Die Formalisierung des informellen Arbeitssektors in Indien durch internetbasiertes Social Networking: Eine explorative Annäherung an babajob.com

Magisterarbeit, 2008

273 Seiten, Note: 1,0

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1. Einführung und Legende

2. Interviews mit Arbeitssuchenden
2.1. Gruppe Stadtteil Indiranagar
2.1.1. IND1
2.1.2. IND2
2.1.3. IND3
2.1.4. IND4
2.1.5. IND5
2.1.6. IND6
2.1.7. IND7
2.2. Gruppe Stadtteil Ulsoor
2.2.1. ULS1
2.2.2. ULS2
2.2.3. ULS3
2.2.4. ULS4
2.2.5. ULS5
2.2.6. ULS6
2.2.7. ULS7
2.3. Testgruppe BMP School
2.3.1. BMP1
2.3.2. BMP2
2.3.3. BMP3
2.3.4. BMP4
2.3.5. BMP5

3. Interviews mit Arbeitgebern
3.1. Gruppe Leitfadeninterview
3.1.1. EMP1
3.1.2. EMP2
3.2. Gruppe Emailbefragung
3.2.1. EMP3
3.2.2. EMP4
3.2.3. EMP5
3.2.4. EMP6

4. Interviews mit Babajob-Mitarbeitern
4.1.1. BJ1, X
4.1.2. BJ2, Y
4.1.3. BJ3, Z und BJ4, W (Auszug)
4.1.4. BJ5, Mentor 1
4.1.5. BJ6, Mentor 2
4.1.6. BJ7, Mentor 3 (Auszug)

5. Interviews mit Experten
5.1.1. EXP1, A, LabourNet (Auszug)
5.1.2. EXP2, B, Digital Green (Protokoll, Blogeintrag)
5.1.3. EXP3, C, Microsoft Research India (Protokoll, Blogeintrag)
5.1.4. EXP4, D, Microsoft Research India (Auszug)
5.1.5. EXP5, E, Microsoft Research India (Auszug)

6. Protokolle der Leitfäden
6.1. Leitfaden Arbeitssuchende
6.2. Leitfaden Arbeitnehmer
6.3. Leitfaden Babajob

1. Einführung und Legende

Die folgenden Interviews wurden auf der Forschungsreise in Bengaluru zwischen Februar und April 2008 durchgeführt. Während die unter Punkt 2.1. und 2.2. angeordneten Leitfadeninterviews mit einer Übersetzerin durchgeführt wurden, sind die restlichen Interviews auf Englisch gehalten worden. Dabei wurde der Dialekt größtenteils in der Transkription berücksichtigt.

Wegen der großen Datenmenge und der Konzentration auf bestimmte Themenschwerpunkte wurden von einigen Experteninterviews nur Auszüge verfasst. Dies geschah zum Teil schon während der Reise, da die Daten für die weiteren Schritte im Forschungsvorhaben ausschlaggebend waren. In zwei Fällen wurden Protokolle verfasst, die als Blogeinträge dienten. Alle Originalgespräche sind jedoch als Videoaufnahmen auf mini-DV Kassetten erhalten.

Fragen und Antworten werden in der Transkription in folgendem Schema dargestellt:

Frage des Interviewers.

- Antwort des Interviewten.

Die im Interview vorkommenden Phänomene der Mündlichkeit und die in der Transkription angewandten Abkürzungen werden in folgender Legende erklärt:

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2. Interviews mit Arbeitssuchenden

2.1. Gruppe Stadtteil Indiranagar

2.1.1. IND1

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[introduction: Why I’m here. That I’m not connected to Babajob. What the structure of the interview will be. That I see the interviewee as an expert. That it will be anonymous. Then the camera is switched on.]

Could you please introduce yourself with your name, age and family status?

- I’m XXXXX, my age is 18. My Mom and me only. She is working. I’m studying, plus working.

How far are you in your studies?

- I’m in my second year.

What are you studying?

- I’m doing my second PUC. [12th grade]

How big is your family? Only you and your Mom?

- Yeah, yah.

What religion are you?

- Hindu.

Where were you born?

- In Bangalore.

[XX quickly explains the Indian education system]

You know how to read and write?

- Yes, English and Kannada.

Do you use computers often?

- No, not so much… so often.

When do you use it?

- Like when I have something to do with it, I do it.

You had your basics at college?

- Yeah, yeah.

So could you explain… Usually, what would you use it for?

- To collect some datas [sic]. Like an example is for my studies.

Just name one example. The last time you used a computer.

- I use it for… They gave me one project about the 2006, 2007 India budget. For that I actually want to search.

Do you also use the Internet?

- Yes. For checking my email-ID. For things like that.

And anything else what you use the Internet for?

- Nothing else.

Do you have your own mobile phone?

- No.

You want your own one?

- No, I think it is not necessarily for me.

Why’s that?

- I think my Mom does not prefer yet. I don’t think it’s necessary.

Can you say what might be more important in future? Mobile phones or the Internet?

- I don’t prefer both.

In your college they don’t allow mobile phones?

- They allow, but I don’t prefer for it.

How often do you use the Internet in a week?

- Not even in a week. In a month. Once a month.

And where do you get access?

- There is a Internet… cyber café.

How much do you pay?

- I don’t pay anything, because that’s my friend’s…

You came to Babajob to look for a job. What kind of job are you looking for?

- I’m looking for data entry or accountancy assistant.

Part-time of full-time?

- I want part-time.

Next to your studies?

- Yes.

And did you work in this field before? Did you have a job before this one?

- Yeah, I’m working in a dental clinic.

May I ask how much you earn?

- I earn 1.000 Rs. a month. I work there only for two hours. Daily I work, monthly they pay me.

You came to Babajob to look for a better-paid job? What kind of income do you have in mind?

- Whatever’s fit for my work.

Can you name a number?

- 5.000 Rs.

Does your mother earn?

