Marketing of Regions

An Analysis of the Rhine-Main Region in an International Context


Diploma Thesis, 2010
74 Pages, Grade: 1,7

Excerpt

Table of Contents

Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

1 Introduction
1.1 Place Marketing Phenomenon
1.2 Definitions and Terminology
1.2.1 Region vs. Place
1.2.2 Place Marketing
1.3 From Marketing to Place Marketing
1.4 Aims and Objectives

2 Selling the Business Location
2.1 Objectives
2.2 Elements in a Place Marketing Process
2.3 Levels of Place Marketing
2.4 Who are the Main Targets of Place Marketers?
2.5 Major Actors in Place Marketing
2.6 The Place Marketing Process
2.7 Designing the Place’s Image
2.7.1 Image Marketing
2.7.2 Branding
2.7.3 Distributing the Place’s Image and Messages
2.8 Services in Attracting, Retaining and Expanding Businesses
2.9 Essentials to Successful Place Marketing
2.10 Problems

3 How Investors make their Choices
3.1 General Framework
3.2 Steps and Factors Influencing the Buying Process
3.3 Soft vs. Hard Facts
3.4 Influence of Place-Rating Information
3.5 Importance of Cluster

4 Place Marketing in the Rhine Main Region
4.1 Facts and Figures
4.2 Sectors of Industry
4.3 SWOT Analysis on the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region
4.4 Locational Advantages
4.5 Attracting, Retaining and Expanding Businesses
4.6 Designing the Image
4.7 Distributing the Place’s Image and Messages
4.8 Opportunities and Problems

5 The Rhine Main Region in an International Context
5.1 Hong Kong
5.2 Los Angeles
5.3 Country Comparison

6 Conclusion

List of References

Appendix

Abstract

In the past decade place marketing, country marketing and city marketing have enjoyed an increase in recognition, especially as countries and locations have been spending more money to encourage firms to locate their offices and plant locations in the place marketer's area. This is reflected in a growing number of associations, literature, media coverage and educational courses offered.

The aim of the present thesis is to evaluate current literature in order to understand the importance of place marketing in general and marketing of the Rhine Main Region, as Germany´s most cosmopolitan region, in particular. For an international context Hong Kong and Los Angeles are used as exemplary competitors. Los Angeles being one of the United States most powerful cities and Hong Kong representing the gateway to China. However, the focus of my investigation is on a B2B perspective in the marketing of the Rhine Main Region.

In literature and in practice, place marketing strategies vary from very simple to very sophisticated. Through examination of the aforementioned business locations I find out that there are huge differences in the approach and execution.

After the creation of a theoretical framework, in which I examine place marketing from the perspective of the marketer and that of the business customer, I put the whole set into practice with help of the Rhine Main Region, Los Angeles and Hong Kong. In my final conclusion I assess the place marketing activities of the aforementioned competitors and try to rank them according to their current performance.

List of Figures

Figure 1-1: Consumer vs. Place Marketing

Figure 2-1: Elements in a Place Marketing Process

Figure 2-2: Levels of Place Marketing

Figure 2-3: Phases of Marketing

Figure 2-4: The 4 P’s in Place Marketing

Figure 2-5: Brand Identity, Brand Positioning and Brand Image

Figure 2-6: Success Factors in Place Marketing

Figure 3-1: Successive Sets Involved in Buyer Decision Making

Figure 3-2: Temporal Course of Locational Decision Making

Figure 3-3: Sources of Locational Competitive Advantage

Figure 4-1: Map of Rhine Main Region

Figure 4-2: Hesse Slogan

Figure 4-3: FrankfurtRheinMain GmbH Slogan

Figure X-1: City Growth/Decay Dynamics

Figure X-2: 2009 Tax Misery & Reform Index

List of Tables

Table 2-1: The Four Main Target Markets

Table 2-2: Major Actors in Place Marketing

Table 3-1: Five Stages in Choosing a Place

Table 3-2: Essential Factors for Locating a Business

Table 4-1: The Frankfurt Rhine Main Region in Figures

Table 5-1: 10 Reasons to Invest in Hong Kong

Table 5-2: Reasons to Do Business in Los Angeles

Table 5-3: The Global Competitiveness Index 2009-2010 Rankings (Overview)

