Assessment of criteria for selection of timber as building material for building construction projects within Lagos Metropolis


Bachelor Thesis, 2009
30 Pages, Grade: 1.0

Excerpt

Contents

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.4 AIM OF THE STUDY
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.6 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
1.7 Significance of the study
1.8 Scope and limitation of the study
1.9 Definition of terms

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Environmental Material Assessment
2.2.1 Three Phases of Building Materials
2.2.1.1 Pre-Building Phase
2.2.1.2 Building Phase
2.2.2 Threebasic steps of product selection
2.2.2.1 Research
2.2.2.2 Evaluation
2.2.2.3 Selectio
2.3 Timber as a Building Material
2.3.1 Structural Properties of Timber
2.3.1.1 Strength and Stiffness
2.3.1.2 Increasing Bendability
2.3.1.3 Moisture Content and Density
2.4 Criteria for Building Materials Selection
2.4.1 ResourceEfficiency
2.4.2 IndoorAir Quality (IAQ)
2.4.4 WaterConservation
2.4.5 Affordability
2.4.6 Non-polluting
2.4.7 Minimum wastes
2.5 Construction Materials and Components
2.6 Materials Selection
2.7 Factors to Be Considered During Material selection
2.8 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Principles
2.9 Energy

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 RESEARCH ASSUMPTION
3.4 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.5 SAMPLE SIZE
3.6 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.7 DATA COLLECTION METHOD
3.8 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT
3.9 STATISTICAL TOOLS
3.10 ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Shelter is one of the basic needs of people in every society. Man strives to have decent homes and environment; this is applicable in both rural and urban communities by the use of good building materials. The earliest forms of houses were built by mud which can still be found in some areas in the country. Gradually, development and structural advancement began to take place in the world of building. As man moved from Stone Age to computer age; this was further enhanced by the growth and advent of new building materials and modern technology. As a result of changes in design, environmental decoration and taste of individuals, the old and crude methods of building productions were rendered obsolete. Hence, there is need for a holistic approach for integrating sustainability principles into material selection decision making at the design stage of building project (Akadiri, 2011).

Careful selection of environmentally sustainable building materials is the easiest way for architects and building designers to begin incorporating sustainable design principles in buildings. Traditionally, price has been the foremost consideration when comparing similar materials or materials designated for the same function. However, the “off-the-shelf” price of a building component represents only the manufacturing and transportation costs, not social or environmental costs (Jong-Jin Kim, 1998).

Rapid population growth and the continuous growth of industrialization throughout the world together with increasing living standards have turned the creation of the built environment into a rising threat to the natural environment. Building and the environment are inextricably linked (Akadiri, 2011). Buildings have a significant and continuously increasing impact on the environment and they use a considerable number of material resources; buildings accounts for one-sixth of the world’s fresh water withdrawals, one-quarter of its wood harvest, and two-fifths of its materials and energy flows. The extraction of building materials such as wood, steel and cement causes water, air pollution, and degrades the land on which people live and play (ICEST 2011).

An important task in the implementation of objectives at the design development stage of a building project is the selection of sustainable building materials to be used in the building project. At the same time, building materials are the substance of economic life in the industrial sector. It acquires concern on how to select the right building materials, because the choice of materials is likely to affect the building’s energy need for the material (ICEST 2011).

The idea behind assessment of criteria for selecting building materials is a multidisciplinary process that engages every one from government and utilities through to contractors and operators as well as investors at the very preliminary stages of a new build or retrofit project. Communities benefits as a result of producing modern attractive structures that defines the standard of the community at a point in time.

It is suggested that increasing the emphasis on wood as building material could have significant implications for global energy requirements and global carbon dioxide emission unlike concrete and steel. The realization of the importance of material selection in construction of building and other related structures makes it necessary to look for a way of merging the respective qualities of the various building materials with the construction needs in order to achieve a reliable and quality building structures.

