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The implementations of the nanomaterial in Electric Car’s battery
Electronic Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiao Tong Liverpool University, Suzhou, China
Abstract Over decades, the use of engines car are rapidly increasing every year due to the population and economy in each country. But since, the massive car production, many greenhouse gases are produce from the car itself. Therefore, electric-car (e-car) is being created to reduce the pollution produce. Moreover, electric car have come up with many different technology to reduce the limitations occur in any convenient e-car.
In the 20th century, life would not be possible without cars. Therefore, cars are used so extensively all around the world. Every year the employ of engines car are increasing every year. Since currently many people are using engines car, many greenhouse gases are produce from the car itself. To reduce the amount of greenhouse gases, electric car are being manufactured to begin the first step for reducing the pollution. But since electric car have many limitations such as, speed and the efficiency of battery, the popularity of electric car are decreasing every year. Thus, to overcome these limitations, e-car is being developed to replace the engines car position.
The massive productions of greenhouse gases are a serious case for every country. On the other hand, as a country developed, the needs of transportations are also increases. China known as the most developed country in this which believes as the most producer greenhouse gases. In this situation, the e-car market will focus mainly in this this country. Since the conventional electric car could not exist in the society, therefore E-Car built up with carbon nanotubes battery could be one of the options to raise the technology of the Electric-Car.
In China, E-Car could be implemented in transportation sector. However, China Electricity Council (2010) stated that China's power expenditure enlarged 8.5 percent a year to 340 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) in October. However, the council declared that the capacity was considerably lesser than the 349.8 billion kWh of electricity consumption in September. Furthermore, the overall usage of electricity for the period of the first 10 months was 3.48 trillion kWh, rise 17.03 percent since one year ago.
In addition, the council believed in late October that China's power utilization progression would carry on to slow during the rest of this year because of the government's efforts on energy saving and emission cuts. Therefore, the estimation that electricity employ nationwide for whole 2010 would total 4.1 trillion kWh, up 12 percent from last year. Therefore, E-Car could be the solution to reduce the fuel consumption and to save the electricity expenditure.
The operational System of the E-car
In general terms, e-car is powered by electric motors, which the powers are transmit with an adapter plate. Afterwards, the electric controller was installed to manage the AC motor. Before the controller begins to operates, it gains electricity from the battery tray which added in the base of the car with carbon nanotubes lead acid batteries set up in the battery plate. Furthermore, the motor operates the other machines that used to obtain their electricity from the motor such as, air conditioner, horn, and light. For the brakes in the e-car, vacuum pump was placed for the power brakes.
In standard batteries such as the ones generally employ in electric car are consists of three components: an electrolyte separates the anode (negative electrode) and the cathode (positive electrode). Once the battery is being applied, the positive charged lithium ions pass through the electrolyte toward the positive electrode, creating an electric current, while it is recharged. However, an ions shift to the opposite direction caused by the external current in the porous material of the anode, which embed them in the gaps.
On the other hand, within the innovative battery electrode inside the e-car, carbon nanotubes is a structure of pure carbon in which carbon atoms are in a sheets that turn around into tiny cylinders that “self-assemble” become a fixedly bound formation that the size is in nanometer which in the porous. Furthermore, the oxygen groups on carbon nanotubes surfaces enables the accumulation a large amount of lithium ions, which let the carbon nanotubes firstly to be deliver the positive electrode in ordinary lead acid batteries, as a substitute of the anode. Moreover, numerous oxygen groups on the nanotubes surfaces that have the capacity to store many lithium ions, allows the nanotubes to perform as the cathode in lithium batteries. Hammond (2010), chemical engineering professor which the leader of the research carbon nanotube battery mentioned that the essential of “electrostatic self-assembly” process since carbon nanotubes have the tendency to clump equally in packs when on a surface, leaving lesser wide-open to the surfaces to experience reactions. However, by adding organic molecules inside the nanotubes, they accumulate in a way that a great number of nanotubes exist while high degree of porosity.
The new electrode’s energy manufacturing for a specified weight was revealed to be five times larger than the amount of any other capacitors, and the entire power distribute rate was 10 times larger than the normal lithium-ion batteries, which the transmission of ions and electrons in the electrode, which competent with the surface of the nanotubes in the lithium storage.
Due to the carbon dioxide emission over the world, the use of carbon nanotubes battery could be one of the options to reduce the greenhouse gases produce in most transportation fuel base by planted the carbon nanotube battery in most transportation, such as e-car could lead to none carbon dioxide emission produce from the vehicles. The applied carbon nanotubes battery in an e-car would result in a 30% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, the targeted country for the carbon nanotubes area was China, while it has been predicted that such emissions would decrease by 19% in China (Gao, P et al, 2008). In addition, carbon nanotubes battery placed in the E-Car has higher capacity for charge almost a third and power efficiency 10 times higher than any other rechargeable lithium battery.
E-car built up with carbon nanotubes could be the key solution to reduce the greenhouse gases and fuel consumption for all countries. Moreover, the implementation technology in the e-car could save the electricity up to fifty percent power than any other electric car. The technology of the e-car which believes as a user-friendly car that let user to save more money than any other engines car. Moreover, this car also powered by carbon nanotubes battery that capable to distribute the power rate 10 times that of normal lithium-ion batteries supplied.
The author gratefully acknowledges the guidance of Dr. Ce Zhou Zhao of Xi’an Jiao Tong Liverpool University in the study of semiconductor. Deepest gratitude also to Dr. Mohamed Nayel of Xi’an Jiao Tong Liverpool University for the lectures in sustainability and also Dr Simon Graham Smith from ELC and Dr. Hao Yu of Xi’an Jiao Tong Liverpool University. Finally, special thanks to the author family and colleagues, Ferryanto Ang, Edwart Cahyadi and also other author friends that cannot be mention here.
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Fig. 1 Scanning electron microscope image of carbon nanotubes bundles Taken from: http://www.gizmag.com/industrial-scale-carbon-nanotube-processing/13270/ [September 20, 2011]
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Fig. 2 Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Taken from: http://metallurgyfordummies.com/nanomaterials-the-future-technology/ [September 20, 2011]
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Fig. 3 Carbon Nanotube Battery Taken from: http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/smart-takes/with-carbon-nanotubes-researchers-boost-energy-capacity-of-lithium-batteries/8292 [September 20, 2011]
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- James Sutanto (Author), 2011, The implementations of the nanomaterial in Electric Car’s battery, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/179644