Leadership and Culture

Term Paper, 2011

20 Pages, Grade: 1


Table of Contents

1. Assignment about an own experience
1.1. Introduction
1.2. DMI Stages in India
1.2.1. Denial
1.2.2. Defense
1.2.3. Minimization
1.2.4. Acceptance
1.2.5. Adaptation
1.2.6. Integration
1.3. Conclusion

2. Assignment about a film “Dances with wolves”
2.1. Introduction
2.2. DMI Stages
2.2.1. Denial
2.2.2. Defense
2.2.3. Minimization
2.2.4. Acceptance
2.2.5. Adaptation
2.2.6. Integration
2.3. Conclusion

3. Doing Business with China
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Comparison China and Germany
3.2.1. Differences in general
3.2.2. Negotiating in China
3.3. Conclusion


Image Index

Figure 1: Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity 5

1. Assignment about an own experience

1.1. Introduction

For all of us, it was the first time in India and we were excited looking forward to see this huge and different country. All of us had various expectations and we were very enthusiastic to join the exchange program. The program starts at 8th February and ends at 19th February 2011. We visited Delhi, Agra and Jaipur, and then we went back to Delhi Airport. We also went to Goa on our own for one weak, this was organized by us. Every day, we had a program, like visiting two universities, Indian companies or doing sight seeing. During our journey we got new impressions and saw a lot of differences to Germany. The Indian culture has many differences to the German culture which made us going through the DMI Stages.

1.2. DMI Stages in India

The “Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity“ is a sensitization process, which shows intercultural learning.[1] The six stages of development are divided into the first three stages (Denial, Defense and Minimization) which are the stadiums of ethnocentrism and the last three stages (Acceptance, Adoption and Integration) which are the stadiums of ethnorelative.

The figure below shows the six stages of the DMI model which are developed by Bennett:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity

Source: cf. M. J. Bennett, (1993), M. J. Bennett, (2001), M. J. Bennett, (2004)

1.2.1. Denial

The first stage is the Denial. “In this stage are the people who have never seen another culture. They could not imagine that another world view exists.”[2] In my opinion, I skipped this phase, because I expected another world in India than in Germany. I expected that the life of the Indians is very different to the Germans.

General Information about India

“India is divided into 28 federal states. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. The capital of India is New-Delhi. The currency is the Indian Rupee. One Euro is about 60 Rupees. The time zone is plus 4.5 hours in comparison to the German time.”[3]

1.2.2. Defense

“In the Defense stage people realize that there are cultural differences. Many people see the other culture as a threat and think that the other culture is lagging behind the own.”[4] The main threats which I personally recognized in India will be described in the following:

Indian Food

For Germans the Indian food is very unusual, because it is spicy and has a special taste. The Indian people eat with the right hand, because the left hand is unclean. Often bread is served with the meal which they use as a fork. Most Indians eat vegetarian meals because of their religion. So you have to choose all the time between vegetarian- and non-vegetarian foods. For Europeans it is possible that you get ill from the food because you are not used to it.

Traffic and Traffic Rules

In India you will find very different kinds of vehicles or even animals on one street: for example there are bicycles, motorbikes, cars, buses, taxis, walking passengers and animals, like cows, horses, elephants. Animals were respected and fed by the people because of their religion. The Hinduism says that humans were an animal in their first life. There is no traffic rule to recognize for people of Europe. The only rule which is obvious for everyone: you always need to blow your horn. For 15 kilometres you will need about one hour. The amazing thing is, that there are nearly no accidents. If you expect a taxi in India, so consider that it could be a Tuk-Tuk like it is shown in the picture below:


If you think of India, you think that it will be quite hot there. We all packed summer cloths like t-shirts or skirts in our suitcases. But this was a big mistake, because in every room even in the bus is an air condition. In February the temperature was about plus 20 degrees Celsius in Delhi and it also rained on two days.

1.2.3. Minimization

In this stage “cultural differences were recognized, but the values of the culture were not noticed. Humans in the Minimization play them down and see variations as similarities.”[5] Additional to the threats, which I mentioned before, there are some differences which I indicated at my time in India:

Prices and Bargain

In India it is normal to bargain about prices. For example, if you want to buy a scarf, you will have to pay about 100 to 250 Rupees – depending on the quality. The first price you will be told is about 700 Rupees. So you have to discuss with the vendor for a while and you will get the scarf for 100 to 250 Rupees. If you want to drive with a Tuk-Tuk or a Rikschas, you first have to talk about the price. It is not like in Germany that you will get a fair price when you reach the destination.

Languages in India

In India is no official language. There are many different languages spoken in this country. The result is that people from the South, can not understand the people from the North. Many people speak Hindi. The language which is spoken in business and universities is English.


Most of the people are very openly, friendly and speak English well. But be careful of the things people telling you, because they never will say “sorry, I have no idea”. Instead they will tell you something whether it is right or not. It was also amazing, that the Indians were very interested in us and always wanted us to take photographs with them.


There are a lot of markets in India. The hugest is in Old Delhi which has areas like one for clothes, spices, handicrafts or food. Markets do not have fixed prices. In governmental shops or Shopping Malls are fix prices like in Germany and there is not possible to bargain.

1.2.4. Acceptance

“At the Acceptance takes the transform from the ethnocentrism to ethnorelative stage place. Persons accept and respect cultural differences, but they do not adopt them for themselves.”[6] After a few days, I felt that the food is getting better. I got used to the hour-long rides with the bus and the chaos on the streets and did not always think that we will never reach our destination.

1.2.5. Adaptation

The Adoption stage let us feel “the differences as an enrichment and an enlargement of the own perspective.”[7] Furthermore “people are able to change their communication and behaviour, so that they adjust to the strange culture. They can interact in it and are able to understand it.”[8]

For me this enrichment was to see an Indian marriage, because they are very different to German marriage. The Indians guest wear colourful saris and the bridal couple sit on a kind of throne onstage. Everything is decorated with flowers. The atmosphere is just wonderful and impressive. We wore our saris and an Indian bride has a henna tattoo at her arm at her marriage. We did not marry but we also had a henna tattoo. So we changed our own behaviour and adjusted the Indian culture a little bit.

1.2.6. Integration

“On the highest stage of intercultural competence are those people who can switch between cultural perspectives day by day as part of the normal life. The Integration is the skill in general to develop cultural behaviour. This is not the behaviour to internalize expert knowledge about a strange culture.”[9] At my time in India, I unfortunately have not reached this stage because the vacation there was too short.

1.3. Conclusion

“Step to India 2011” and also the weak in Goa were both an incredible experience. I learned very much about the various cultures and it is always interesting to see another country. A visit in India is an experience which I will never forget and I will appreciate my life in Germany more than before.


[1] (cf. Germ2007,p.41)

[2] (cf. Germ2007,p.43)

[3] (cf. Abram2006,p.92ff)

[4] (cf. Germ2007,p.42)

[5] (cf. Germ2007,p.43)

[6] (cf. Schmid2010,p.76)

[7] (cf. Schmid2010,p.76)

[8] (cf. Germ2007,p.43)

[9] (cf. Germ2007,p.43)

Excerpt out of 20 pages


Leadership and Culture
University of Applied Sciences Vorarlberg
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
File size
488 KB
leadership, culture
Quote paper
Melanie Müller (Author), 2011, Leadership and Culture, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/189181


  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Leadership and Culture

Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free