Master's Thesis, 2011
83 Pages, Grade: 1
Table of contents
1.2 Objective of the Master Thesis
2 Theoretical Part
2.1 Marketing Management and Strategy
2.2 Business to Business Marketing (B2B)
2.2.2 Customer Targeted Marketing
2.2.3 Analyzing Business Markets and Business Buying Behaviour
2.2.4 Blue Ocean Strategy for B2B Marketing
2.2.5 Promotional Strategy - a part ofMarketing Concept and Marketing Management
3 Austrian Market
3.1 Doing Business in Austria
3.2 Business in Austrian Building Construction Industry
3.3 Business Impact ofInformation Technology (IT)
4 Architecture and Light in Building Construction Projects
4.1 General Aspects
4.2 Energy and its Aspects
4.2.1 Climate Change and Energy Efficiency
220.127.116.11 Decisions ofthe European Union (EuP Directive)
18.104.22.168 IncandescentLamps andAlternative Technologies (like LED)
22.214.171.124 Conclusion and Recommendations ofGerman Lighting Society (LiTG)
4.2.2 Energy Policy in Austria 4.3 Light and its Impact
4.3.1 Criteria of a Good Lighting Design
4.3.2 Our Light Determines our Lives
4.3.3 Concept Light and Health
4.3.4 Three Studies about Impact of Light on Health
126.96.36.199 Study: Well-being with a Light Impact on Health
188.8.131.52 Study: Office Workers Given the Blue Light to Help Alertness
184.108.40.206 Study: Light in Geriatric Care
5 Qualitative Research
5.1 Approach from Theory to Text
5.2 Research Design and Interviews
5.3 Grounding and Writing
6 Empirical Part
6.1 General Information
6.2 Research Approach and Methodology
6.3 Research: A Customer Analysis
6.4 Research Results
6.4.1 SubjectArea: Significance of Lighting
6.4.2 Subject Area: Situation of the Decision-making
6.4.3 SubjectArea: Information Sources
6.4.4 Subject Area: Technical Requirements
6.4.5 Research Subject Area: Future Prospects
7 Summary ofKey Findings
7.2 Who are the major stakeholders and decision makers in Austrian building construction projects?
7.2.2 Differences between Private and Public investments
7.2.3 Any Political initiatives found for Supporting Austrian Distributors and Producers
7.3 How can the decision makers be made aware of the huge potential for saving energy?
7.3.1 What could make an investor make priority of running cost instead of investment cost
7.3.1 How could the owner better be involved in decision making oflighting equipment?
7.3.2 How to increase the knowledge oflighting solutions in general?
7.4 Where are the best payoffs in marketing and sales for the lighting industry in Austria?
7.4.1 Those payoffs which play a very important/essential role
7.4.2 Those payoffs which play an important, but not vital role
7.4.3 Those payoffs which are good to have, but not necessary
7.4.4 Those payoffs which are not important atall
8 Future Outlook
During my MBA studies, I have had the opportunity to dig into the knowledge and experience of a great number of individuals, who contributed to this thesis and my professional development as a management scholar in one way or another. Now is the time to thank them.
First and foremost, I would like to thank my family and parents.
My honest appreciation goes to Professor Barbara Stöttinger for her guidance and supervision.
A special thanks to my colleagues and friends for their support during these exhausting but valuable moments.
Finally, I would like to thank my interviewees who have shared their knowledge and experiences with me to make this work possible.
“Knowledge has to be improved, challenged, and increased constantly, or it vanishes Peter F. Drucker
(economist, leader in business management, born 19.11. 1909 in Vienna)
The objectives of this Master’s thesis were to develop a better understanding of the Austrian market situation in order to provide lighting solutions in building construction projects.
The theoretical part of this thesis focused on marketing management in general and in special on business-to-business marketing. A large number of theories that have been developed regarding customer targeted marketing, analyzing business markets and business buying behaviour had been discussed.
There were given some ground information to the Austrian market.
Architecture and daylight are inseparably bound together and therefore there was also given some insights to it. In order to understand the great impact of light on people there were given some important ground information and research studies to undercover theories.
