Ontologies and Electronic Health Record related Standards


Seminar Paper, 2010

20 Pages, Grade: 2,0


Excerpt

Contents

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. PHILOSOPHICAL
1.2. INFORMATIONAL
1.3. BIOMEDICAL
1.4. CONCEPTUALIZATION

2. TECHNOLOGY
2.1. SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY
2.2. ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE

3. ONTOLOGY IN EHR STANDARDS

4. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
4.1. MAPPING
4.2. EHEALTH APPLICATION

REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES

1. Introduction

1.1. Philosophical

“What is existence?“ A question easy to ask, but hard to answer. Concerning these and other philosophical questions, Ontology is a matter of the theoretical philosophy. It tries to categorize and classify a given reality, in order to create a shareable schema of it. Contrariwise, this “reality” could be any kind of world or closed theme, for example a specific domain (cars, diseases) or a concept of use (language, network).

Philosophers tried to describe and analyze our known world. Their ambition was to find a way, to create relations between different aspects of reality and afterwards, to pull the revealed associations together. This offers a view onto reality, which contains the knowledge on the one hand, but also on the other hand, the comprehension of the knowledge. The target was to discuss the basic organization of entities and relations, which aims at the philosophers wanted ability, to have a complete and qualified view onto a domain (like reality, the largest domain of all).

The idea which started the invention and processing of ontology in the past was the willing of human to understand their position within their environment. What is a thing? What is an attribute? What is existence − and furthermore, what things are said to be existing? Still today, the answers to this questions are hard to find and strongly depending on the individuals’ disposition.

1.2. Informational

In an informational way, ontology tries to category different information systems and put them into classification. Usually, information systems are inhomogeneous and cannot operate together (Figure 1). And as they share no common ontology, it is impossible to trade data between them.

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Figure 1: Impossible communication between different information systems [own work]

At this point, new technologies and conceptions are needed, because the communication of information systems is essential in modern IT solutions. Two problems need to be solved: at first, all involved parties have to use the same syntax, so that they are able to receive communicated data correctly. The next step is the correct interpretation of the shared information − does the information at the sender and at the receiver does have exactly the same meaning? This problem educed two possible solutions:

1. Build a translation from one system to another (Figure 2)

This is a very easy−to−use technology, as there is only a need for one translation when connecting two different information systems. But as more information systems are getting part of the communication model, the number of translations growth by [Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten] (Figure 3).

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That means every single party of the network needs a single connection to each other party. This network topology is called “fully connected” or “peer−to−peer”.

2. In contrast, the second solution uses one central common used translation protocol − called conceptualization (Figure 4). This conceptualization could be an ontology, which holds all needed information about the involved communication system in order to enable transfer of information through it. Keep in mind, that not the technicalƒinformational process is the problem, but the correct interpretation of the information.

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Figure 4: four connections and a common conzeptualization [own work]

This network topology could be compared to a „star“ or „client−server−model“.

These two solutions provide different advantages and disadvantages. At one hand, a client−server− model lowers the costs for installing the communication network, as there are much less connection needed than in peer−to−peer network (Chart 1).

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Furthermore, adding new parties to the network is more efficient and easy as per each new client, just one new connection is needed (connection to the conceptualization). In a peer−to−peer network, one new client needs to be connected to every existing client and vice versa. Scaling a client−server network is also easier and cheaper than a peer−to−peer based one.

On the other hand, using a central communication solution provides some disadvantages. At first, the malfunction of a common used concept would have an impact on all parties and inhibit any kind of data transfer. At second, the dependency on a common used translation script could restrict or lower

the informational capability of single party members. That means that clients with more modern or extensive communication protocols then the central communication concept are not able to utilize them − as they depend on the conceptual regulations of the central communication concept.

1.3. Biomedical

In healthcare related software, ontology enable communication between different parties that are involved in healthcare business, such as hospitals or health insurance companies (Figure 5).

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Figure 5: communication in health care related infrastructure [own work]

1.4. Conceptualization

As mentioned before, the communication between different information systems does require a specific translation concept. The process of creating such a concept is called conceptualization and a possible outcome is an ontology.

In other words, this outcome is an abstract and reduced view of your world, including all its objects and their relations to each other. Figure 6 shows a world, which consists of one table and five blocks. The objects that are part of the world are described in a set D:

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The relations between these objects are described in a set R, containing the relations “on” (pair of

bricks that stay on one another), “ontable” (bricks that are directly on the table) and “top” (bricks that are on top).

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[...]

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Details

Title
Ontologies and Electronic Health Record related Standards
College
Stralsund University of Applied Sciences
Grade
2,0
Author
Year
2010
Pages
20
Catalog Number
V152002
ISBN (eBook)
9783640638628
ISBN (Book)
9783640638932
File size
2814 KB
Language
English
Tags
ontology, en13606, electronic health record, semantic, interoperability, RDF, OWL, ADL, mapping, conceptualization, ontologies, 13606
Quote paper
B.Sc. Stefan Schroeder (Author), 2010, Ontologies and Electronic Health Record related Standards, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/152002

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