3 Assignments about Phonological Processes

Project Report, 2012

11 Pages, Grade: 2,3


Homework 1: orchestration

You’re so sweet to have done this.

[jʊɹ soʷ swiːt ͪ uː hæv dʌ̃n ðɪs]

A spoken utterance is phonetically transcribed with a separate column for each speech segment in an orchestration. There are tiers drawn for each different articulator showing their state or location in the production of the utterance. So orchestration is useful to figure out what is going on with the different articulators in the production of the (fluent) speech. Also it is useful to find out how and why certain synchronous “phonological processes” occur. There are five different tiers shown in an orchestration. On the one hand there are tiers for the position of lips, tongue apex and tongue dorsum and on the other hand there are tiers for state of the velum and state of the vocal folds.


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Lips: The lips are mostly together at the beginning, moving a bit apart by producing the [ʊ] and the [o] sound. By producing the [sʷ] sound the lips are more apart. We can see that the lips are mostly apart by speaking the [t ͪ ] and the [æ] sound.

Tongue: The tongue apex as you can see is moving through the sentence from a lower position to an upper position while producing sounds with turbulence ([s]) indicated in the orchestration with swirls. The tip of the tongue is up while producing [hæv]. The tongue dorsum is mostly down moving through the sentence.

Velic port: The velic port is mostly closed during the sentence.

Vocal Folds: Moving through the sentence they are apart in [soʷ] and [swiːt ͪ ] and [h].

Homework 2: spectrogram analysis – English words

Analyzing the spectrogram:

Firstly I recorded myself pronouncing the two words “cat” and “fight” with the program PRAAT. The results of recording these two words are shown in the two following spectrograms. I generated them with PRAAT too. The first spectrogram shows the word “cat” and the second spectrogram shows the word “fight”.

1) “cat”

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3 Assignments about Phonological Processes
University of Erfurt
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assignments, phonological, processes
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Ronny Müller (Author), 2012, 3 Assignments about Phonological Processes, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/205458


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