The empirical part focused on the qualitative research with a customer analysis. The aim was to gather an in-depth understanding of stakeholder/decision maker behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour.
Based on the results there were given some advice for the best payoffs in marketing and sales for the lighting industry in Austria.
At the end of this thesis there were given a future outlook.
“The aim ofmarketing is to know and understand the customer so -well theproduct or service fits him and sells itself. ”
Peter F. Drucker
The sale of technical equipment for building construction is a complex process. There are many layers of stakeholders and many different decision makers involved. Their relationship is differing depending of the character of the project and ownership. In the public sector the process is also directed by a legislation that put demand on transparency in purchasing.
Lighting equipment is normally entering the project site at a late stage. The value of the lighting fittings and their control systems is in average upto4% of the building investment costs. Despite this relatively small part of the total cost, the investment in lighting is often under strong price pressure, as it enters in the very end of the project, when the budget is restricted or run out.
The fact that the lighting represents a much larger part of the building running cost is often not in focus. In an office building the lighting system is in average representing 20 % of the total running costs.
The present Master’s thesis seeks to develop a better understanding of the Austrian market situation in order to provide lighting solutions in building construction projects. Based on the results there will be given some advice for the best payoffs in marketing and sales for the lighting industry in Austria.
The aim is to gather an in-depth understanding of stakeholder / decision maker behaviour (decision) and the reasons that govern such behaviour (decision making).
The stakeholders/decision makers who are the target groups for the lighting solution provider representatives (sales teams) are basically: investors and owners (private investors), general contractors (construction and purchasing managers), building contractors, government officials (public investors), architects, lighting planners, interior designers, (electro) wholesalers, retailers, technical engineering consultants (lighting engineers and electro planner), civil engineers, electrical engineers, energy service provider, installers and end users of the building.
The interest in lighting equipment is differing between the stakeholders who also regard the value of the chosen lighting in different ways. The architect looks more at design, the lighting planner at technical function and the installer at availability and easiness of installation. Only the end user seems to benefit from an energy-efficient solution besides the owner of the building. The trends in modern lighting are mainly: many simple standard products available oflow prices, fascination of new light sources (LED), integration with control systems and energy efficiency.
Primarily an introduction to the Business-to-Business Marketing is given. I am also going to conduct to qualitative research and explain the chosen method.
The main approach will be to use a qualitative research method and to do an empirical survey by holding expert interviews with stakeholders in Austrian building construction projects.
In order to meet these objectives the following three main questions have been defined:
1. Who are the major stakeholders and decision makers in Austrian building construction projects?
2. How can the decision makers be made aware of the huge potential for saving energy by using the right lighting system?
3. Where are the best payoffs in marketing and sales for the lighting industry in Austria? The master thesis is structured in order to respond to the three research main questions.
Finally, the last part of this paper consists of a summary ofkey findings of the analysis results and a recommendation for the marketing & sales process. There will be also a future outlook.
“Marketing is so basic that it cannot be considered a separatefunction. It is the whole business seenfrom thepoint ofview ofits final result, that is,from the customer’s point of view.”
Peter F. Drucker
“Thepurpose ofa business is to satisfy the needs ofits customers. ”
Peter Doyle and Philip Stern
Peter Doyle and Philip Stem put it in a nutshell by claiming that marketing is the philosophy of management which recognises that the success of the enterprise is sustainable if it can organise to meet the current and prospective needs of customers more effectively than its competition. Selling and marketing have different approaches. While selling tries to push the customer to buy, marketing tries to get the organisation to develop and offer what the customer will find of real value. There are more long-term, mutually beneficial partnerships between the organisation and its customers.(1)
Today’s markets are fast moving and continually changing as customers want change and technology advances. Competitors find ongoing new ways of adding value and creating additional satisfactions for customers. So it is obvious, that the main task of company’s management is to set goals that will satisfy the interests of all stakeholders (customers, shareholders, managers, employees, suppliers, creditors, government and the community in which it operates).(1)
For an outstanding performance several measures are necessary for future success: not only operational objectives like profitability, growth, shareholder value and customer satisfaction are important, also innovation and learning objectives.