Table 5-4: The Global Competitiveness Index in Detail

Table 5-5: 2010 Index of Economic Freedom

Table 5-6: Opacity Index

Table 5-7: Economy Rankings 2008-

Table X-1: Differences in Marketing Companies and Regions

Table X-2: Stages of the Strategic Market Planning Process

Table X-3: List of Agencies and Services

Table X-4: Starting a Business in Germany

Table X-5: Starting a Business in Hong Kong (China)

Table X-6: Starting a Business in the United States

List of Abbreviations

illustration not visible in this excerpt

1 Introduction

1.1 Place Marketing Phenomenon

If you enter the phrase “marketing of regions” in Google, you get about 575,000 hits (last checked March 19, 2010). Although a great amount of those are unusable, there are still thousands of hits that direct you to the websites of cities and regions all over the world and provide an amazing amount of information on their marketing efforts. This shows how important regional marketing has become in today's economy. There is hardly one town or region without a special slogan or logo advertising its attractions (Mayer 1999, p. 1). What used to be a mainly tourism related field of studies has now shifted to business and marketing. Recent research reveals that the number of studies within the discipline of branding and business are double those in tourism (Hanna and Rowley 2008, p. 67). But what is the reason for this new interest in place marketing?

Place marketing as such is not a new phenomenon, and like many marketing ideas has its origins in the U.S. From almost the first stages of the colonization of the North American continent, there were conscious measures taken to attract settlers (Ward 1998, p. 10). Nowadays international business places increasingly compete with each other for different reasons (Mayer 1999, p. 2).

One reason is rooted in increasing global competition and competition between business locations, as well as dismantling trade barriers, sinking carriage costs, flexible forms of organization and the exchangeability between locations, which have given distance a whole new meaning (Gubler and Möller 2006, p. 25). Transportation and communication have grown speedier, easier and cheaper so that distance no longer is relevant (Avraham and Ketter 2008, p. 3). The same applies to the factors people, goods and capital, which have become mobile and therefore can easily be moved to different places (Gubler and Möller 2006, p. 18).

Another reason for this new interest in place marketing is that the competitive advantages places pursue change over time and due to circumstances such as jobs, plants, investment, tourists, specific industries, and better quality of life (Haider 1992, p. 127). New place attributes and fresh definitions of the accessibility of places have thrust cities and regions into new relationships with their external and internal markets which present both threats and opportunities (Ashworth and Voogd 1994, p. 40).

“ In a world economy, every place competes against every other place (city, country, region, state, and nation) ” .

(Haider 1992, p. 127)

Especially economic weak regions face an enormous pressure to take promotional measures to attract people and investment (Mayer 1999, p. 2). Therefore business locations must develop strategies and bundle their competencies to continuously attract taxpayers and ensure long-term workplaces (Gubler and Möller 2006, p. 25). The criteria for successful places are now characteristics such as environmental quality or, more broadly, the way in which cities are valued as places in which to live, work, enjoy leisure or invest (Ashworth and Voogd 1994, p. 40).

“In this competition, marketing is emerging as the driving force in how places position themselves in the marketplace as sellers of products to serve customer's (buyers') needs and wants" (Haider 1992, p. 127).

1.2 Definitions and Terminology

1.2.1 Region vs. Place

A review of the current literature on this topic clearly points out that there is no coherent definition of the term ‘region’. The range of usage goes from European region, metropolitan region to city region (Melzer 2007, p. 19). Besides, the words place and region are constantly equated. As Hanna and Rowley put it, “there seems to be a recognizable gap in the literature regarding the application of the term ‘place’ and its associated vocabulary: location, country, nation, city and region” (Hanna and Rowley 2008, p. 61).

Kotler agrees and contributes an even broader definition: “A place is a nation-state, a geopolitical physical space; a region or state; a cultural, historical or ethic bounded location; a central city and its surrounding populations; a market with various definable attributes; an industry´s home base and a clustering of like-industries and their supplier; a psychological attribute of relations between people internally and their external view of those outside” (Kotler et al. 2002, p. 4).

In branding and business ‘place’ and ‘location’ are the most dominant terms used, whereas there seems to be consensus that ‘destinations’ indicate tourism only (Hanna and Rowley 2008, pp. 61,69).

According to the literature I researched, the terms ‘region’ and ‘place’ are used interchangeably in this thesis.