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

As a result of great urge for development, the construction industry in Nigeria is rapidly developing in handling simple to complex building construction projects; there have been observations from various sites (within Lagos State), where construction activities are going on, that selection of building materials are not properly enhanced to their maximum potentials. As a result of this, the study of assessment of criteria for selection of building materials on project quality becomes necessary.

However, the sustainability of a building depends on the decisions taken by a number of stakeholders in the construction process: owners, managers, designers, firms, contractors, engineers, construction industries and investors. The pace of actions towards sustainable application depends on the awareness, knowledge as well as an understanding of the consequences of individual actions. Among these is the environmentally responsible approach to the selection of building materials (Anderson, 2009).

The selection of building materials is one of several factors that can impact the sustainability of a project; an appropriate choice of material selection in a design process plays an important role during the life cycle of a building (Zhou, 2008). Understanding the environmental issues surrounding the extraction of raw materials, the manufacture of construction materials, and their effects in use, is important to ensure sustainability and maximize the potentials of these materials. Structural designers identify selection of sustainable building materials as the basis for incorporating sustainable principles in building projects (Godfaurd, 2005).

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following are the research questions as related to this study:

1. What are the criteria for selecting sustainable building materials?
2. What are the effects of decision-making process in selecting building materials?
3. What are the factors to be considered in the selection of building materials?

1.4 AIM OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to assess the criteria for selection of building materials for various projects.

1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are:

1. To identify significant criteria for selecting sustainable building materials.
2. To assess the decision-making process in the selection of building materials.
3. To examine the factors to be considered in selection of building materials.

1.6 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

H0: Assessing the criteria for selecting building materials improves the overall performance of the building.

H1: Assessing the criteria for selecting building materials has no significant effect on the overall performance of the building.

1.7 Significance of the study

In view of the fact that construction in the building industry is a dynamic process, the assessment of criteria for selection of building materials will assist the various participants of building projects within the construction industry in terms of the likely effects and consequences of materials selection and supply methods. The study will provide information and reveal various constraints to be considered and how to proffer solutions to them.

It is very important to point out that despite the fact that a lot of challenges are involved in the material selection for any construction project; it becomes more effective in terms of time, cost and quality. Also, material selection in the construction industry is considered right from the inception to completion of a project. According to Akintoye, (2001), Projects are not devoid of challenges of selecting appropriate materials. Hence this research was effectively carried out so as to let the professionals in the construction industry be more sensitive to the criteria of material selection for any construction projects and how best to manage them as possible in other to achieve the required structure. Thus, this study is of importance to both the owner and the end users.

The importance of selection of building materials to the environment at large cannot be over-emphasized. Analysis of building production, from the gathering of raw materials to their ultimate disposal, provides a better understanding of the long-term costs of materials. These excess cost can be critically control by the principles of Life Cycle Analysis which provides important guidelines for the selection of building materials.

A material’s life cycle can be organized into three phases: Pre-Building; Building; and Post-Building. These stages parallel the life cycle phases of the building itself. Academicians critically evaluate building materials’ environmental impact at each stage and access the cost-benefit analysis over the lifetime of a building, rather than simply an accounting of initial construction costs (Jong-Jin Kim, 1998).

1.8 Scope and limitation of the study

Building construction focus is on minimizing the initial building cost, achieving a quality standard of building product within a reasonable period of time. It has, however become obvious that it is unfavorable to base the choice between material alternatives solely on the initial cost alone (Kishk, 2003). Hence, the scope of this research will be restricted to building construction projects that are carried out within Lagos State. The research study will be centered on evaluating the selection of “timber” as a building material.

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Excerpt out of 30 pages

Details

Title
Assessment of criteria for selection of timber as building material for building construction projects within Lagos Metropolis
College
University of Lagos
Grade
1.0
Author
Year
2009
Pages
30
Catalog Number
V188780
ISBN (eBook)
9783656126294
ISBN (Book)
9783656126805
File size
517 KB
Language
English
Tags
assessment, lagos, metropolis
Quote paper
Blessing Adegoke (Author), 2009, Assessment of criteria for selection of timber as building material for building construction projects within Lagos Metropolis, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/188780

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