- Yes, she’s working. She’s working in a stationary shop.

What do you spend your income on?

- For a livings.

Can you make a list? What is more important?

- For our food, clothes, and for college fee.

How much is the college fee?

- College fee is 500 Rs. per month. What else? Current bill. Water bill.

Do you also spend it on other thing, for example do you listen to music?

- No.

How did you usually try to find a job before Babajob?

- I used to say to my friends to find some work.

How long did you search for a job?

- The last actually my Mom got for me. I didn’t search.

Can you describe this process of asking your friends in detail?

- They ask someone else, or buy newspapers or something like that. And they give me informations [sic][…].

How long would it usually take to find a job?

- Nearly a month.

A long time. And how did your mother find a job for you?

- She’s my Mom’s friend. So that way I got.

So would you say it is important to have a personal contact or relation to find a job?

- No, not really. When we find we have that confidence that we find that job. And we don’t have confidence in others.

What other ways besides personal connections are there?

- By newspapers.

Are there many job-postings?

- Yes.

And do people find jobs easily through newspapers?

- Yes, they find it easily.

And any other options? Are there any other institutions?

- I don’t know.

What do people do who can’t read?

- No, someone can teach them, no? Someone can tell them. By that way they can.

Now we can talk about Babajob. When did you hear about it?

- Six months ago.

In October? What did you hear?

- Actually the security who is working here is my neighbor. He told me about this.

And what was your first thought?

- Erm… let me come and register my name.

Can you describe how Babajob works?

- I’ve not yet gotten any jobs from here [ smiles ].

I meant… how does it function?

- I don’t know.

What did you do when you came to the office?

- I just gave my address, my name, my personal details.

[XX:] How did you think that it works?

- I thought it will work better.

Not how effective it is, but in which way it functions. What happens to your registration.

- That they will find me a job.

Do you know about your Internet profile?

- No.

How would someone employ you after you register with Babajob?

- Yeah, one of my neighbors has got [a job]. I’m very happy with that. Because she has money problems that she’s got now. And that will help her.

Do you know what Babajob does to give people a job?

- No.

How many people do you know who use Babajob or got registered?

- I don’t know many. I don’t know, two or three.

So you never visited Babajob online?

- No.

Do you trust Babajob?

- Yes. Still I have come today, right?

Can you explain why you trust them?

- They’re helping seeking jobs for everyone. They don’t take even Rs.

Have you been successful so far?

- I’ve not been successful, but I’ve heard many.

What does many mean? How many people?

- Four, five.

Okay… You said you only knew two, three people who use Babajob.

- My Mom says, my aunt says, but that way I know. Personal, I know…

Those people that you know, that got hired. Did their income increase?

- That I don’t know. I don’t ask about that.

When you registered, what were your expectations?

- I thought I would get a job soon.

And that was six months ago?

- No, no. I’m going to college, so I thought within my exams I would get a job.

So when did you register?

- I registered in October.

What was the reason for that?

- No, don’t know.

Do you get any updates or news from Babajob?

- No.

So you registered once and since then you are waiting?

- Yes. I’ve come twice to ask. And they said we’ll give you a call and that’s it.

When did you come here?

- In December.

So how many people did you tell about Babajob?

- I told my friends.

And what did they say?

- It’s okay if you find. Now then tell us.

So some people don’t trust it?

- Yah, yah… they don’t trust. Maybe if I get, they might trust.

So it’s important to see results.

- Yes.

What do you think, how could technology could improve that?

- Yes, but I don’t know how to explain.

Let me ask again, did Babajob not explain, what they do with your registration?

- ‘We give you a call. If someone approaches us, we will call.’ That’s it.

Last question, what do you think is more important, mobile phones or the Internet?

- I don’t believe in both.

And what will be more important if you want to find a job?

- I can’t explain. I think I have to think about that. No idea.

Thank you.

2.1.2. IND2

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First please introduce yourself with your name, age and family status.

- My name is XXXXX, my family comprises of four. My husband, myself and two children. Two boys, the older one is 17, the younger one 14. The older one is studying in Mysore. He's doing his IT, first year of IT studies, and my husband has no permanent job. But he does have a person who gives him contract basis, like for instance, if your house needs to be to be repaired. You call that man, whoever is there, and he calls my husband. So we don't know if he will call again or not. [...] [ shows a document ] Gina told me not to pick up the current job, because... So I work in this garment factory, for example where we bring ten meters of the same cloth and they lay it on the machine and when the master comes, he picks up the design and then the process goes on. So I used to earn 3.800 Rs., but on the 7th of March, I didn't like it, I didn't want to work there anymore. So I just quit.

And what was the reason, why did you quit?

- The problem was that the factory was very far and going and coming is you know a big problem, and I mean it is not secure. It's not secure enough. There were murders happening and the bus was very expensive compared to the income.

Okay. May I ask until which grade you went to school?

- I studied only until the 7th.

Do you know to read?

- I don't now to read or write in particular, but Kannada a little.

Have you ever used a computer?

- No I never used a computer.

Do you want your children to learn how to use a computer?

- Yes, because I feel that they will have a better profession and a better profession means better earning. If they earn more, it'll do good to her and to many other people.

And what will they do with a computer?

- If they'll work inside this computer, IT field, you know, they will make money.

Do you have a mobile phone?

- Yes, we own a mobile phone.

How often do you use your phone?

- Incoming, I get six or seven calls a day. Outgoing I very rarely do, about two times a week. Which is really necessary. I wouldn't even like to spend these 2 Rs.

What do you spend your income on?

- First I spend it on the house rent, second on the electricity bill. Third I will use it for the milkman, and forth is if I have taken any loans in between, to repay them. So that they also in regard will help me later if necessary.

How did you usually find a job?

- Usually by word of mouth. I always got a job only through recommendation, and I've never been interviewed only [because] of my own experience. Because I have worked in three factories so far. And I would just request the owner of the present factory, where I would work, and [?] [tell them] that I'm not happy with the work and that I need something better or different. The particular owner of that factory would call his friends, a person, who owns a factory or something, and ask them.

