̃n ej bʰʝe d̪e aːpnɽ͡ ɟɽ͜ sunɟɽ͡ bɽ͡ vesu. val asɑ̃n sare əj bʰʝe tˈ apnɽ͡ hosu. val kai vɪ ɪ̈thɑ oprjɑ̃ alɪ kar nʰ rəhsɪ. nɑ̃ kai beɣanjɒ agu nʰ babrjɑ tʰsɪː. sud͡ʒʰla nə d͡ʒʰə apnɽ͡ mʰudʰjə t̺ ej nvji dʰə d̪e aɟʰrk pa tʰmkɪː. t̺ɑ iːj d̪e nal ej an d̪ʰahre d̪a hə ku htʰ pə gəie. uku nzr eiː t̺ un d̪ʰe sah ukhe evɽ͡ pe ɠe. unʰ sod͡ʒjə ɟ lok sut͡ʃjə de ɠalʰə krɽ͡ pɑ ɠe, unʰ d̪e muhɽ͡i trɽ͡ pɑ ɠe t̺ɑ unʰ d̪a mʰhn d̪r gum tʰiː vesiː. val viː luka d̪əje akhje vd͡ʒʰ sut͡ʃjə apnɽ͡ dʒɽ͡ va suhə krndɒ riːhə. andəhre sod͡ʒjə dʒ unʰ d̪i hɽ͡ sariː khəd̺ mukɽ͡ ali hə. əj sakʰu dʒʰdə un apnɽ͡ hənʰ d̪ɪ mohɽ͡iː d̪i kal kalhotiː vɟu hik hik ləp klund̻iː d̪i unhɒ lukɑ d̪ijɑ: akʰa vdʒʰ kʰlɑr t͡ʃ́ɽ͡. luka dijə akʰɪː mʰndrdʒʰ ɠʝɒ. akhiː ku undhəɾe də t̪ropʰe lɠɽ͡ pej ɠj. sud͡ʒhlə dja: vnɠa t̪rd̺ʰ pej ɠjɒ. sud͡ʒhlə da ohlnɽ͡ə vəl viː loɠjɒ kunh dʒiː ajjɒ kunh ahd̺ rəja. loka kunh dʒiː ajjɑ̃ kunh ahd̺ rəja. undhəɾe hik kit̪ə nʰ mɒiː unʰ lukə de pət͡ʃve toɽ͡ ʂru kr nit̺. undhəɾe apnɽ͡ vrsɒu puriː niːt̪ həi. luka dijə akʰɪː d̪liː vidʒʰ vəsvas dijə dʒkjɒ dʒʰt̺jɒ rʰajɒ.d̪eljɑ̃ dijə mʰt̪rən kaljɒ t̪ʰndijɑ̃ rʰje. akʰɪ̈ vdʒ kalhu khlrd̺iː rʰiː. akʰiː muhnd̪rind̪jɒ rʰiː. akʰiː ku t̪ropʰə lɠde rʰi. sod͡ʒla dijea vnɠa t̪rɽ͡ dijea rʰiə. loka de pit͡ʃvə tukndi rʰh. pr val vi lug sud͡ʒle di am ʂʰm idʒʰ rʰ. oʰdi taɠ tʰe munh d̪ihen tʰ tr de rʰje. undhre apnɽ͡ t͡ʃɒp ku viː t͡ʃurde rʰje. unʰ apnɽ͡ hath pate. unʰ ku nədʰiː kavɽ͡ lɠiː. oude haʰ di kal keulthiː nad̺ʰi pai te unʰ apnɽ͡ kit̪ nɒva val vesndr kit̪e. unʰ sot͡ʃəja kəht̪reh vi sut͡ʃhle de mond̺jɒ tu nava nəh di dʒʰdr dʒʰk t͡ʃrɒ. unʰ hole hole t͡ʃnde t͡ʃnde sod͡ʒle de mund̺ʰɒ tə t͡ʃup te khop undhre khndvre ʂʰru kəte. sud͡ʒhle ku axr sod͡ʒhle ɟo hei undhare dijɒ t͡ʃk t͡ʃund̪jɑ̃ unde mat̺ʰ ku pjie uku viː apnɽ͡ d͡ʒen apɑ̃ krniː pa ɠiː. sut͡ʃʰhle nə apnɽ͡ mund̪ʰeɒ ot̪o navɒ nəh di tʄad̪r da t͡ʃnd̺kare kita. sut͡ʃʰla di ɠdʒʰkar lukjɒ de kana vdʒ pəje. luka iː und̪ʰre tu alʱlʱha sohd̪e di pɒnəh manɠiː. ənha dije d̺iːlʱɒ vidʒu kale vasves dije dʒkijɒ mok ɠəjɒ. ənha dije d̺iːlʱɑ vidʒu kale vasves dije dʒkijɒ mok ɠəjɒ, akhəə bʰalədʒ ɠəjɒ. sut͡ʃʰle dijɒ runɠil vunɠe val d͡ʒʰkd̪ pə ɠeja. luka dəʰ pt͡ʃʰvə sahi saləm sut͡ʃʰle di vasun vt͡ʃ nevɒ siro t̪urɽ͡ pʰiɽ͡ pə ɠa. sut͡ʃʰhle nə apnɽ͡ mund̪ʰeɒ ot̪o navɒ nəh di adʒʰrɒk di t͡ʃʰɒ loka de sirɒ ut̪ə khnɽ͡r ʂʰro kar d̪ti. har kʰh de ɠʰr di vsuh suhɽ͡iː thi gai. har kai apnɽ͡ hɒ də sut͡ʃʰle tʰ turnɽ͡ peʰ gea. har kai apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ di ɟnɠai mengɽ͡ pe ɠia. . hr kaɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ dɪ həklʰ sunɽ͡ pe ɠie. hər kaɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ dɪ vel hukevɽ͡ kitə. apnɽ͡ bʰoəh de rɒnɠ vt͡ʃ rɒnɠiː navə neh di ut͡ʃʰrk pea themkaiː hei. unde vsuh vt͡ʃ hae koi t̺rde end̪ə har kai apnɽ͡ bʰoəh di dʒenɽ͡ sunɽ͡ ku sukhe kit̪a andə. ejyə bʰoəh de sare vasnək idʒ apnɽ͡ hin. iːtha huɽ͡ upra ɒli kar koi nəh reh saɠde. iːzet̪ abroh har keh di sɒndʒ he. navə neh di sɒnɠət̪ naɽʰ bhandi pai he. navəh neh de at͡ʃʰrk de rɒnɠ sobʰnɽ͡ de sund͡ʒpu hin inhen di sund͡ʒɽ͡ hin. und̪ʰera huɽ͡ iːn nəvɒj neh ad͡ʒʰrk ku aslo nhə t͡ʃʰt̪ sɠda. huɽ͡ iːə sut͡ʃʰla ad͡ʒʰrk di emɒn idʒ he. ijə ad͡ʒʰrk da rənɠa di vsunh t͡ʃra pase khlɑrdi he. har kai iːn vsuh di d͡ʒʰn mit̺asi t̺e iːʰ nave neh di ad͡ʒʰrk di sod͡ʒ sɒmbʰal rəkhɒsiː d͡ʒʰ inhe dija sirɒ t̺ʰu undʰare di d͡ʒh vnd͡ʒe t͡ʃʰɽ͡iː he.

