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CHAPTER ONE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
According to Robertson (2004), Library management system (LMS) known as an automated Library System is software that is developed to handle basic functions of a Library, and provides a complete solution for the administration of a library’s technical functions and services to the public. These functions range from; tracking the assets held by the library, managing lending, through to supporting the daily work over. These systems are used in almost all libraries large and a small.
According to Kampala International University Dar es Salaam Campus website www.kiu.ac.tz, Kampala International University Dar es Salaam Campus began operations in January 2009 at Quality Plaza along Pugu road. Currently, the university centre is situated on a 100 acre piece of land, at Gongo la Mboto area in Ilala District, 7 Km from Mwalimu Julius Nyerere International Airport along Pugu road. The spacious campus offers an ideal university learning atmosphere and plenty of room for further expansion. The first phase of development is almost complete. It is a constituent college of Kampala International University found in Uganda. The University envisions becoming a prominent International in the great lakes region and beyond, nurturing talents in multicultural learning environment and advancing market-driven courses. Currently, Kampala International University Dar salaam Campus uses a manual library management system. This wastes a lot of time for students and librarians especially when students are borrowing or returning books. Currently when a student wants to borrow a book, he/she goes to the counter of the reference section and asks the librarian for the book he/she wants. If the book is in the stock, the librarian gets the book, register the details of the book and the student and then give the book to the student. This process, especially during busy hours of the day 11-5, delays students.
In many institution of learning, library management has become a problem due to the continued use of manually supported system. Kampala International University Dar salaam Campus is among those affected by the above problem due to the increased number of students. The current system makes it hard to serve students effectively. This is seen when students queue for not less than 10 minutes to borrow a book from a librarian who has got to register each student and the book borrowed manually hence wasting a lot of time. It is this perceived inefficiency and its associated high cost of labor in hiring several library assistants that rendered this study important.
The main objective was to develop an Electronic Library Management System, with a search functionality to facilitate the search and management of library resources.
1. To examine the weaknesses of a manual Library Management system.
2. To identify requirements for Library Management System.
3. To develop a Library Management System.
1. What are the weaknesses of a Manual Library Management System?
2. What should an Electronic Library Management System (ELMS) do?
3. Which Library Management System should be developed?
The study was carried out at Kampala International University Dar salaam Campus to identify requirements of an Electronic Library Management System (ELMS). Respondents included librarians and students. Data sources were respondents, books, and internet.
Significance of the Project
This study helps the librarians to keep track of library resources properly:-
1. The Library Management system enables Librarians to keep track of available books.
2. The Library Management System can easily keep track of Library users.
3. The Library Management System makes it easier for the librarian to track those who have borrowed books and have not returned them.
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter summarizes ideas that were given by past researchers. A synthesis of those ideas has carefully been done and where possible a comparison was made. The literature was reviewed in line with the objectives of the study.
According to Stephen, Maeve & Philips (2007), in a traditional sense, a Library is a large collection of books, and can refer to the place in which the collection is housed. Today, the term can refer to any collection, including digital sources, resources, and services. The collections can be of print, audio, and visual materials in numerous formats, including maps, prints, and documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, video games, e-books, audio books and many other electronic resources. The places where this material is stored can range from public libraries, subscription libraries, private libraries, and can also be in digital form, stored on computers or accessible over the internet. The term has acquired a secondary meaning: "a collection of useful material for common use." This sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics, statistics, electronics and biology. They add that, a library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to or cannot afford to purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material.
In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs.
According Robertson (2007), libraries often provide a place of silence for studying, and they also often offer common areas to accommodate for group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities to access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of information with a variety of digital tools.
Disadvantages of Manual Library Management System
According to Burke (2007) Manual Library Management systems, operating systems are vulnerable to human error. For instance, a librarian who misfiles a borrower's records or indexes a book incorrectly slows down the process and wastes students' time. Manual systems are also slow to operate. Instead of using a computer to issue and take back books, locating and updating a card index is slow and laborious. Manual systems are unable to store large amounts of data efficiently. With manual systems Librarian spend a lot of their time on mechanical, clerical tasks rather than liaising with library visitors.