So how did you hear about Babajob?

- I got to know about Babajob from an employee here. I was traveling to my brother's house and I met the employee and that's how I got there. They asked me 'what do you do' and I said 'I'm in a garment factory and I want to change my job. I'm not so comfortable.' So they said 'come over to the office and give us your details. So just in case we have something, we pass it over.'

And when was that?

- Over a month [ago]?

Do you know what happens to your registration once you registered?

- No, I don't know. [ thinks ] I don't know what they do here after I register. But I know that it is a matter of faith. For instance I've been kept as a maid in someone's house. [?] [...] Someone tells Babajob that they need a servant, and they know that I need a job. Babajob becomes the center point. They trust Babajob and they'll take me for work. It's a matter of faith.

Do you know that you have a profile on the Internet?

- Yes, they put my details on the Internet. I know. I saw it right now in the office.

Can you explain what happens to your registration?

- No, I can't explain.

What are your expectations regarding Babajob?

- I just want a job. I think that they will pick me a good job. A nice place, a convenient place for me also. I want to get a job nearby. When I was all alone, with no family and all, I wouldn't have bothered about the distance. But now that I have somebody to visit me, I need something near this place.

Do your friends and family know about Babajob?

- None of my relatives knew about this and I told them about it. They also want to register, but they're waiting for something to happen. Once I get it, obviously they will come.

Do you think that you will get a job through Babajob soon?

- I think so. I'm hundred percent sure I will get a job.

Are there any things to improve in Babajob?

- The only improvement is by giving the jobs. So it only improves by that.

Babajob is also a new technology, like this camera, mobile phones or the Internet.

- Yes.

Do you think that they will make a difference for your own life? Especially the Internet and mobile phones?

- It will definitely. I think mobile phones... there are many similarities. You can talk on the phone. Take some pictures, and also lots of many things can be done on the computer. And less on the mobile phone. I had an experience, but there was no power, no current in the area, and we had to mix grains or something, without power. So a friend went to another friend's house and got connected to a computer, did it [mixed the grain] and came back. So I feel it [the computer] got a lot of things in it.

Okay, thank you.

- I want a job as quick as possible. Okay.

2.1.3. IND3

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Hi, how are you doing? Can you introduce yourself?

- My name is XXXXX, and I'm 23 years old.

Can you please introduce yourself further?

- I'm 23 years of age; I've got three older sisters and one younger sister. The older ones are all married. My father passed away ten years ago. He used to work for a watch-factory, a local one. We had our own house in Lakshmipuram, which is nearby and we have two floors. The ground and the first floor. The first floor we've given it on a lease. My youngest sister works for a showroom as a saleswoman and she's just finished her 10th year of education. I'm the only son, and I'm the only earning hand.

And you are not married?

- No, but it is already fixed.

So you are engaged. May I ask what religion you are?

- Hindu.

Are you from Bangalore?

- I was born and brought up here.

What is your level of education?

- My education is until the 9th because I entered the 10th but I failed. I gave a three years of a gap and now I wish to give it another attempt and so I'm trying to find some private tuition.

Which are the languages you know how to read and write?

- First language Telugu, second language English, third language Kannada. I know all the three very well.

Let me ask you... Do you have a mobile phone?

- No, sir.

Have you ever used one? For example with friends?

- Yes, the friends, they use it. They live nearby.

What do they use it for?

- [ in English: ] Personal use, personal calls, for emergency. Exactly what use I can't say.

Do you want to own a mobile phone?

- [ in English: ] I'm looking for a Sony-Ericsson to buy in May. In the month of May. That time I can only say what to do with it.

Let's go on in Kannada. Even if I know that you speak perfect English, it seems to be even easier in Kannada. You know already what you will use your mobile phone for?

- I will use it to download and listen to MP3s. I'm interested in music.

Have you ever used a computer?

- Yes, the basics.

And when or how often do you use a computer?

- I use Internet. I use it weekly.


- Nearby. I go to Internet.

But where?

- I mean cyber café. I don't have a computer at home.

And what do you do when you are using the Internet?

- I don't know how to open a mail, but I know how to open music in a browser. But I want to learn.

And do you use it for other reasons, too?

- For downloads. Other than that, no.

What is more important? Internet or mobile phones?

- [ in English: ] Both are equally.

Can you compare it?

- No idea.

Okay. Let me ask you do you have a current job?

- I'm not working as of today.

So what kind of job are you looking for?

- Actually, I have three options: Xerox operator, or office boy or telecallist [sic].

And did you work before? What was your last job?

- Xerox operator.

May I ask how much you earned?

- 3.500 Rs., which didn't meet my necessities.

How much do you want to earn?

- 4.000 or more. I also plan to complete my degree this year.

And who else in your family has an income?

- My older sister, the third one, lives with us, in our own house, with her two children. She earns 3.000 Rs. and my younger sister who works as a saleswoman draws 4.000 Rs. They're also there. My mother is a housewife.

And what is the first thing you would spend your money on?

- I don't spend anything anywhere. I will have just 500 Rs. for myself and the rest I will give to my mother. All the money. I'm interested in buying music and everything that has to do with music or movies, I like it.

What would your mother buy with the money you give her?

- She manages the money, which all children give for groceries and the maintenance of the house and the electricity bill. And the grandchildren's fees for the school. And the rest she gives to the chit fund.
- [XX explains:] In India we have a system with the locals. You pay money every month to a place, and after the tenth or twelfth month, you get it back. It's like rotating money. It's a social thing. It's not registered. It's like savings, but a different form.

Okay, I see. Coming to the practice of getting a job, what were the usual ways to find a job?

- Through people and friends. Or through newspaper advertisements.

Are there also any other options?

- I've found boards on the streets or stuck on a tree, you know.

How long have you been searching for a job now?