1.2.2 Place Marketing

Many definitions of place marketing can be found, as the subject has generated a massive literature lately (Barke 1999, p. 486). However, most of them share the idea that localities must try to make themselves more attractive than others to key economic decision makers in order to stimulate local economic development (Carter and Turnock 2005, p. 104). According to Kotler “place marketing means designing a place to satisfy the needs of its target markets. It succeeds when citizens and businesses are pleased with their communities, and meet the expectations of visitors and investors” (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 99).

Ashworth and Voogd represent a similar point of view: “Place marketing can be defined as a process whereby local activities are related as closely as possible to the demands of targeted customers. The intention is to maximize the efficient social and economic functioning of the area concerned, in accordance with whatever wider goals have been established” (Ashworth and Voogd 1994, p. 41).

“Place marketing is a mix of: changes in the form and function of localities (the ‘place product’); the use of financial incentives; the promotion of a new image of place; and changes in the way that places are governed” (Carter and Turnock 2005, p. 104).

1.3 From Marketing to Place Marketing

Due to increasing competition and globalization and the battle for inward investment, visitors and jobs, countries, regions and cities began applying to their ‘product’ certain marketing techniques previously developed for consumer goods (Caldwell and Freire 2004, p. 50). “Place marketing has become a commonplace activity of cities, regions and countries. However, very few marketing specialists have given much thought to its application to places, treated as products, and, if they do, they too easily assume that places are just spatially extended products that require little special attention as a consequence of their spatiality” (Kavaratzis and Ashworth 2005, p. 507). Ashworth and Voogd argue against such behavior. To them a city, region or country is essentially different from the simple archetypal commercial market transaction where a product or service is exchanged for a price since it does not usually involve either the exchange between seller and buyer of ownership over physical entity, nor even purchase or hire of any exclusive rights over urban services (Ashworth and Voogd 1990, p. 65). The specialty of place marketing lies in the complexity of the object. Places are territorial but also social entities. Places are homes, workplaces, resorts or business locations. Based on these social aspects, a place is less alterable than a consumer good (Gubler and Möller 2006, p. 33). Unlike purely business or commercial product marketing, in place marketing the competencies are not combined in one person, but several policy-makers. Decisions require the active support of public and private agencies, interest groups, and citizens. See figure 1-1 (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 20).

Figure 1-1: Consumer vs. Place Marketing

(adapted from Gubler and Möller 2006, p. 34)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Another immediate problem in the range of place marketing is that it is not readily apparent what the product actually is, nor how the consumption of place occurs. “Though marketing practices make places into commodities they are in reality complex packages of goods, services and experiences that are consumed in many different ways” (Gold and Ward 1994, p. 9).

Also, the measurement of effectiveness outcomes may be that much more difficult. While the success through a targeted marketing strategy may be quantifiable the effects of an image-raising campaign on firm and job attraction is less easily specified (Paddison 1993, p. 341). Typically only a small amount of returns on marketing effort - the ‘sales’ - accrue directly to the promotional agency (Gold and Ward 1994, p. 9). For an overview of the differences in marketing companies and regions, please also see appendix Table X-1: Differences in Marketing Companies and Regions.

1.4 Aims and Objectives

This thesis intends to investigate the current literature in order to understand the importance of place marketing in general and marketing of the Rhine Main Region, as Germany´s most cosmopolitan region, in particular. To point out the competitiveness of the Rhine Main Region in an international context, I use Los Angeles and Hong Kong as exemplary competitors. Los Angeles being one of the U.S. most powerful cities and Hong Kong representing the gateway to China. However, the focus of my investigation is on the Rhine Main Region.

Due to the length limitation in this thesis and the fact that the attraction of new factories and business investments is one of the most interesting facets of place marketing (as these are expected to create new jobs and economic growth, with an overall benefit on the country’s economy), I concentrate on B2B marketing and leave out the tourism sector (Kotler and Gertner 2002, p. 257).

Chapter 2 and 3 form the theoretical foundation of this thesis. In chapter 2 I deal with the basics of place marketing and develop a theoretical framework for the central success factors of place marketing practices. Chapter 3 focuses on the investor’s perspective. It includes information on the decision making process and the influence of ratings.