Success today is no guarantee of success tomorrow.
Doyle and Stem define five criteria for strategic success as follows: (1>pages20/21)
- Fit to the market environment
- Timing: nothing fails like success
- Efficiency versus effectiveness
- Speed and decisiveness
- Organisational effectiveness
They also advise that if you want to be a leader in today’s globally, competitive market it requires two attributes - an ambitious intent and outstanding competences. Strategic intent refers to a conscious commitment of top management to focus the resources and energies of organization on achieving a leadership position in the market. Creating superior value necessitates two sort ofknowledge: first about what customers will value and second about the technological skills necessary to provide such values.1
According to New Economy Philipp Kotler (Professor in International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University! affirm, that Internet will create new winners and bury the laggards. He continues with describing how business practices are changing from organizing by product units to organizing by customer segments, from shifting focus from profitable transactions to customer lifetime value, from shifting focus from shareholders to stakeholders and to focus more on customer retention.2company, individual interaction with customers builds stronger relationships and customize services/products for each customer.(2)
For several reasons I think, that the marketing and sales strategy of a lighting solution provider should be more customer-targeted oriented. These reasons are discussed in more detail in my empirical part.
In order to shift from the traditional marketing approach to a customer-targeted marketing Alvin Chan describes in his book, that in customer targeted marketing, the customer becomes the central focus of the organization’s strategy and activities, rather than the product itself. In his opinion, a company should even more listen to the customer in order to determine the market needs and how the company can meet those needs more effectively. One of the major characteristics of the approach is to focus on each stakeholder’s interests and interactions with the organization to deliver targeted, personal messages. This would require the company to be constantly gathering information about their customers in an effort to better serve them and to retain them as loyal customers.
As suggested by Peppers and Rogers, the organization would need to use various techniques and strategies, such as focus groups, in-depth interviews, customer surveys, attitude testing and so on to obtain information about customers for more effective marketing of a product or service. With this valuable feedback the provider will apply the knowledge to develop more customer-centric products and services and/or to improve existing ones.(3)
I fully agree, that it is increasingly important to see customers as individuals rather as a homogeneous mass of similar tastes, values and buying behaviours as Chan is explaining.
This enables companies to have a competitive edge, to satisfy increasing levels of customers’ desires and to increase customers’ loyalty to their products and services.(3)
Doyle and Stern explain that a demand is a want for a specific product supported by an ability and willingness to pay for it. Companies do not create the need. Instead they do try to influence the demand by designing their products to be attractive, affordable and available.(1)
What is actually a value? It is a combination of price and utility. While people prefer Porsches, they buy Fords. Buying the product with the highest utility would naturally require giving up too many other products. Doyle and Stem come to the point: there are actually only two ways of stimulating demand for a product - either putting in qualities, features and images that enhance the utility it offers or cutting the price.(1)
It is for sure, that relationship marketing or creating customer loyalty is becoming the central focus of marketing. Doyle and Stern are claiming different kind of customer behaviour: loyal customers are assets and more profitable, winning new customers is costly, highly satisfied customers repurchase and dissatisfied customers tell others of their bad experiences. It is also familiar, that most dissatisfied customers don’t complain/give feedback to the producers and satisfactory resolution of complaints increases loyalty. (1)
Doyle and Stern recommend to do market segmentation, because although a market consists of customers with similar needs they are never homogeneous. They differ in the benefits wanted, the amount they are able or willing to pay. It therefore makes sense for marketers to segment the market and target one or more of these segments with specialised, tailored offerings in order to provide better solutions (creating an advantage to attract choices). This sustainable differential advantage is a perceived difference that leads customers in the target segment to prefer one company’s offer to those of others.(1)
Peter Drucker observed that success can be achieved by three different means: luck, having a genius run the business and planning.