- For one week. From last Monday. I quit my job on March 3rd.

How long would it usually take you to get a job if you ask your friends?

- On the job before, I worked for seven months. And so far my friends have never helped me. I told them 'please find me a job,' but they always give me a reason. The first job I had, I got through a person who is living in the same street. He was just a neighbor. But basically I cannot rely on my friends. Before Babajob, I used to work as an office helper.

How did you hear about Babajob?

- Through XXXXX, who works here. I'm related to him.

How long to you know about Babajob?

- Since five months.

And when did you register?

- I don't really remember. But I have registered once and then the profile was deleted. So I came again last Monday and registered again. [?] [...]

Can you explain why it was deleted or what happened?

- The machine was troubling, so everything got deleted.

When you heard about Babajob the first time, what was the first impression?

- I thought it was a good thing to know. Like a social service.

Did you register yourself?

- Basically XXXXX [my relative, who works here] kept telling me 'come to my office' but I never bothered to. Finally I came last week and XXXXX registered me.

Can you explain how Babajob functions? What happens to your registration?

- [ thinks ] They work as a center point between me and the person who is giving the job. They keep informing me and tell me that I might get a job, 'you just have to wait.'

Have you visited your profile online?

- Only the first time when I registered, but not since then.

What do you think about your own profile?

- I feel that the information that is given is okay, but I'm waiting with the hope that they will give me a job.

What information on the profile is the most important?

- That I'm waiting for a job.

But everyone is waiting. What other registered information is important?

- Family.

Okay. Do you trust Babajob? Remember you can say what you want and that we don't belong to Babajob?

- I trust them. I don't know when I get a job; I just hope I'll get a new job within the next days.

Did you tell your friends?

- I haven't told anyone.

You think that Babajob will be famous?

- It depends on them.

Do you have any idea or suggestion how to improve Babajob?

- Babajob should do more social things. I'm not able to tell now, but I feel they have to put more work in it. They have to put a lot of boards with advertisement, so that they can popularize themselves. I’m really happy with it. And they should put more advertisement in the slum areas with a contact number, so more job seekers will see it.

Do you think that special people working the slums would help?

- Yes.

Do you think that new technologies, like the Internet or Babajob, can improve your life?

- Yes, searching people is very useful.

How do you think will mobile phones and the Internet change things?

- I really don't know how to express it. I do not know enough about computers to tell. But I feel that the Internet is already on the phone.

You think that many employers use Babajob?

- If they know about it, they will use it.

Thank you for the Interview.

2.1.4. IND4

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Can you introduce yourself with your name, age, and family status?

- My name is XXXXX, I am 44 years of age. I have two children. One son and one daughter. The son passed away two years ago, because of some problem with his wife. My daughter is married.

Some problems with his wife?

- [XX:] He was a grown up.

What happened?

- He had a suicide.


- The daughter is married and she has three children. This is my second marriage. My husband is 47 years old. And I'm experienced as a cook and alternate as a maid. Earlier I had to go to a job from Babajob, actually two jobs. But I just couldn't adjust with the timings. So now I'm searching for a job where we can accommodate both my husband and his [first] wife.

Are you from Bangalore originally?

- I'm very much a Bangalorian.

What education do you have?

- I didn't go to the exam, because I got married at a very early age.

Which languages do you know?

- I'm a Tamilian by birth, I was born in Karnataka, and I'm married to a Telugu. So it's a mixture of three states. Earlier I had an arranged marriage and he was a Tamilian. My second marriage was a Telugu, which was a love-marriage. I read and write very good Kannada. I'm good with Hindi and Tamil. English very little. I have gone to school until the tenth, but I haven't passed the exams.

Have you ever used a computer?

- I've never used any computer. Even not my children.

Do you have a mobile phone?

- Yes, we have one. Since the past three years.

What was the reason to get one?

- For any reason. Emergency, personal calls, good, bad things. If I have to contact the person where I work in public labor, or she has to contact me, either way.

Do you have a landline?

- No we have not a landline anymore. There's no need with a mobile phone.

Even if you have never used a computer, what is the difference between a mobile phone and a computer?

- If I was trained at a computer, I would be able to tell something about it. Or if I had children who used it, I could have told, but I don't know anything about the computer. Even about the phone, I cannot tell much because I use it only for receiving and making calls. I do not use text messages.

Do you want your grandchildren to 'learn' computer?

- I definitely want my children to learn how to use a computer, because I feel that knowing about this gives better prospects in life. And I want them to have a better life than what I had. And my grandson, who is just ten years old, is asking for a computer already. And we plan to buy him one. And there's also the point that all schools, they have computer [classes] as a subject, mandatory. It goes by the effort and then it depends on their interest.

What can they do with a computer?

- Something to do with... basically I feel it's their interest on what they have to learn, they could become doctors or engineers. If they get into this field, they could also learn car designing or anything to do with business or something like that.

Do you know what the Internet is?

- No, I don't know.

Are you working, do you have a job?

- I work in two houses as a cook. I want to find a better job, because I'm looking for some family that can also accommodate us, means to give an outhouse on the same property. My husband works as a supervisor in an office, but the income is really not enough. They earn 10.000 Rs. totally, but he also has his first wife, so they need to earn more.

May I ask what religion you belong to?

- Hindu.

Okay. How much do you earn and how much do you want to earn?

- Basically I am not searching for a better salary, but for a house together with work. Because the place where I live is very small and the husband and wife cannot live together. So it's very difficult.

How important is mobility? Is it important to move if the job is good?

- It is very important to work, because the first wife doesn’t work. So it's very important to work for me.

And would you move to another place or area for a better job?

- Changing jobs for a better job is very important.

What do you spend your income on?

- [ doesn't understand the question several times ] ... There are hardly any savings left. The first thing I do is to pay the house bill, the electricity bill, and the groceries. Then if I have taken a loan from someone to repay them. I pay them back. So at the end of the month there is nothing left. I spent a lot of the money on my son's funeral and these loans also.

