The GLOBE Research Project


Research Paper (undergraduate), 2011

30 Pages, Grade: 2,0


Excerpt

Table of Contents

Executive Summary

Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations

List of Figures

List of Tables

1 Introduction into the GLOBE project

2 Objectives and Methodology of the GLOBE project

3 4 Phases of the GLOBE project
3.1 First Project Phase - Two Pilot Projects
3.2 Second Phase - First Hypotheses
3.3 Third Phase - Effectiveness of Culturally Endorsed Leadership Behaivour
3.4 Fourth Phase - Laboratory and Field Evaluation

4 The main findings

5 Conclusion

ITM Checklist

Appendices

Bibliography

List of Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

List of Figures

Figure 1: "Eta Squares" coeeficient for "Schoulb Be" and "As Is" scales. Source: Gupta 2002

Figure 2 : Example of degree in one of cultural dimensions (source http://www.grovewell.com/pub-GLOBE-dimensions.html or House 2004)

Figure 3: Culturally Contingent Leader Characteristics. Source: McCauley and Van Velsor 2004

Figure 4: universal characteristics which support a person to being seen as outstanding leader. Source: McCauley and Van Velsor 2004

Figure 5: Universal Characteristics inhibit a person from being seen as outstanding Leader. Source: McCauley and Van Velsor 2004

List of Tables

No Tables

Executive Summary

This assignment will provide a short overview about the GLOBE project and is based on different research in books, papers, master thesis and professorial dissertations. The Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Research Program has started in 1993 and continues until today. The aim of the GLOBE project was to develop societal and organisational measures of culture and leadership attributes that could be used across cultures (House, Hanges, Ruiz-Quintanilla, Dorfman,Javidan, Dickson, Gupta et al., 1999). Before starting the project a common understanding and definition of Leadership and Cul­ture was achieved. GLOBE researchers agreed to define the LEADERSHIP: “Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate and enable others to contribute towards effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members” (House et al. 2004; 15). The GLOBE team used the four leadership attributes developed by Geert Hof­stede: uncertainty avoidance, masculinity femininity, individualism-collectivism, and more recently future orientation (Hofstede 1980, 1991) as a basic and developed nine leadership characteristics: Performance Orientation, Uncertainty Avoidance, Humane Orientation, Institutional Collectivism, In-Group Collectivism, Assertiveness, Gender Egalitarianism, Future Orientation, Power Distance. The cultural differences of attribute influences are analysed in the research project. The questionnaire is to be answered from middle mangers and white collar workers coming of the following industries: food processing, financial services, and telecommunications services. The research was split into four parts. As first step the two pilot projects was initiated in order to prepare the questionnaire and to test the stability of the analysis method. Based on the results seven hypotheses were developed and investigated in the second step. Both first steps are finished. Depending on confirmation of all seven hypotheses the implicit leadership theory has to be developed in the third phase of project. This third phase is in the process. The last part of project must test the theory items in laboratory and in the field. Some preliminary findings are shown at the end of this assignment.

1 Introduction into the GLOBE project

"A leader is a dealer in hope." - Napoleon Bonaparte

Many leadership theories have been developed in order to explain different leadership at­tributions and awareness. All leadership theories are about how leaders behave in general and what is expected of them (Lord & Maher, 1991). Many theories are focused on motiva­tional process like the path-goal theory (Gerorgopolis, Mahoney, andjones 1957) and rein­forcement theory (Komaki 1986). The theory of Dr. Jim Larson is based on supervisor feedback processes (Larson 1984). The substitutes for leadership theory must be men­tioned too, which analysed factors that can substitute or neutralize the leaders influence (Kerr andjermier 1978). The self-leadership theory explaining the role of the external lead­er in self managing work teams was developed by Manz and Sims (Manz and Sims 1987).

But also culture is estimated to have an important impact on the manager’s behaviour. In 1990 it was suggested that cultural values have an important influence on management style. (Hunt, Boal & Sorensen, 1990). First Mr. Geert Hofstede derived four culture dimen­sions that can be used for explaining inter-cultural differences in leadership behaviour. These dimensions are: uncertainty avoidance, masculinity femininity, individualism- collectivism, and more recently future orientation (Hofstede 1980, 1991). Hofstede ex­plained the four dimensions as following. The uncertainty about the future is a part of hu­man life motivates humans to cope through the technology, law and religion. Masculinity can be explained by assertiveness and ambitiousness. The opposite part of masculinity is femininity. The future orientation is about society’s time horizon. The individualism- collectivism refers to “the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups” (Hof­stede 1980)

All four dimensions were discussed frequently. For example it was estimated that in more masculine cultures the leadership style is stronger and directive compared to the feminine cultures using more consultative style of leadership (Den Hartog 1999). Harry Triandis researched a lot in the field of individualism-collectivism and derived the horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism. The two sub dimensions refer to the hi­erarchical interpersonal relations (Triandis 1998).

The Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness Research Program (GLOBE) is a cross-cultural research project, started in October 1993 by Robert House and continues until today. Robert House is a professor at the Wharton School of the Uni­versity of Pennsylvania. In this project the inter-relationships between societal culture, or­ganizational culture and organizational leadership should be investigated. In order to reach this goal over 170 investigators representing more than 60 nations collected and analysed the input data. The work of these investigators is coordinated by GLOBE coordinating team GCT. The leader of the GCT is Professor House (House 2004: XV).

The GLOBE team has extended the four culture dimensions used by Hofstede to nine dimensions (Northhouse 2010: 340-341):

1. Power Distance. This dimension is about how the team members agree and expect that the power will be should be distributed unequally.
2. Uncertainty Avoidance. This dimension describes the way how cultures use rules, structures and rules in order to make things predictable and less uncertain.
3. Institutional Collectivism. This dimension describes how an organisation or socie­ties encourage collective actions.
4. In-Group Collectivism. This dimension is about how people express pride, loyalty and cohesiveness in their organisations and their families.
5. Gender Egalitarianism. This dimension describes how an organization or society minimize gender role differences and motivate gender equality.
6. Assertiveness. This dimension is about how people are determined, assertive, con­frontational and aggressive in their social relationship.
7. Future orientation. This dimension describes how people plan their future, invest in the future and delay gratification.
8. Performance orientation. This dimension describes how the society or organization encourages members to improve their performance.
9. Human Orientation. The last dimension is about how society motivates people to be fair, altruistic, caring and kind to other.

2 Objectives and Methodology of the GLOBE project

The objectives of GLOBE were to answer five main questions (House, Hanges, Ruiz- Quintanilla, 1997):

a) Are there leader attributes and behaviours, and organisational practices that are universally accepted and effective across cultures?
b) Are there leader attributes and behaviours, and organisational practices that are nation or culture specific?
c) In what way do cultural differences affect the kinds of leader and organisational practices that are effective?
d) What is the relative standing of each of the nations studied on each of nine core dimensions of culture?
e) Can the nation specific and universal aspects of leadership and organisational pra]c­tices be explained in terms of an underlying theory that accounts for systematic differences among cultures?

The initial aim of the GLOBE project was to develop societal and organisational measures of culture and leadership attributes that could be used across cultures (House, Hanges, Ruiz-Quintanilla, Dorfman,Javidan, Dickson, Gupta et al., 1999).

An additional question has been introduced by the GLOBE team, whether some specific leader attributes and behaviour attributes are universal and whether some could be linked to cultural characteristics. The expression “CLT” was introduced — Culturally endorsed implicit Leadership Theories (House et al. 1999: 9).

One of the main challenges was to cluster countries participating in the GLOBE project. This clustering is able to provide important information about variations in society and can be used in order to explain the culture differences. Clustering can bring also advantage from practical point of view. One example is the research of KPMG with the result that multinational companies or particular teams based on members from countries or areas from the same cluster of societies with similar culture attributes can work more effectively. In the result of this research it was shown, that cooperation between US and UK compa­nies is 45% successfully as the average. The cooperation between US and other European companies shows 11% lower successful result as average (Levy 2001; 37-45). Behind of benefits of international merges also risks must be considered. An example is the merging with a Japanese company and not considering of “over competitiveness” thinking, “over aged” management and “Ashi o hiparu” phenomenon (Fasol 1999).

The GLOBE team has decided to separate 61 countries into the 10 clusters. In order to verify the validity of the proposed clustering the method of discriminant analysis was used (House 2004). The discriminant analysis is a statistical tool for classification of observations into different groups on basis of different variables. The method was introduced in 1936 by R.A. Fisher (Pietersen and Daminaov 1998: H1). As variables the nine cultural dimensions were used in this discriminant analysis method. Additionally all variables are split into two additional scales “Should Be” scale and “As Is” scale. As Is variables are called “practice” dimensions and Should Be are named “value” dimensions (Chhokar et al. 2008: 19). The application of this discriminant analysis shows, that 59 of 61 countries were classified accu­rately with 96.7% classification reliability. Only two countries Guatemala and Costa Rica tend more to the Latin European Cluster than to the Latin American cluster (Gupta et al. 2002: 3). The final clustering is shown in appendix 1. By using of the “Eta squares” coeffi­cient the influence of societal clusters on “Should Be” and “As Is” values were investigat­ed. Eta squares measures the proportion of variance. The higher calculated value means higher cluster effect on individual and practice dimensions (Gupta et al. 2002: 3). The fig­ure 1 represents the outcomes:

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Excerpt out of 30 pages

Details

Title
The GLOBE Research Project
College
University of applied sciences, Düsseldorf
Course
Soft Skills and Leadership
Grade
2,0
Author
Year
2011
Pages
30
Catalog Number
V181907
ISBN (eBook)
9783656052470
ISBN (Book)
9783656052371
File size
779 KB
Language
English
Notes
3700 Words, 37 Sources
Tags
GLOBE project, Leadership, Power Distance, leadership behaviour, Robert House, Hofstede, Uncertainty Avoidance, leader attributes, Response Bias, performance orientation
Quote paper
Dipl. Ing. Eugen Stumpf (Author), 2011, The GLOBE Research Project, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/181907

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