During my interviews I got the understanding that a buying decision there are many decision makers involved and therefore the whole process is very complex. This means that sales people have to do multiple visits and present information to different stakeholders. These reasons are discussed in more detail in my empirical part.
Fundamentally a market consists of two parts: consumer market and business market. Companies manufacture products for consumer market, but business market is equally large and strong. Typical business markets consist of manufacturing plants, machinery, industrial equipments, etc. Companies need to study and analyze factors affecting business markets and business buying behaviour, too.(4)
In principle, in a business market, organizations buy goods and services for production of goods and services. In terms of overall value business market is bigger than the consumer market, but the business buyer base is smaller. The client-supplier relationship is much stronger in a business market owing to few players in the field. They are very dependent on each other for survival. So companies not only have to monitor business market but also pay attention to end consumer market. The buying decision is influenced by many decision makers (players) ranging from technical experts to the finance department, and therefore the buying process is very complex.(4)
It is quite common, that companies keep a list of approved vendors (e.g. lighting solution providers) from which they choose according to their purchase requirement. Ifbuying decision is a modification from previous order in terms of specifications, amount or price, then companies look to have only a discussion with suppliers. If the buying decision is a new product or service then a lengthy process is followed with discussion and meeting between representatives from various departments.
Business buying behaviour is influenced by different factors: economical, company level, individual and interpersonal. Economical factors which influence buying behaviour are regulatory changes, technology changes, competition, fiscal policy and monetary policy. Company level factors also play a major role in buying behaviour, so sales people have to pay attention in understanding how purchase department is organized and players acting in the department. More professional field service representatives arejoining purchasing departments, too. Companies’ prefer long term relationships with suppliers. Many individuals from different departments are part of the buying decision process and it is important for sales people (e.g. lighting solution provider representatives) to understand personality traits of as many participants as possible.(4)
The actual buying process (including purchase needs, requirement description, product specification, floating intent of purchase, selecting a supplier) can be understood from products’ perspective. In the first case, if the product has a less perceived value and cost then business buyers ask for the lowest price and offer a high volume order. Then suppliers in turn offer standardize products at low prices. In another case, if the product has a high value and low cost then business buyers look for additional service or attributes with low price. In last case, if the product has a high value and cost then the business buyers look for branded product with an established reputation. Price is not a constraint for high value products to which suppliers put forward strategic long term alliance to accommodate technology changes.
Government and institutional buying differ from industrial buying because here product and service from providers are offered for free or fee to a large audience. Such a buying process requires a great deal of paperwork and transparent bidding system. Business suppliers have to adapt to changes and employ a different marketing strategy. (4)
The reality and fact is, that the lighting market in Austria is highly saturated with enormous many different products, that industries never stand still and that supply exceeds demand. The result has been increasing price wars and shrinking profit margins. As brands are generally becoming more similar, people increasingly select based on price.(5)
Therefore in my opinion innovation plays a big role in a B2B marketing strategy.
We have to imagine a market universe composed of two sorts of oceans: red oceans and blue oceans. Kim and Mauborgne emphasize that the only way to beat the competition is to stop trying to beat the competition. In their opinion companies should create a new market (one without any competition) and build new demands. To seize new profit and growth opportunities, companies need to create blue oceans.(5)
Kim and Mauborgne define six principles ofBlue Ocean Strategy: (5’page21)
- Reconstruct market boundaries
- Focus on big picture, not the numbers
- Reach beyond existing demand
- Get the strategic sequence right
- Overcome key organizational hurdles
- Build execution into strategy
Value Innovation is the cornerstone of the Blue Ocean Strategy by Kim and Mauborgne.