In chapter 4 I put the whole set into practice with help of the Rhine Main Region. Chapter 5 uses Los Angeles and Hong Kong as international competitors of the Rhine Main Region from the western and eastern hemisphere. Chapter 6 serves as a conclusion and assessment of the place marketing activities of the aforementioned competitors

2 Selling the Business Location

2.1 Objectives

“There are more than 300 cities in the world with over a million inhabitants, and all those cities want to be the most attractive. In Europe there are more than 500 regions and 100,000 different kinds of communities competing individually for the same jobs, investments, and talented experts” (Moilanen and Rainisto 2009, p. 3). This is why regional marketing has become more important in today's economy (Mayer 1999, p. 1). Zentes (1996, p. 203) differentiates between internal and external objectives in marketing regions. The internal objective is to achieve the identification of people with the region, the external objective is to promote the regional image and attain an increase in attractiveness. It is important to create a regional identity to be able to believably use external marketing (Melzer 2007, p. 22). Since location decisions are always voluntary, communal business development agencies cannot plan new business setups, but only create an attractive image for potential investors (Pieper 1994, p. 215).

Meyer defines the objectives of place marketing a bit different. From his point of view place marketing should be used to combine forces and integrate different interests and opinions of the region into one concept (e.g. protection of the environment vs. interest in new investor with environmentally harmful products). Besides, it should push activities, measures and ideas in the region and implement suggestions of the target group. Coordinating actions to avoid redundancies and providing and processing information regarding target group, competitors and region are also part of the idea (Meyer 1999, pp. 28-29).

2.2 Elements in a Place Marketing Process

“The main elements contained in any marketing process can be summarized as in figure 2-1. Hereby populations and resources are ultimately brought together so that the needs of the former are satisfied by the products derived from the latter. The conjunction is achieved within the market by means of various sorts of marketing measures” (Ashworth and Voogd 1990, p. 29).

Selling the Business Location 7

Figure 2-1: Elements in a Place Marketing Process

(adapted from Ashworth and Voogd 1994, p. 43)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2.3 Levels of Place Marketing

The different levels of place marketing are best described by Kotler, see figure 2-2. According to his definition, the process is made up of planning group, marketing factors and target markets. The planning group comprises citizens, business people, and local and regional government officials. The planning group is responsible for the planning and control process of place marketing. It defines and diagnoses the community’s condition, its major problems, and their causes; develops a vision of the long-term solution to the community’s problems based on a realistic assessment of the community’s values, resources, and opportunities and develops a long-term plan of action involving several intermediate stages of investment and transformation (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 18). It is essential that government and planning group work hand in hand. The success of a region depends on the interaction of politics and planning group (Gubler and Möller, 2006, p. 28).

The four marketing factors of a place, people, image and quality of life, attractions and infrastructure are key elements in the long term planning developed by the planning group. The Place must generate support from its people (citizens, leaders and current institutions), communicate its improved features and life quality through a vigorous image and communication program, ensure that basic services are provided (infrastructure) and provide new attractions to improve quality of life, attract new businesses, or people.

These four marketing factors affect the place’s success in attracting and satisfying its five potential target markets: goods and services producers, corporate headquarters and regional offices, outside investment and export markets, tourism and hospitality business and new residents (Kotler et al. 1993, pp. 19-20).

Figure 2-2: Levels of Place Marketing

(adapted from Kotler et al. 1993, p. 19)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2.4 Who are the Main Targets of Place Marketers?

Places have many target audiences, such as present and future residents, investors, both home and from abroad, skilled workers, students, retirees tourists, both home and from abroad as well as local daytrippers, media and opinion formers, travel companies/travel agents/airlines/transport companies, service industries, foreign governments and foreign investment/economic development bodies and export purchasers (Gilmore 2002, p. 288). An overview is displayed in table 2-1.

However, the focus of this study is on institutional investors in a B2B marketing process as the main objective in place marketing is to get foreign companies to invest in the region. Companies represent one of the most important target groups in place marketing. Especially internationally active companies should have priority in the marketing process as they are more likely to move their business location (Schnurrenberger 2000, p. 57).

Table 2-1: The Four Main Target Markets

(adapted from Kotler et al. 1993, p. 24)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2.5 Major Actors in Place Marketing

The place marketing activities in the aforementioned target markets are carried out by legions of individuals and organizations. They are found at the local level, regional level, national level, and international level. See table 2-2 (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 34).