“Shahpuri” speech transcription

har koɪ ɑːpnɽ͡ gʰɾ deː vsuh nal suhnɽ lɑgdeh. həɹ koɪ ɑːpnɽ͡ ħɑn de turdeh. har koɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ de sud͡ʒʰla de turdeh. hr koɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ dɪ t͡ʃgɒɪ̈ mɒngʰde he. hr koɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ dɪ avez sunɽ͡ de he. hr kaɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ dɪ vel hukendehe. uː sut͡ʃjə asan sarʰe ɑːpnɽ͡ gʰɾ deː vsuha. apnɽ͡ ħɑn de sud͡ʒʰla apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ dɪʝa dɪ t͡ʃgɒɪ̈ʝa. ɑːpnɽ͡ nɑ̃ diʝa avez tˈ ɑːpnɽ͡ ɑːpnɽ͡ nɑ̃ dɪ̈ʝa vəlɑ hk aɟʰrk is d̪ʰrti de rɳg vd͡ʒʰ ɑːpnɽ͡ hetʰeja rɳg t͡ʃɽ͡u. val asan is d̪ʰrti de aːpnɽ͡ ɟɽ͜ pʰəɟaɽ͡ bɽ͡ vesu. val asan sare is d̪ʰrti tˈ apnɽ͡ hosu. val kai vɪ ɪthe pɑrajɑ̃ diː trʰɒ nʰ rəh saɠdʰ . na kai praʝɒ agu nʰ beabrjɑ tʰsɪː. sud͡ʒʰla nə d͡ʒʰe vəle apnɽ͡ mʰudʰjə t̺ ej nvji dɪːhɽ͡ de aɟʰrk pai te sadʒiː. t̺e iːjda nal ej andhere da hə ku htʰ pə gəiahe. uku nzr eiː t̺ undʰə sah t̪anɠ evɽ͡ pɒ ɠie. unʰ sod͡ʒjə ɟ loɠ sut͡ʃjə de ɠalʰə krɽ͡ pɑ ɠe, unʰdɑ muhɽ͡i trɽ͡ pɑ ɠe t̺ɑ unʰda mʰhndr gum tʰiː vesiː. val viː luka d̺əje akhje vd͡ʒʰ sut͡ʃjə apnɽ͡ dʒɽ͡ va suhə krndɒ riːhə. andəhre sod͡ʒe dʒ us di hɽ͡ sariː khəd̺ mukɽ͡ ali hə. us sakʰu dʒʰdə un apnɽ͡ hənʰ dɪ mohɽ͡iː di kal kalhotiː vɟu hik hik ləp klund̻iː di unhɑ lukɑ di akʰja vdʒʰ kʰlɑr t͡ʃ́ɽ͡. luka dijə akʰɪː mʰndrdʒʰ ɠʝe. akhiː ku undhəɾe də t̪ropʰə lɠɽ͡ pej ɠj. sud͡ʒhlə djɑ̃ vnɠa t̪rd̺ʰ pej ɠjɒ. sud͡ʒhlə da ohlnɽ͡ə vəl viː loɠjɒ kunh dʒiː ajɑ̃ kunh ahd̺ rəja. loɠjɒ kunh dʒiː ajjɒ kunh ahd̺ rəja. undhəɾe hik kit̪ə nʰ mɒiː unʰ lukə de pt͡ʃve toɽ͡ ʂru kr nit̺. undhəɾe apnɽ͡ vrsɒu puriː niːt̪ həi. luka dijə akʰɪː d̪liː vidʒʰ vəsvas dijə dʒkjɒ dʒʰt̺j ɑ̃rəh ɠaʝ ɑ̃.d̪eljɒ dijə mʰt̪rən kaljɒ t̪ʰndijɒ rʰjɒ. akʰɪ̈ vdʒ kalhu khlrd̺iː rʰiː. akʰiː muhnd̪rind̪jɒ rʰiː. akʰiː ku t̪ropʰə lɠdɒ rʰi. sod͡ʒla dijea vnɠa t̪rtdijea rʰiə. loka de pit͡ʃvə tukndi rʰh. pr val vi lug sud͡ʒlɒ di am ʂʰm idʒʰ rʰ. us di taɠ tʰe munh