They claim, that what really consistently separate winners from losers in creating blue oceans is their approach to strategy. The creators of blue oceans don’t use the competition as their benchmark, they use value innovation (by aligning innovation with utility, price, and costs) instead and pursue differentiation and low cost simultaneously.(5)
Companies must begin recruiting their strategic focus from competitors to alternatives, and from customers to non-customers of the industries. Kim and Mauborgne offer a framework to create a new value curve by asking which factors should be eliminated, reduced, raised and created.(5)
Companies should look across alternative industries. In making every purchase decision buyers implicitly weigh alternatives, often unconsciously. The thought process is intuitive for individual consumers and industrial buyers (stakeholders/decision makers) alike. For some reason, we often abandon this intuitive thinking when we become sellers. Rarely do sellers think consciously about how their customers make trade-offs across alternative industries. A shift in price, a change in model, even a new ad campaign can elicit a tremendous response from rivals within an industry, but the same actions in an alternative industry usually go unnoticed. Kim and Mauborgne claim, that often the space between alternative industries provides opportunities for value innovation.(5)
They recommend companies to look across strategic groups within industries. They feel confident, that the key creating a blue ocean across existing strategic groups is to break out of this narrow tunnel vision by understanding which factors determine customers’ decisions to trade up or down from one group to another.(5)
I was amazed about the statement, that in most industries competitors converge around a common definition of who the target buyer is, but in reality there is a chain ofbuyers who are directly or indirectly involved in the buying decision and are important influencers (with different definitions of value) as well. Kim and Mauborgne recommend forgetting this industry’s conventional wisdom about which buyer group to target. Instead companies should look across buyer groups. This can gain new insights into how redesign their value curves to focus on a previously overlooked set ofbuyers. All industries are subject to external trends that affect their businesses over time. Looking at these trends with the right perspective can show you how to create blue ocean opportunities.(5)
While doing my interviews I got some very interesting sights to my interviewees’ common decision making situation and process, so I am convinced that a good elaborated promotional strategy will increase their business values and profits.
James F. Engel, Martin R. Warshaw and Thomas C. Kinnear say that promotional strategy plays a significant role in marketing. This strategy is the creation of mutually beneficial exchanges between producers and customers, services, and ideas. Both sides benefit when promotional strategy is done properly and both can be hurt when it is done improperly, therefore this controlled integrated program of communication methods and materials should be designed to present an organization and its products to prospective customers.(6)
Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear characterize stages in promotional planning and strategy: (6>page25)
- Situation analysis
- Establishment of objectives
- Determination of euro appropriation
- Specification and management of program elements
- Coordination and integration
- Measurement of effectiveness
- Evaluation and follow-up
Icek Ajzen and Martin Fishbein are convinced to say, that human beings are usually quite rational and make systematic use of the information available to them. People consider the implications of their actions before they decide to engage or not engage in a given behaviour.
The buyer has the luxury of extended problem solving when there are no time pressures, but this is not always the case. Someone who has to make a decision on sudden notice cannot take time to evaluate. He or she is forced to take the first option, no matter what. Extended problem solving really is not needed when the available alternatives are pretty much alike. It also may be avoided when there are so many choices that the customer feels swamped. In that case, there is a temptation to choose the first one that meets minimal qualifications. Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear characterize that in the limited problem solving decision there is minimal pre-purchase search and alternative evaluation. Most customer purchases are made by limited problem solving or on a routine basis. Their alternatives are not strongly differentiated and the time available for decision making (choice of product/solution) is restricted. There is neither time nor incentive for a motivated search for information through advertising, Internet, friends, and so on. There is mostly some routine in purchase decision: no matter how the first purchase was made, people establish buying routines as quickly as possible. Satisfaction leads to an intention to repeat the choice. If involvement and customer interest is high, the repeat purchase will be made on the basis ofbrand loyalty, if not then of inertia.(6)
Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear explain the influence of the social environment by core values of a society, dynamic nature of culture and changing values between generations. Marketing must reflect the values of society and therefore it is necessary to discover, who plays what role within a target market segment. In order to succeed they have to seek out or meet prospective buyers, discover customer needs and help customers to buy the product or service best suited to their needs and do follow-up after the sale to ensure total satisfaction with the purchase.(6)
I fully agree with the cognitions ofEngel, Warshaw and Kinnear that there are influences on how the buyer receives and interprets messages sent by the seller. In their opinion seller’s appearance, personality, and level ofknowledge about the product or service offered have an effect. Buyer’s knowledge of the seller’s company and familiarity with the seller on a personal basis also plays a part in how the seller’s message is received. Even the buyer’s immediate state of mind/health can have a major influence on this communication process. Even the seller’s position in the channel has a profound effect on the nature of the selling job.
