Dialysis - Principle, Advantages and Disadvantages

Seminar Paper, 2010

13 Pages



1 Introduction
1.1 Function of the kidneys
1.2 Renal Failure
1.3 History

2 Dialysis
2.1 Principle
2.2 Hemodialysis
2.3 Peritoneal Dialysis
2.4 Advantages and Disadvantages
2.5 Complications of Dialysis
2.6 Alternative: kidney transplantation

3 Conclusion

List of Figures

Abb, 1,1: Position of the kidneys

Abb, 2,1: Schematic of Osmosis

Abb, 2,2: Schematic of Diffusion

Abb, 2,3: Principle of Hemodialysis

Abb, 2,4: Principle of Peritoneal Dialysis

Abb, 2,5: Common complications of Hemodialysis

Abb, 2,6: Position of the new kidney

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Function of the kidneys

When the kidneys are healthy their main function is to maintain the body’s equilibrium of minerals (like for example calcium or magnesium) and water. The bean-shaped kidneys are part of the urinary system, they are located on either side of the back of the abdominal cavity (Figure 1.1) and get blood from the paired renal arteries.

Figure 1.1: Position of the kidneys (Source: according to |1|)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Each of the two kidneys contains more than one million nephrons, which are responsi­ble for filtering the blood |2|, Finally each kidney excretes urine, waste products such as urea and ammonium, into the ureter, which pipes the urine in the urinary bladder, where the urine will be excreted. Simultaneous the kidneys release hormones into the blood to control blood pressure and to make red blood cells.

1.2 Renal Failure

Diseases of the kidney like glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis and polycystic kidneys can constrain the function of the kidney, depending on the type of disease a kidney failure can occur. When kidneys stop working or when less than 15% of the kidneys are working this is called kidney failure. As a result toxic substances as for example urea are accumulated in the body, this leads to symptons such as headache, loss of appetite and high blood pressure. The two main reasons of kidney failure are Diabetis and high blood pressure |3|, So especially all diabetics have to take care of screening for complications every year. In chapter two there will be discussed dialysis in detail, the treatment of kidney failure, and the principle that is behind it,

1.3 History

In 1943 during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands the phvsican Dr, Willem Kolff build the first dialyzer. Because of the overall absence he had to improvise and constructed the first machine out of sausage skins, drinks cans, a wahsing machine and various other items available at the time |4|, But the first successfully treated patient was a 67 year old woman in the year 1945,

Chapter 2 Dialysis

2.1 Principle

Diffusion and Osmosis will be discussed in this section, this two principles have to be mentioned in order to understand how dialysis works. When water moves through an semipermeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration this is called Osmosis (Figure 2.1). The higher the solute concentration in one part beside the semipermeable membrane, the larger is the osmotic pressure, resulting in a stronger movement of the water molecules.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2.1: left: different quantity of water molecules in the two parts of the canister, right: water molecules have moved from one side to the other due to Osmosis (Source: according to |5|)

The second important principle is Diffusion, for which the driving force is the con­centration gradient between two fluids. Diffusion is eonstitued by random motion of molecules (see Figure 2.2).

2.2 Hemodialysis

During Hemodialysis the blood of the patient is pumped through a deviee that is ealled dialyser, whieh is eomposed of thousands of small synthetie hollow übers (Figure 2,3 right). Inside the fibers flows blood and outside of the fibers seperated by a semipermeable membrane flows a dialysis solution, due to Diffusion the exeess waste produets and fluid will be removed from the body. Therefore two needles are inserted into the arm, one is inserted in the artery and withdraws the blood, the other is inserted in the vein and returns the filtered blood baek to the body (see Figure 2.3 left).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2.3: left: Principle of Hemodialysis, right: Structure of a typical hollow fiber dialyser (Source: aeeording to |7| and |8| )

2.3 Peritoneal Dialysis

In Peritoneal Dialysis the peritoneal membrane (peritoneum) is used as a filter to elean the blood and remove exeess fluids, A sterile solution, which contains glucose, is run through a tube into the peritoneal cavity, therby the peritoneal membrane, a layer of tissue containing blood vessels, acts as the semipermeable membrane|4|. The solution is left in the peritoneal cavity for several hours and after it has absorbed waste products it is drained out through a tube into the drainage bag (Figure 2,4), The dialysate contains a high concentration of glucose, due to Osmosis fluid moves from the blood into the dialysate, so more fluid is removed than instilled.

In contrast to Hemodialysis Peritoneal Dialysis is performed primarily as a home therapy.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2,4: Principle of Peritoneal Dialysis (Source: according to |9| )

2.4 Advantages and Disadvantages

Because each of the two types of dialysis has advantages and disadvantages it is up to the patient to decide which of the two types matches best for the patient;s needs.


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Dialysis - Principle, Advantages and Disadvantages
University Lübeck
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Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, Diffusion, Osmosis, Kidney, Renal Failure, polycystic kidneys, Diffusion and Osmosis, osmotic pressure, peritoneal membrane, semipermeable membrane, therapy, Hemodialysis Peritoneal Dialysis, Hypotension, catheter, kidney transplantation, kidney failure, side effects, transplantation, advantages and disadvantages, advantages, dialysis patients, recovery, wearable artificial kidney, artificial kidney, Complications of Dialysis, Position of the kidneys, hormones, filtering the blood, filtering, medicine, kidney transplant, endocrine system, hemofiltration, Hemodiafiltration, Intestinal dialysis, diet, acute kidney injury, Chronic dialysis, Pediatric dialysis, Dialysis in different countries, dialysis system, device, health, treatment, Peritoneal, Schematic diagram of peritoneal dialysis, pre- and post-dilution, peritoneal cavity, sterile solution, dialyzer membrane, blood, dialyzer, blood compartment, hydrostatic pressure, membrane, dialysate, dialysate compartment, solution, saline solution, abdominal cavity, dialysis solution, potassium and calcium
Quote paper
Nick Sander (Author), 2010, Dialysis - Principle, Advantages and Disadvantages, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/153485


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