d̪ihen tʰ tr de rʰje. undhere apnɽ͡ t͡ʃɒp ku viː t͡ʃurde rʰje. unʰ apnɽ͡ hath pate. us ku nədʰiː kavɽ͡ lɠiː. us de haʰ di kal keulthiː nad̺ʰi pai tɒ unʰ apnɽ͡ kit̪ nɒva val vesndr kit̪e. usʰ sot͡ʃəja kəht̪reh vi sut͡ʃhle de mond̺ʰjɑ̃ tu nava nəh di dʒʰdr dʒʰk t͡ʃrɒ. us hole hole t͡ʃnde t͡ʃnde sod͡ʒle de mund̺ʰɒ tə t͡ʃup te khop undhre khndvre ʂʰru kəte. sud͡ʒhle ku axr sod͡ʒhle ɟo hei undhare dijɒ t͡ʃk t͡ʃund̪jɒ unde mat̺ʰ ku pjɒe uku viː apnɽ͡ d͡ʒen apɒ krniː pa ɠiː. sut͡ʃʰhle nə apnɽ͡ mund̪ʰeɒ ot̪o nava: nəh di tʄad̪r da t͡ʃnd̺kare kita. sut͡ʃʰla di ɠdʒʰkar lukjɒ de kana vdʒ pəje. luka iː und̪ʰre tu alʱlʱha sohd̪e di pɒnəh manɠiː. ənha dije d̺iːlʱɒ vidʒu kale vasves dije dʒkijɑ̃ mok ɠəjɒ. ənha dije d̺iːlʱɒ vidʒu kale vasves dije dʒkijɑ̃ mok ɠəjɒ, akhəə khul ɠəjɒ. sut͡ʃʰle dijɒ runɠil vunɠe val d͡ʒʰkd̪ pə ɠeja. luka dəʰ pt͡ʃʰvə sahi saləm sut͡ʃʰle di vasun vt͡ʃ nevɒ siro t̪urɽ͡ pʰiɽ͡ pɒ ɠa. sut͡ʃʰhle nə apnɽ͡ mund̪ʰeɒ ot̪o navɒ nəh di adʒʰrɒk di t͡ʃʰɒ loka de sirɒ ut̪ə khnɽ͡r ʂʰro kar d̪ti. har kʰh de ɠʰr di vsuh suhɽ͡iː thi gai. har koi apnɽ͡ hɒ də sut͡ʃʰle tʰ turnɽ͡ peʰ gea. har koi apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ di ɟnɠai mengɽ͡ lg pe ɠia. . hr koɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ dɪ həklʰ sunɽ͡ pe ɠie. hər koɪ apnɽ͡ nɑ̃ dɪ vel hukevɽ͡ kitə. apnɽ͡ de d̪ʰrti rɒnɠ vt͡ʃ rɒnɠiː navə neh di ut͡ʃʰrk pea themkaiː hei. unde vsuh vt͡ʃ hae koi t̺rde end̪ə har koi apnɽ͡ bʰoəh di dʒenɽ͡ sunɽ͡ ku sukhe kit̪a andə. ejyə bʰoəh de sare vasnək idʒ apnɽ͡ hɒn. iːtha huɽ͡ upra ɒli kar koi nəh reh saɠde. iːzet̪ abroh har keh di sɒndʒ he. navə neh di sɒnɠət̪ naɽʰ bhandi pai he. navəh neh de at͡ʃʰrk de rɒnɠ sobʰnɽ͡ de sund͡ʒpu hin inhen di sund͡ʒɽ͡ hin. und̪ʰɒra huɽ͡ iːn nəvɒj neh ad͡ʒʰrk ku aslo nhə t͡ʃʰt̪ sɠda. huɽ͡ iːə sut͡ʃʰla ad͡ʒʰrk di emɒn idʒ he. ijə ad͡ʒʰrk da rənɠa di vsunh t͡ʃra pase khlɒrdi he. har kai iːn vsuh di d͡ʒʰn mit̺asi t̺e iːʰ nave neh di ad͡ʒʰrk di sod͡ʒ sɒmbʰal rəkhɒsiː d͡ʒʰ inhe dija sirɒ t̺ʰu undʰare di d͡ʒh vnd͡ʒe t͡ʃʰɽ͡iː he.