Selling the Business Location 10

Table 2-2: Major Actors in Place Marketing

(adapted from Kotler et al. 1993, p. 34)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2.6 The Place Marketing Process

The design of the place marketing process is not much different from conventional marketing. The marketer should start with an analysis of the situation, decide on the goals and objectives, to then implement the choices and control them. The simplified illustration of this process is displayed in figure 2-3.

Figure 2-3: Phases of Marketing

(adapted from Gubler and Möller 2006, p. 33)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Moilanen and Rainisto state that is essential to include a start-up phase before the actual place marketing process begins. The aim is to get organized, secure the commitment of the highest management (political and business life) and create visibility for the process (2009, p. 148).

Situation Analysis/Research Stage

The objective of this stage is to collect basic information for decision-making. The tool for doing this is called place audit (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 81). Auditing helps obtain an impression of the various qualities of the place in relation to its market and results in a better insight into the possible targets, measures and goals (Ashworth and Voogd 1990, p. 32). Important questions in this context are: What are the place’s economic and demographic characteristics? How is the place conceived in the home country and in foreign target audiences? Who are the main competitors? What are the place’s strengths and weaknesses and opportunities and threats? (Moilanen and Rainisto 2009, p. 149). Another very effective tool to assess how well a site is performing and to create recommendations is a SWOT analysis. In either case the strategic analysis of the place should contain the mission and visions, the core clusters together with the place identity and the focused segments and their positioning are then designed (Moilanen and Rainisto 2009, p. 23). However, it is important to realize that a place does not have to correct all its weaknesses nor push all its strengths. Some attributes are simply unimportant (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 86). The analysis and interpretation of the results builds the foundation of the following steps.

Visions and Goals

The objective of this stage is to draw conclusions from research results, choose elements for brand identity and decide what the community (region) should become (Moilanen and Rainisto 2009, p. 149). Concrete targets and measures are necessary because the place will only achieve what it follows and measures (ibid., p. 23).

Strategic Market Planning

"Once places have a sense of where they want to go, or what they want to become (goals), strategy helps answer how they get there" (Haider 1992, p. 128). The strategic planning process supports a place decide which industries, services, and markets should be encouraged; which should be maintained; and which should be deemphasized or even abandoned (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 80). Strategic place marketing concerns the enhancement of a country’s position in the global market-place. Interesting aspects that may affect marketability can be the size of the domestic market, access to regional trade areas, education of the population, tax incentives, skilled labor, cost of labor, security and other factors (Kotler and Gertner, p. 253).

One important step in designing a country’s marketing strategy is assessing the brand’s image and how it compares to its competitors’ images (ibid., p. 254). However, I will go into further detail about branding in chapter 2.7.2.

Implementation

In order to successfully apply a marketing strategy to a product, the four essential categories of marketing must be looked at: Price, Product, Place, Promotion (the 4 P’s), as displayed in figure 2-4 (Gubler and Möller 2006, p. 95). In place marketing price corresponds to the cost to the investor of locating and operating within the investment site. For governments, this usually means tax incentives, grants, tariff protection, and similar price mechanisms. If the marketer is a country, region or city, the product incorporates the intrinsic advantages and disadvantages of the investment site.

The activities that disseminate information about, or attempt to create an image of the investment site and provide investment services for the prospective investor relate to fourth ‘P’ promotion (Wells and Wint 2000, p. 4). More precisely place promotion can be defined as the conscious use of publicity and marketing to communicate selective images of specific geographical localities or areas to a target audience (Gold and Ward 1994, p. 2).

To promote investment, Morisset and Andrews-Johnson suggest the following functions: image building (by advertising in general financial media or participating in investment exhibitions), investor generation (engaging in direct mail or telemarketing campaigns, conducting industry- or sector-specific information seminars), investor services (providing investment counseling services and postinvestment services) and policy advocacy (participating in policy task forces, developing lobbying activities) (Morisset and Andrews-Johnson 2004, p. 33).

Under ideal circumstances the promotional activities targeted to attract new businesses, are not recognized as such, but seem to be perfectly aimed at the self-interest of the potential investor (Pieper 1994, p. 218).