Some other aspects (like market characteristics and product itself) influence the basic selling task, too. Engel, Warshaw and Kinnear define steps in a sales process as follow: prospecting, pre-approach, approach, presentation, meeting objections, close and follow-up.(6)
They also recommend motivating salespeople, because the work of a sales person requires a special attention working alone and facing considerable discouragement in daily routine work. This sometimes very depressing situation ofloneliness and/or rejection requires supportive actions from management.(6)
Austria has a fully developed market economy and relishes a high standard ofliving. It has a robust relationship with its fellow European Union constituents, and investors find the legalities of setting up rather conductive and accommodating. Austria provides an attractive market with a stable political, economic and social climate, and is well situated for expansion to other neighbouring eastern European nations.
In Austria people prefer a very personal support service. The people are comfortable and no matter in which situation, while coming as a newcomer with much enthusiasm it is sobering how much you sometimes have to rebore until things will be done or someone starts to act.
So, I am not astonished, why a very good network is of great advantage in Austria. In the ideally situation it is always better and easier, and very helpful to know mover and shaker.(7)
The building construction industry area is involved with commercial, public and industrial building projects. Their projects in Austria cover following areas: offices, banks, hospitals, universities and schools, hotels, museums and galleries, churches, opera spaces, music and concert halls, conference centres, treatment and wellness (thermal spa) centres, shell constructions (loft expansions), shops and show rooms, pharmacies, cafés and restaurants, grocery stores and supermarkets, shopping malls with retail areas, railway (train) station buildings, sports facilities buildings and stadiums, car parks and private residences.
The President of the Austrian Chamber of Commerce Christoph Leitl gives his statement by saying that “Austria's construction industry with a gross annual production worth some 30 billion euros and a quarter million strong workforce is a key economic factor. There not only follows multiple economic effects in its wake that influence numerous areas of commerce along the economical chain but it also provide an unusually high in-country added value factor, as such it is an important catalyst for the economy as a whole. In an economy based on the division of labour, the construction industry's efforts do not only serve basic requirements of the people but are an essential requirement to stand one's ground in the highly competitive market of international locations. Construction investments in form of modern infrastructure provide foundations required for private investments such as more companies settling in the area.” (8)
The Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Labour Reinhold Mitterlehner gives his statement like this: “The competitiveness ofbusiness and its employee’s innovative qualities will be an overriding factor for Austria's future economy and growth. Leading industry companies are one step ahead in this race and as such it is not only an example for others to follow but also provide a boost for them to do so. Information and effective communication are therefore the one and all in a functioning network. In these economically challenging times it is especially the construction business which is reliant on information management because access to cutting edge information is a prerequisite for innovation capability and competitiveness.” (8)
The Chairman of the Trade Association of the Construction Industry Hans Peter Haselsteiner gives his statement: “Austria's construction industry is well placed to meet the challenges facing it in the current market place. Among these count the great infrastructure improvements following EU expansion - a process that is bound to be right at the centre of all Europe-wide location and development strategy thinking over the coming years.” (8)
Austria has estimated 3.800 architects which can be categorized in 40-50 star architects (mainly situated in Graz, Salzburg, Vorarlberg and Vienna), broad middle class and a huge class of small architect offices. There are many and mostly lto2 person lighting planner studios in Austria.