Requirements of an Electronic Library Management System
Roitberg (2000) asserted that key requirements are manpower, technical support, organization and management, hardware, software, networking, training, etc. Determination of specific capacities is beyond this project.
System development model
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
According to Jeffrey, Lonnie & Kevin (2001),The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages involved in an information system development project from an initial feasibility study through maintenance of the completed application. The figure below is the first SDLC method and it describes the various phases involved in development.
Figure 2.1: Showing stages for system development
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Source: Brian, Stacey and Sarah(1999).
According to Brian, statecy & Sarah (1999), a prototype refers to using workstations, CASE tools, and other Software Application to build working models of a system components so that they can be quickly tested and evaluated. Thus a prototype is a limited working system developed to test out a design design concept. In many fields, there is great uncertainty as to whether a new design will actually do what is desired. New designs often have unexpected problems. A prototype is often used as part of the product design process to allow engineers and designers the ability to explore design alternatives, test theories and confirm performance prior to starting production of a new product. Engineers use their experience to tailor the prototype according to the specific unknowns still present in the intended design. For example, some prototypes are used to confirm and verify consumer interest in a proposed design whereas other prototypes will attempt to verify the performance or suitability of a specific design approach.
In general, an iterative series of prototypes will be designed, constructed and tested as the final design emerges and is prepared for production. With rare exceptions, multiple iterations of prototypes are used to progressively refine the design. A common strategy is to design, test, evaluate and then modify the design based on analysis of the prototype.
In many products it is common to assign the prototype iterations Greek letters. For example, a first iteration prototype may be called an "Alpha" prototype. Often this iteration is not expected to perform as intended and some amount of failures or issues are anticipated. Subsequent prototyping iterations (Beta, Gamma, etc.) will be expected to resolve issues and perform closer to the final production intent.
In many product development organizations, prototyping specialists are employed - individuals with specialized skills and training in general fabrication techniques that can help bridge between theoretical designs and the fabrication of prototypes.
According to Bigdeli, Bahmani & Bigham (2007), in computing, the Chaos model is a structure of software development. Its creator, L.B.S. Raccoon, noted that project management models such as the spiral model and waterfall model, while good at managing schedules and staff, didn't provide methods to fix bugs or solve other technical problems. At the same time, programming methodologies, while effective at fixing bugs and solving technical problems, do not help in managing deadlines or responding to customer requests. The structure attempts to bridge this gap. Chaos theory was used as a tool to help understand these issues.
System development modelling Tools
There are many system modeling tools but the major one is known as Unified Modeling Language (UML).
According to Post G.V (2005), Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standardized general-purpose modeling language in the field of object-oriented software engineering. The standard is managed, and was created, by the Object Management Group. It was first added to the list of OMG adopted technologies in 1997, and has since become the industry standard for modeling software-intensive systems. UML includes a set of graphic notation techniques to create visual models of object-oriented software-intensive system. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to specify, visualize, modify, construct and document the artifacts of an object-oriented software-intensive system under development.
UML offers a standard way to visualize a system's architectural blueprints, including elements such as: activities, actors, business processes, database schemas, (logical) components, programming language statements, reusable software components.
UML combines techniques from data modeling, business modeling, object modeling, and component modeling. It can be used with all processes, throughout the software development life cycle, and across different implementation technologies.
UML has synthesized the notations of the booth method, the Object-modeling technique (OMT) and Object-oriented software engineering (OOSE) by fusing them into a single, common and widely usable modeling language.
UML aims to be a standard modeling language which can model concurrent and distributed systems. UML is a de facto industry standard and is evolving under the auspices of the Object Management Group (OMG).
UML models may be automatically transformed to other representations (e.g. Java) by means of QVT-like transformation languages. UML is extensible, with two mechanisms for customization: profiles and stereotypes.
- Quote paper
- Alikira Richard (Author), 2012, Electronic library management system (ELMS), Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/205391