Data Analysis

Comparison

Variations have been seen between two speeches on the basis for accent and lexical choices.. Accent and lexical variation are marked in the third column.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Results

The present study deals with the dialects of Saraiki. Here in above analysis I find out that dialectal difference on the basis of regions. Lexical choices and accent differences are prominent in the speech of both participants. They use two different words for conveying same meanings like for village andrun shehr speaker uses “bʰʝe” and shahpuri speaker uses the word “d̪ʰrti” .

“Spoken language consists of successions of sounds emitted by the organs of speech, together with certain ‘attributes’ (Jones, 1979, p. 1).

Above statement is true in the case of both dialects of language. They use different accents for pronouncing same word. For example speaker of Andrun e sheher use “kɑɪ” for everyone while other speaker use pronounces it as“ koɪ:”

Conclusion:

This research project focuses on two basic differences on dialectal basis. The accent difference and lexical choices are the main focus of this study. I found out that, one of the major spoken languages of Southern Punjab “Saraiki” varies on regional basis. This variation is visible after every 15 km. The variations are on the basis of pronunciation patterns and choices of lexical items.

References:

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Details

Titel
Dialectal Differences of "Saraiki" Language in Punjab
Untertitel
A study of phonological differences in spoken Saraiki Language in various parts of Southern Punjab
Veranstaltung
Phonetics and Phonology
Note
2
Autor
Jahr
2014
Seiten
20
Katalognummer
V1367212
ISBN (eBook)
9783346901385
ISBN (Buch)
9783346901392
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
Phonetics Phonology Saraiki Dialect Southern Punjab
Arbeit zitieren
Ujala Zahoor (Autor:in), 2014, Dialectal Differences of "Saraiki" Language in Punjab, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1367212

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