How would you usually find a job, without Babajob?

- Only through recommendation or advertisement in the paper also.

How long would it take if you asked someone?

- Within a week or ten days.

How did you hear about Babajob?

- Advertising. Through flyers.

What did you think when you saw the flyer?

- I was really happy that there was someone giving out jobs.

Did you trust it?

- Yes. I did trust after reading the flyers and because I was living alone, I came to check it and my trust was 'enhanced' when I got a job.

You took this job?

- In one house I am still working. In the other house, I waited because the timing was not feasible.

Have you told anyone about Babajob by now?

- I have told a lot of them, but I don't know if they come.

You used Babajob several times, because you got different jobs. Do you know that you have an online profile?

- I know about it and I've seen it at the office.

Why was Babajob successful with your job search?

- I feel it can become more successful if more people are helped like me. I trust them partly, because it's from a Christian.

Any ideas on how to improve the service?

- They should get jobs for more people. That's the only way to improve.

Any difficulties you had with registering?

- No I didn't have any problems. I feel... I trust them, just because of the word 'baba.’

Is Babajob as good as a really good private contact?

- I feel that I can count on it... I feel Babajob is better, because I have somebody to complain to. If I'm not happy with my present job, I can come here and tell them that I want something else.

What is your experience with your new job so far?

- I've got nothing much to complain. Where I work, I try to adjust with them. And if I'm not able to adjust, I inform them early 'look, I have problems in this place, so I want something better.'

How did your employer contact you?

- We don't know each other. The center is Babajob. That lady has contacted Babajob. They're also given me information. The person was calling me and gave me her address. And I just went searching the house.

Was it easy to talk about the conditions with the employer?

- It's been four months since I'm working there. I didn't find any problem. I asked for 3.000 Rs. and they agreed to give me 2.500. So I said 'after six or seven months, if you find my work is good, you can raise it.'

Okay. What was Babajob's suggested rate when you registered?

- It wasn't mentioned to me.

Do you believe that technology like mobile phone, cameras like this one, Internet or Babajob can improve your life?

- Yes, I feel it improves my life.

How is it difference between mobile phones and the Internet?

- I feel life will become much more comfortable. Because earlier things were not that fast. Not happening so quickly.

Do many employers use Babajob?

- I don't know if they really find Babajob, but I'm sure that they know about it.

Thanks a lot, that's it.

2.1.5. IND5

illustration not visible in this excerpt


Can you please introduce yourself?

- My age is 39, I’m married and I have two kids. My daughter is studying in SLC and my son is in 8th standard. I did my diploma in a photography studio that is in Chennai. At that time I was still unmarried. When my father had an open-heart surgery, I came back to Bangalore. My mother tongue is Kannada. After my father’s open-heart surgery, I came here and my mother didn’t want me to go there. We are three children. My brother is working in the air force as a captain. My sister, she is married to an IT-person and she has settled. Only I – I am a little bit down because I am the youngest child. After that I came to Bangalore and I settled down here. My entire photography thing was gone and I came here and looked for a job and there are no photography jobs. In that time the hotshot cameras have come out. So everyone is taking their own camera finishing off themselves. No one comes to the studios. Then I was looking for a job and I got a driving job. That was in 1991 or something. Since then I’ve been working as a driver. Life has changed as a driver. As a hobby, I still photograph. I go to relative’s weddings and programs. I go and take snaps and I give them. Nowadays no black and white. It’s all color processing. [?] […] Only for a snap I take photos and develop… and give them [the photos] back.

What languages do you know to read and write?

- I know South Indian languages. Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and also Hindi and English.

Do you have a computer?

- No.

Do you use one?

- I don’t have [a computer], so I don’t use it.

So you never used a computer before?

- No.

What about your children, do they use a computer?

- No, because we don’t have a computer. But my children they go to those websites and they do play.

What do they play?

- They do play. I don’t know. But they have computers in the school and they play computer at the school.

So they have a computer program at school?

- Yes they have some classes. They charge a 1.000 Rs. charge or something. But just per year.

And do you think it’s important for the future of your kids?

- Yes, because if they learn computer it’s good.

And what can they do with a computer?

- What can they do?

In future…?

- In future they can earn themselves, and they can lead their life. And presently they play at the computer – at their age.

For example, what can an IT-person do with a computer? And what can your children learn from a computer?

- My daughter, she’s planning to become a software engineer. So she must learn that. She must improve her life, so you must learn computer. It’s good. We used to calculate by hand, but today we calculate with a computer, just these kind of things.

And also business…

- Business also. Nowadays we do everything by email. We used to write letters.

Do you think it’s important for people at your age to learn that?

- Yes, it’s good for any age.

Do you have any plans to learn it?

- No, I don’t have any plans because I don’t get in touch with them, you know? I’m working as a driver, so they just put me in a car. I’m a driver, that’s all. If I’m working in any office, as an office boy or something, like that. If you just have five minutes free you can use it.

If you decided to learn today…

- I can learn, but I don’t have a computer to do that.

So you don’t know where to ask.

- What we do, we ask our children to teach us once they know.

So your children can teach you.

- Yes.

Do you have your own mobile phone?

- Yeah, I have my own mobile phone.

Since when?

- Since the past one year.

And what was the main reason to buy a mobile phone?

- To get better to every person.

What do you use it for?

- For all kinds of things. To get messages from my relations – good things, bad things, every thing. [?] […] Because my relatives of my mother are 50 km away. I live 50 km from my mother’s native place. My parents are no more alive. But when something suddenly happens, someone passes away, if they don’t want to come four, five hours, they can call and I can come there and see.

How often do you use your mobile phone a day?

- My friends call me. Per day 20, 25 calls.

Do you also use text messages?

- No I don’t use text messages.

Do you know how to use it?

- No.

Do you have a landline connection?

- No, I had landline and I cancelled it.

What would you say…? We were talking about new technologies. What is the difference between mobile phones and the Internet?

