Sport Management. Sponsoring in General

Term Paper, 2003

10 Pages


Table of contents:

1 Basics about sponsoring
1.1 Formation of sponsoring
1.2 Meaning of sponsoring

2 The system of sport sponsoring
2.1 The parts of the sport sponsoring
2.2. Companies as sponsors
2.3 The sport as the sponsored
2.4 Compartment agencies between the sponsor and the user
2.5 The mass medias as involuntary partner

3 Literature:

1 Basics about sponsoring

1.1 Formation of sponsoring

The beginning of the sponsoring as it is used today is from the many hundred years ago. The first sponsor were rich people who sponsored poets to write poems for them. So e.g. sponsored Gaius Clinius Maesenas the poets Horaz, Vergil and Properz. With these money these poets could write their important works that are known all over the world.. The beginning of the sponsoring is near the word “mazenatentum”. A definition of this word is the following: ”Patronage, by both definition and usage, is essentially an altruistic activity carried out with no expectation or return other than the satisfaction of knowing that is being done.” (Diggle 1975, 14). Later in time the rich people also sponsored other people, but the kind of people changed over time. In the beginning poets were sponsored, but in the mid age only scientist and artist were sponsored. In the end of the mid age there was also a new social class created, the bourgeoisie. These people also got rich and gave their money to scientist and artist.

In the 19th century there were not only single people sponsoring other people. There were founded art trends and science trends. And so some people didn’t sponsor only one but they sponsor a hole group of people with the same goals or same interests. The best example is the will from Alfred Nobel. He said that the best person of one year should have money to go further in his or her main thing.

The sponsoring and its meaning like it is used today was found in the end of the last century. The companies started to give money to people who need this money to create something special. At first there was a donation but after a while it was renamed in sponsoring. In those years in the USA many universities were founded due the sponsoring from rich personalities. In Germany the rich personalities sponsored the art and so many art collections were created. Before this time the sponsor did not say that they want to have a return, but from this time on they said it openly. A turning point in the history of the sponsoring was in the 70s of the last century. The cigarette industry were not longer allowed to make commercial in the TV and so they search for a new way to get a commercial effect. The sport was the new thing. And with this thinking of the cigarette industry other industries followed. The sponsoring became more and more important and more and more clubs took advantage of the given chance. There were also created some other kinds of sponsoring. Next to the sport sponsoring was the art sponsoring and the social sponsoring founded.

1.2 Meaning of sponsoring

A special definition of the word sponsoring still does not exist till today. The reason for this is the development of the sponsoring. For example, in Germany was only sport sponsoring common, but since a few years there is also art and social sponsoring coming up. Another reason is that the science doesn’t come along with the sponsoring, it was long time no examination object. That’s why the science doesn’t find a special definition.

The first definitions are from Great Britain. The first was from Meenaghan, it is the following: “Sponsorship is a gift or payment in return for some facility or privilege which aims to provide publicity for the donor.” (Meenaghan 1984, 8).

An better definition from Waite is:”

1. A commercial organisation (sponsor) provides resources for the benefit of a leisure activity (sponsored).
2. The sponsor does so with the expectation of gaining some commercially valuable benefit.
3. The sponsored activity consents to the sponsor company using a facility it has to offer in exchange for the resources it accordingly receives.” (Meenaghan 1984, 9).

But also this definition is not good at all. Wait use the word “leisure activity” and he makes borders for every kind of sponsoring. So for example there is an exclusion for the health areas, science areas and ecological domain.

The step made Simkins. His definition is the following:

1. “A sponsor makes a contribution in cash or kind – which may or may not include services and expertise – to an activity which is in some measure a leisure pursuit, either sport or within the broad definition of the arts,
2. The sponsored activity does not form part of the main commercial function of the sponsoring body (otherwise it becomes straightforward promotion, rather than sponsorship)
3. The sponsor expects a return in terms of publicity.”(Simkins 1977, 4)

This definition is the most used definition at all. But it is not the best, he forgot the example that the motor sport cannot work with out any sponsor.

The origin countries of sponsoring are the USA or Great Britain. In Germany and France the sponsoring took place after the education of sponsoring in the other two countries. In Germany there was another development than in other countries like the USA. There was also another name for sponsoring it was sport advertisement. Between this statement and today there were many different explanations of sponsoring. One try for that is the following.

“Sponsoring includes:

- the giving of money, goods and services from the sponsor to the chosen sponsored object
- the connection with the intention of the sponsor, with aid of the returns of the sponsored object, for set and mostly communicative goals.” (Drees 1989, 16)

From this sponsors point of view sponsoring is mostly a new communication tool. The showing and presentation of the sponsors name is one of the front line goals. From the sponsored point of view sponsoring is a new resource, which helps or is even the only possibility to reach the given goal.

2 The system of sport sponsoring

2.1 The parts of the sport sponsoring

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

In order for sponsoring to work it needs two different parts. On the first side there is the sponsor, it is in the most cases a company. On the other side there is the user (sponsored or sponsoring object). But also in many cases there is a third part. These are sponsoring agencies. These are companies which help both sides to make a contract or to mediate partnerships. In some literature there is fourth part. This is the mass media. This object helps the sponsor to get something back, in form from commercial activity. The following picture show the basic structure of sponsoring.

2.2. Companies as sponsors

The first obvious sponsoring was seen in the 1960s. The biggest mineral oil companies (Shell, Esso and BP) got engaged in the car racing sport by placing relatively unobvious stickers on the cars. These companies had a direct reference with the sport. A few years later there were many other companies, which had no direct reference with the sport. These were in the most cases companies from the cigarette industry, because there was a law that forbids the cigarette commercial on TV. So they used the changes to make commercial with the sport. The next sport which was sponsored was rowing. This was the beginning of sponsoring in all different kinds of sport. Since this time sponsoring has grown constantly. The sponsoring can be coming from international, national, regional or local companies but there are no categories which are meaningful. But there is one criteria which makes the credibility of the sponsoring and helps to reach the set goals of the sponsor. The product has to be able to be associated with the sport. Four levels to describe the association are:

1. product from the first level (sport products) are products which are used directly during the sport
2. products from the second level (sport near products) are products which are not necessarily needed to make sport
3. products from the third level (product far from the sport) are products which only have an indirect relation to the sport
4. product from the fourth level are product which have nothing in common with the sport

It is clear that the companies from the first group have the most context to the sport and they are the most important sponsors. These are for example ADIDAS or PUMA.


Excerpt out of 10 pages


Sport Management. Sponsoring in General
Comenius University in Bratislava
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ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
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sport, sponsoring
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Thorsten Reichelt (Author), 2003, Sport Management. Sponsoring in General, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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