Figure 2-4: The 4 P’s in Place Marketing

(adapted from Gubler and Möller 2006, p. 95)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Evaluation

The effectiveness of the marketing actions must be checked by broad controlling measures (Dallmann 2005, p. 22). “Place marketing succeeds when stakeholders such as citizens, workers, and business firms derive satisfaction from their community, and when visitors, new businesses, and investors find their expectations met” (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 18). Attracting new firms alone is not enough. It is also important to retain existing businesses (ibid., p. 247).

It can be recapitulated that only places using leadership to manage the place’s resources in the complex place marketing process will be winners. Passively behaving locations will lose their competitive edge (Moilanen and Rainisto 2009, p. 25). For a more compact overview of the marketing process, please see appendix Table X-2: Stages of the Strategic Market Planning Process.

2.7 Designing the Place’s Image

2.7.1 Image Marketing

“Whether positive or negative, focused or diffuse, held widely or by only a few, developed deliberately or by default, and formed from education, the media, travel, immigration, product purchases, businessexperiences or any combination of sources, every place has an image” (Papadopoulos and Heslop 2002, p. 295). In this context Kotler defines an image as “a whole set of beliefs about a place” (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 141).

Due to the complexity of images, they aren’t easy to develop or change. “They require research into how residents and outsiders currently see the place; they require identifying true and untrue elements, as well as strong and weak elements and they require a substantial budget for the image’s dissemination” (ibid., p. 37). A place’s image can be measured by a target audience along a familiarity scale: know well, a fair amount, know a little, heard of, or know nothing. However, it is important to realize that since people's attitudes and actions toward a place are highly conditioned by their beliefs about it, a place's image varies within different target groups (Haider 1992, p. 130). Different people can hold quite different images of the same place (Kotler et al. 1993, p. 141). “From Greek mythology to French panache and Russian roulette, from German engineering and Japanese technology to British rock and Brazilian soccer, and from Brussels lace to Hollywood movies, references to countries and places are everywhere around us in our daily life, social interaction and work” (Papadopoulos and Heslop 2002, p. 295).

“How does an image differ from a stereotype? A stereotype suggests a widely held image that is highly distorted and simplistic and that carries a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the place. An image on the other hand, is a more personal perception of a place that can vary from person to person” (Kotler et al. 1993, p.141).

Cost and effectiveness of the image strategy depend on the place’s current image and real attributes. Places may find themselves in one of the six image situations: positive image, weak image, negative image, mixed image, contradictory image or overly attractive image (ibid., p. 35). Tools to implement an effective image of a place can be slogans, themes, and positions, visual symbols (Big Ben - London, etc.) or events and deeds (Russia exports its ballet to create image) (ibid., p. 151).

For an image to be effective, it must meet the following criteria:

-It must be valid
-It must be believable
-It must be simple
-It must have appeal
-It must be distinctive

(Kotler et al. 1993, p. 149-150)

It is important to realize that an overly attractive image of a place is not always beneficial but may be counterproductive. Figure X-1: City Growth/Decay Dynamics of the appendix displays this problem.

Once a negative image has been connected to a place or region, it can be corrected in several ways. One possibility is to make a positive out of a negative image. If a region is mostly known for its bad weather, why not promote it as a winter wonderland. Other approaches could be the use of marketing icons or to simply remove the negative aspect (ibid., pp. 158-160).

In either case it can be concluded, that the concept of place image does not lend itself to the sharp clarity of definition that is possible with the brand image of a product except in respect to specific product categories associated with the place (O’Shaughnessy and O’Shaughnessy 2000, p. 60).

2.7.2 Branding

“A brand embodies a whole set of physical and socio-psychological attributes and beliefs which are associated with the product” (Simoes and Dibb 2001, p. 217). “A brand is created and shaped in the consumer’s mind” (Moilanen and Rainisto 2009, p. 7). With these definitions in mind, the complexity of the matter is apparent.

[...]

Excerpt out of 74 pages

Details

Title
Marketing of Regions
Subtitle
An Analysis of the Rhine-Main Region in an International Context
College
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
Grade
1,7
Author
Year
2010
Pages
74
Catalog Number
V199749
ISBN (eBook)
9783656323372
ISBN (Book)
9783656324478
File size
1428 KB
Language
English
Tags
regional marketing, marketing of regions, regionalmarketing, place marketing, standort marketing
Quote paper
Christiane Mohr (Author), 2010, Marketing of Regions, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/199749

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