- In case someone has no Internet, they use the mobile phone. In case they have Internet, they can send the message per email.

So you don’t need the mobile anymore when you have the Internet?

- No no, they need it. In case they want to speak for an hour. It won’t work with the mobile phone because of the costs.

So the Internet is cheaper?

- Internet is cheaper, I believe. But I’m not used to it.

If you had Internet access, what would you do with it?

- I can send emails. I can get all messages, also. In case I want to talk to some companies and send a project to some companies. If I open ‘it,’ I can get the information. You don’t get that with a mobile.

So with a mobile it’s just calling…

- Yes, of course. With SMS you can also do that.

Are you currently employed?

- I don’t have a job, as of today. I came to Babajob one month back. Presently I haven’t worked for two months.

So you usually work only for one person?

- Yes, only for one person. Now one person came from Germany, his name was Thomas. He came and took me for three years. And after two years suddenly he left me and he went home. Actually he was supposed to get me another job from somewhere; otherwise I would have settled somewhere else. He even told me that he will be back after the holidays, after New Years, but he didn’t come back. I don’t know where he is now.

How much did you earn in that job?

- 10.000 Rs. per month.

And if you apply for new jobs, what is your expected rate?

- See, if I get 10.000 it’s okay.

What are the first things you spend your money on?

- On my children’s education. That’s the most important thing. Daily food must be there for the children. [?] […]

Let me ask, because you had this situation. You worked for this one man and he left. What is the usual way to find a job?

- Usually my friends used to tell me and I asked them for jobs. My friends might work somewhere, so when some person leaves, they need another person and I have to try. That’s how we used to get a job.

Is that more effective than, let’s say, newspapers?

- No it wouldn’t be as effective as a newspaper. Nowadays no one reads newspapers. Even when we see the paper, we see for the auto engineers, software engineers, office boys also. But for drivers you won’t find anything at all. From long back, once in a while it may come.

[XX:] Drivers won’t only get a job through ads, because ‘they’ don’t trust drivers.

- Everyone is thinking ‘you have to trust the driver.’ But I don’t know who he is. See, the person who came from Germany, I trusted him, because he [kept] me for two years. Nowadays people are asking a person ‘tell me, what’s your guaranty?’ But we don’t ask them ‘what’s your guaranty?’ Because we trust them. I think they have to trust us also. It’s the same thing.

So trust is one of the most important things?

- Yes, exactly. Big shot or small shot, that is not important. Trusting is important.

And which factors are important for trust? Can you define trust? For example that German guy, what was important to trust him?

- I was working for him for two years. He trusted me. Anywhere I’d go, they give me the key of the vehicle. They give me the key. They didn’t want me to disturb them. And I won’t misplace it. For 20 years I’ve been working as a driver. Driving has become very boring. So we don’t take that vehicle to anywhere we want. We think to walk instead. We park the vehicle and we walk there to have a tea or coffee or a snack. When he calls we take the car and then we go. Most of the drivers are sitting with back pain, you know?

Let’s get to Babajob. When did you hear about Babajob?

- One month ago I came here.

Can you explain how Babajob works? How it functions or what happens here?

- I don’t know exactly. Because one month ago I came and I registered my application. And then they called me three, four times and they told me they have a part-time job somewhere in Ulsoor. I phoned up and they told me they were paying only 4.000 Rs. My traveling from me to there, it costs me 2.000 Rs. So I would earn 2.000 Rs. That’s for part-time work.

Do you trust Babajob?

- Yes, that’s why I came here today.

Can you explain why you trust them?

- The thing with trusting and everything is that you can’t tell.

So you mean it’s intuitive.

- It’s a feeling. We trust them that we are getting a job.

What is the difference between them and a real contact?

- We have really good contacts. Because all the persons, they come and they ask here ‘I want that kind of person’ and all. Some ten people, they told us. They told us what this Babajob is. And that I can get a job there.

So you heard about Babajob through different people?

- Actually someone came to my apartment and they gave us a pamphlet. I came here and got registered.

What did you tell them?

- I said maybe some drive is needed and I registered there. Because most of my friends and everybody else are working with foreigners. They have the mentality to work with one foreigner. Once I came here, they told me that only Indians are registered here. So let’s see what happens.

Let me ask again. If you want to just compare two things. You have a friend with really good contacts and then you have Babajob. What is the difference? Between an online company and a private person?

- If I get a job, you can tell the difference. Because Babajob, they send me for an interview, okay? Babajob want [sic] to be knowing what the person there is like, sitting and asking questions. And how they pay also. Because sometimes they say ‘I pay you good salary.’ If I work all day, I come to know how he’s paying. Because sometimes some people, they tell they provide the lunch. Actually that is their responsibility to pay a lunch amount when we’re with them. After one month they never tell you, they never ask you if you had your lunch. So I won’t be knowing how the person is. Because they come and register and they want a driver. They don’t know how the person is.

So do you know about your online profile?

- Yes, I know. They registered me in the office.

Of all the information on the profile – like family status, reference… you know. What is the most important information? What is the most important thing for a future employer?

- The address is important.

Okay. So how close you are…

- It’s really important that they see the address, because if something happens they can come or call.

Did Babajob call you the last two times or were it the employers themselves?

- It was a part-time job. Babajob called me. No employer has called me.

You have a feeling how successful your registration will be?

- It’s only one month, so I can’t tell that.

What do you expect?

- To get a job quickly.

In what time?

- Anytime. Maybe today or tomorrow. We can’t tell.

Do you have any suggestion on what could be improved about Babajob?

- [?] […] If people come, they get to know ten people, and they tell ten people, because the 100 people tell another 100 people, it becomes 200.

So you like it as it is right now?

- Yes, because you get a response from people who work here. I don’t call them, they call me.

Do you think a registration or your profile creates the same trust as when you know someone personally?

- I’m getting the same trust.

Is it the same trust? With the reference and all that?