The Federal Guild ofBuilding Trades (Bundesinnung Bau) represents together with the nine provincial guilds the interests of approximately 10.000 Austrian construction companies. The leading companies and network partner in Austrian construction industry are: Jäger Bau GmbH (Schruns), Fröschl AG & CoKG (Hall/Tirol), Rhomberg Gruppe (Bregenz), Habau Hoch- und Tiefbau GmbH (Perg), Wiehag GmbH (Altheim), STRABAG SE (Wien), Allg.Bauges.-A.Porr AG (Wien), Leithäusl GsmbH (Salzburg-Wals), Gleitbau GmbH (Salzburg), G.Hinteregger & Söhne BaugmbH (Salzburg), Hazet Bauunternehmung GmbH (Wien), Mischek Systembau GmbH (Wien), Pittel + Brausewetter GmbH (Wien) and Züblin BaugmbH (Wien).(8)
The Europe’s leading lighting companies which are offering their lighting solutions in Austria are (in alphabetical order): ES-SYSTEM architectural lighting, Fagerhult Group, LTS Licht & Leuchten GmbH, OMS Leuchten GmbH, Regent Beleuchtungskörper AG, Regiolux GmbH, Siteco Beleuchtungstechnik GmbH, RIDI Leuchten GmbH, Trilux GmbH & Co.KG, Herbert Waldmann GmbH & Co.KG and Zumtobel Group.
I am convinced that the impact of social media on business will increase dramatically and so I am recommending intensifying business approaches by using more and more social media platforms.
I fully agree to Andrew McAfee, a researcher, writer, and teacher about technology’s impact on the world ofbusiness, when he tells about the competitive impact ofInformation Technology (IT) these days. In his opinion IT not only improves a company's productivity but also increases the pace ofbusiness competition.
In his book ‘Enterprise 2.0’ he describes the business use and business impact of emergent social software platforms (ESSPs). These technologies, which include wikis, blogs, prediction markets, Facebook, and Twitter, have given rise to social media. The book relates how ESSPs are now being used within and between organizations, and are delivering novel capabilities and powerful results. He explains its value and offers guidance for managers about how to deploy the new tools and practices of collaboration successfully.(9)
“Architecture is the -wise andproperplay ofbodies in the light"
Charles-EdouardJeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (poetic definition, 1923)
Architecture and daylight are inseparably bound together. At last daylight plays again an increasingly important role in the architecture. Due to the fact of energetic optimization this has to be done in an accurate way so that less energy is necessary for using artificial lighting. Intelligent designed energy-efficient buildings do not only demand heating energy expenditure but rather a synergetic consideration within construction proceedings.
Daylight illumination is significant because it makes a major contribution to physical wellbeing and comfort. When calculating the level of illumination, it is necessary to take into account that daylight is only available during certain periods of time due to daily and seasonal fluctuation. This variable level of daylight illumination is often viewed as advantageous and to be essential for certain biological functions.
Therefore it is of great importance to give enough appreciation to the right planning of the natural daylight illumination in building constructions using daylight systems and illumination technology. Good lighting design is tailored to the users of a building and integrated with the architecture. Both daylight and electric lighting planning should be designed in the early design phase ofbuildings. In that case it addresses energy, costs, maintenance and quality.
The significance of daylight for the health and the complexity of perceptual processes in relation to light are well known. Studies attest that daylight has a great impact on people’s productivity and health.
With the production of artificial lighting it came feasible to be independent in the course of the day, but for the people’s welfare and creativity day light is still non-essential and every human being has a natural longing for it.
Despite to all these studies and insights there are regretfully still working place guidelines which claim for a constant lighting level. But on the other hand especially the sensitivity towards resource of day light, the trend to energy-efficient buildings and ergonomic principles to reduce the use of artificial lighting is demanding after new building concepts.
Nevertheless, the artificial lighting has his meaningfulness, because day light is not a constant source of illumination, depending on cloudiness and altitude of sun, varying on change of seasons.
I think, today life would be quite inconceivable without artificial lighting. The development ofluminaires has gathered pace and dynamism in recent years. New technologies, new materials, ecological and efficient technologies, new materials and optical systems are creating new possibilities for artificial lighting. The artificial light has also positive effects on human health, stress-levels, productivity, well-being, ambiance and the environment so that the correct types of lighting can be created.
Research Paper (postgraduate), 49 Pages
Master's Thesis, 109 Pages
Master's Thesis, 117 Pages
Project Report, 11 Pages
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Textbook, 95 Pages
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 312 Pages
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Diploma Thesis, 76 Pages
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