- It’s difficult. Actually when they tell to get one person, some drivers, then he even, he might ask how the person is. Whether he’s a good person or a bad person. But only one guy tells you ‘Sir, this is a good person, you can keep him for a job.’ If Babajob sends this person then they know all the details about the person. So they will be having more questions to ask him. They’ve come to ask all the details.

If I were your employer and looking for a driver…? Having a profile in front of me, how can I trust this person?

- See, we have a permanent address. I have a permanent address. It’s my own building. And I have reference where I worked before. I can give all the reference. Seeing that, you can decide yourself.

So you have all the information you need.

- Because where I work, when they leave and I ask for a certificate from there and that certificate will be a reference for me.

Will the situation change for the drivers change with the new airport?

- Because of the International Airport, everyone will go trying there. It is a little bit difficult for the driver when they drive at night, I know. Because it is out of the city.

[XX:] So it has to be better, no traffic. Isn’t it?

- No, I’m telling of the nights, not in the morning.

Because of the security?

- Yes, because sometimes we can’t tell how the security is. They come and attack the cars, the thieves.

Do you have any insurance?

- No, they don’t make insurance for drivers.

Do you think it should be like that?

- It should be there. You see only when they work for a company they give insurance. When you are working as a personal driver, they don’t give you this.

Do you think that can be changed?

- If it is changed, it’s good.

What do you think … what kind of people are the employers? The people who give the jobs. How is their character?

- I don’t know.

Do you think many people use Babajob?

- Yes, many people. Because while sitting in the office I saw many people and they came and registered.

Ok, let’s conclude this. How is new technology improving your life? Is it helping you to get a new job or…?

- Yeah, the ‘betterment’ is there. Some thing is there, one thing. The more it improves yourself, the dangers are coming up. I used to use my mobile phone continuously to my ear. It started a pain in my ear, and I started to keep it in my pocket. It started to affect my heart. Suddenly bubble was there, bubble used to come [ points at his heart ].

You think it’s because of the mobile phone?

- Yes, when I changed the place, no – nothing is there.

So you think there’s a danger to your health.

- Yes, definitely. Because many people, they’re keeping the technicks [sic] in the pocket, I see many people like that.

Do you think there is a difference between the Internet, or let’s say computers, and mobile phones?

- [ picks up his mobile and answers a call ]

Do you think mobiles and the Internet or computer will affect us on different levels?

- I told you it affects only the health for the weak bodies, not the strong ones.

But besides health? What else do they influence?

- Nothing. Once I saw one thing on TV, a year back. Some man was using his mobile phone and they used to get this thing, there was something dropping out of the ear. It was one year back, I saw this on TV.

So you don’t like to use the mobile phone.

- [ smiles ] No, I like it, but not too much. Everything too much is too bad.

Okay, thank you for sharing your time. That’s it.

2.1.6. IND6

illustration not visible in this excerpt


Would you please introduce yourself?

- I am XXXXX, my family consists of five people. My parents and there are three brothers. We are totally eight people in my house, because they are all married. I am also married.

How old are you?

- I am 23 years old. I’ve been married for the last seven months.

What religion are you?

- Christian.

Are you from Bangalore?

- Andhra Pradesh. I speak Telugu.

When did you come here?

- Twelve years ago. We just came to Bangalore. No special reason.

What school did you go to?

- I went to school until 7th grade.

Which languages do you know to speak and write?

- Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu. I can only read and write in Telugu.

Do you use a computer?

- No. Just for photos, games and movies. I have never used it, but if someone uses it, I sit beside.

And where do you see it?

- At my friend’s house.

Your friend has an own computer?

- My friend’s brother.

Do you think it is important to know how to use it?

- If find it important because you can also find work on the basis of it, if you know how to use a computer.

So what else than job search can you do on the Internet?

- I have never used the Internet.

And do you have a mobile phone?

- Yes.

For how long have you had a mobile?

- I had a mobile phone for one year. Before that I had no landline.

What was the reason to get a mobile?

- I find a mobile phone useful, when someone is out of reach or anything important happens. If the phone is switched off, he can still text message.

And how often do you use it per day?

- 15 calls I get. Outgoing about ten. So there are many people who give a missed call and I try to call them back to find who it is and they start speaking. We want to save money.

Do you also use Caller Tunes?

- No. I used it in the beginning, but at home they yelled at me, so I stopped.

How much do you want to spend on your mobile phone costs?

- About 200 Rs.

Okay, let’s get to the job questions. Are you currently employed?

- Basically we’re running a kind of canteen from the house. Where house food is sent to offices. So we were doing good, but one of the offices closed down and we don’t have many clients and we are totally eight and we have to support the family. And the older brother was opted for a job and he’s going somewhere because he has to take care of his wife and children also.

[XX:] You know, they believe in black magic.

- And the second brother, he is not healthy. Black magic has been done over him. And he’s the third one, so he wants to get something better so that he can support the whole family. I wish to find something in the same line because I had prior experience.

So what kind of job is it exactly?

- It’s kind of a pantry shop, a canteen of some sort. We send it to restaurants.

How long have you been searching for a job?

- I’m staying with the job, but I’m looking for another. I’m doing both. I’m working at home, helping to cook, as well as searching for a new job.

How much do you want to earn?

- So totally we all together earn 30.000 Rs. a month with the canteen. But in those [30.000], 15.000 to 17.000 are spent on groceries and vegetables and stuff. What comes into our hands is just 15.000. Now if I go and work, I expect something between 5.000 and 5.500 Rs., because my brother is working as a pantry boy and he gets 5.000. So something nearby.

What are the usual ways to find jobs?

- It’s just word of mouth. My brother sometimes, he tells his superior that his brother is also jobless, so ‘why don’t you find him a job?’ It’s only word of mouth and of course this place.

What about newspapers?

- I never tried that.

Would you move to another place if you would get a good job?

- Only if my mother says okay, I would go. Otherwise I wouldn’t go.

How did you hear about Babajob?

- Through a friend’s friend.

What did he tell you and what was your first thought?

- He didn’t say anything much other than the part ‘you must call up this number and just tell them…’

Can you explain how Babajob works?

- No, I don’t know how it works.

Do you know about your profile in the Internet, after the registration? With your name ‘XXXXX’ on top of it?

- No, I haven’t seen my profile. I mean I have seen it on the computer. I was registered by phone, but I saw it here.

What is the most important information on your profile? What would an employer like to see?

- A phone number of a friend is important.

A reference number…?

- Yes, so they can ask him about me.

Do you think that they can trust you with this info?

- It depends on the person. It’s different.

Do you think your search will be successful? What are your expectations?

- I feel,… yes, I obviously trust them, that’s why I’m here and I’m not expecting too much. If I don’t get a job, at least my brother will get one.

Do you know anything that could be improved at Babajob?

- No, I don’t know anything.

Do you know anyone who got a job through Babajob?

- No, I don’t know anybody.

Do you believe that new technologies, like this camera, mobile phones or the Internet can improve your own situation?

- I feel it’s useful four our life, but I don’t know how to explain it.

How would you compare the Internet and a mobile phone?

- I have no idea at all.

Okay, thank you for sharing your time. That’s it.

2.1.7. IND7

illustration not visible in this excerpt


Would you please introduce yourself?

- My name is XXXXX, I am 55 years old. I have three daughters and a son. I have no husband, my husband died 15 years ago. [?] […] I used to live with my son all year, but now I live alone. I had to earn and I had to feed them also. My son does not earn well. He doesn’t go to work at all. He is sort of a careless boy and he doesn’t go to work also. So I had to take care of my family and I moved out. I’m living by myself now. My son’s wife tells him not to take care of me. [?] […] Now I work at a house on the opposite road which pays 1.000 Rs. and I cook a little bit and most of the time I clean the house.

Is it 1.000 RS a month?

- Yes, 1.000 Rs. a month.

How did you get the job?

- I got the job through my sister in law. I’m looking only for a better job because the rent itself is 1.000 Rs. So what will I eat if all my earnings go for the rent?

So you earn 1.000 and you pay 1.000.

- It’s 1.000 and I pay 1.000. So I’ve got nothing to eat, that’s why I look for a job.

Which languages do you speak? What education do you have?

- My education was done by 8th standard. I know to speak Tamil, a little English, Hindi and a little Telugu.

What do you know to read?

- I don’t know how to read any language. Tamil very little. I know how to write a little bit, but I’m not very confident.

Where are you from originally?

- I’m a Bangalorian by birth.

What religion?

- Christian.

Let me ask, have you been ever in contact with a computer?

[XX:] She’s actually asking me what to do with it. She’s telling ‘you give me two days and I’ll learn it.’

Okay, so you don’t know exactly what you can do with a computer. Do you have a mobile phone?

- No. I don’t have a telephone at all.

How do people reach you?

- My sister in law tells me. She is my contact number.

Do you want to have a phone?

- I have no interest in a computer, but I do want to have a mobile. I had one, but I gave it to my daughter. But I really don’t want anything. Maybe in the future.

What do you want to use it for?

- I don’t really want one, because the ‘tension’ is coming with it.

A tension?

- Man’s always having a tension, so ‘where will I keep it,’ ‘where will I drop it,’ ‘who’s going to call?’

Okay. I understand. So what kind of job are you looking for? And how much do you want to earn?

- I’m expecting 3.500 to 4.000 Rs. and I wish to become a complete cook, rather than cleaning the house as well.

What will you spend your income on?

- I have to buy clothes and groceries. And I’ve taken a little loan for the daughter’s wedding, which is on the 7th of next month. So I feel this is how I want to spend it.

Would you be willing to move for a job?

- I don’t want to go somewhere else. It depends on the salary and preferably I would like to stay here. My brother doesn’t want me to go.

How did you usually find a job?

- It was through an agent near Shivajinagar. Basically the place where I worked earlier. They tried to give me less money.

Could you trust this agent?

- I trusted them quite a lot, because even if I worked for 15 days a month and wouldn’t work for the rest of the 15 days, the payment was done for the whole month.

Let’s get to Babajob. How did you hear about it?

- I know it through the watchman who is working at their building.

What was your first thought and impression?

- I was very happy and I trusted them.

Can you explain how Babajob functions? Or what happens to your registration?

- I don’t know.

Do you know that you have a profile on the computer?

- No, I’ve never seen it.

Have you ever been offered a job through Babajob?

- I am not registered.

You are not registered? They didn’t take a photo?

- No, nothing. Today was my first day. [?] […]

So do you think you can trust Babajob?

- Yes, I trust them and I believe that I will get a higher salary.

What is the difference to the agent you had before?

- There’s no difference at all. Only for the fact that the office is near.

So to you it’s just another agent.

- Yes.

So in general, do you think that new technology like Babajob, this camera, computers or mobile phones… that they can improve your life?

- It will never improve. It will destroy lives.

Can you explain that?

- [XX:] She doesn’t know how to explain.

Okay, thank you for your time. That’s it.

273 von 273 Seiten


Die Formalisierung des informellen Arbeitssektors in Indien durch internetbasiertes Social Networking: Eine explorative Annäherung an babajob.com
Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster  (Institut für Kommunikationswissenschaft)
ISBN (Buch)
2422 KB
Indien, Internet, Social Networking, Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Armut, Arbeit, Medienkonvergenz, Vertrauen
Arbeit zitieren
Anil Jacob Kunnel (Autor), 2008, Die Formalisierung des informellen Arbeitssektors in Indien durch internetbasiertes Social Networking: Eine explorative Annäherung an babajob.com , München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/198215


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Titel: Die Formalisierung des informellen Arbeitssektors in  Indien durch internetbasiertes Social Networking: Eine explorative Annäherung an babajob.com

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