E-learning Technology acceptance, utilization and opportunity at Kampala International University Dar Es Salaam College

Master's Thesis, 2012

91 Pages




Background of the Study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Objectives
Research Questions
Assumptions of the study
Geographical scope
Theoretical scope
Content scope
Significance of the Study
Operational Definitions of Key Terms

Concepts, Opinions, Ideas from Authors/ Experts
To determine the factors influencing the acceptance of e-learning technology
To assess the level of utilization of e-learning technology in Kampala International University
To explore the opportunities provided by e-learning technology at Kampala International University
To determine the challenges faced in e-learning technology in Kampala International University
Theoretical Perspectives
Related Studies

Research Design
Research Population
Sample Size
Sampling Procedure
Research Instruments
Validity and Reliability of the Instrument
Data Gathering Procedures
Data Analysis
Ethical Considerations
Limitations of the Study

Background of the respondents
Description of the Variables
To assess the level of utilization of e-learning technology in Kampala International University
To explore Opportunities brought by e-learning technology at Kampala International University
To determine the challenges in e-learning technology in Kampala International University

Further studies






List of table

Table 3.1: Sample size of the research population

Table 3.2: Scale Interpretation

Table 4.1: Respondents’ demography

Table 4.2: Factors influencing the acceptance of e-learning technology

Table 4.3: Technology and system

Table 4.4: Interactive application

Table 4.5: Institutional factors

Table 4.6: Media most helpful to students in e-learning pedagogy

Table 4.7: The level of utilization of e-learning technology

Table 4.8: E-learning technology allows learners direct access to electronic materials

Table 4.9: E-learning technology provides networking system for groups of learners

Table 4.10: Access to education and technology through Internet

Table 4.11: Challenges in e-learning technology

List of figures

Figure 1: Graphic interpretation of the classification for quality web- supported learning, mapped onto Ingwersen’s (1996) cognitive model of information retrieval.


illustration not visible in this excerpt


Background of the Study

E-learning seems to be on the verge of becoming the new learning paradigm. Some estimate that the e-learning market has a growth rate of up to 35% (Sun P-C et. all, 2008). However, the benefits of such systems cannot be realized if learners do not accept or use the system in an appropriate manner (Pavlou P, 2003) and (Lin H-F, 2007). It is therefore important to investigate the determinants of e-learning acceptance and utilization to assist VLE designers and lecturers in building systems that are useful and accepted by the end-user, being the learners.

Electronic-learning technologies provide a window of opportunity for educational institutions to exploit and use technology to complement and support the teaching and learning processes for example, learning management system (LMS) is used as support for delivering, tracking and managing training/education to provide good academic outcomes. E-learning is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-supported teaching and learning methods whose use in educational institutions is gaining momentum with the passage of time (Omwenga, 2004).

Studies published on the time factor in academic have analyzed the relationship between time-on-task spent and academic performance, especially in the context of face-to-face education homework assignments. Students’ time availability is a central element in e-learning activities because of the lack of time adults have, as the term “time scarcity” indicates (Douthitt, 2000). Students engaged in e-learning (and distance learning in general) are often adult learners who have work and family constraints (Diaz, 2002). The time they can allocate to their learning activities is therefore reduced (after a day’s work, while the children are asleep, on weekends, etc.), and is often the time left over once their professional, social, and family commitments have been fulfilled.

The use of e-learning technologies in education and training has been a key priority in most European countries during the last decade, but progress has been uneven because the technique and mode of e-learning is not clearly instituted in most learning institutions. There are considerable differences of ‘e-maturity’ within and between countries, and between schools within countries because some learning institutions have no e-library for access with other virtual libraries around the globe (Eurydice, 2004).

UNESCO’s (1998) World Education Report shows that, educational systems in most universities around the world are under increasing pressure to use the new ICT to teach students the knowledge and skills they need in the modern technological world using e-learning technologies, but it has been found out that some schools still lack adequate ICT infrastructure for effective e-learning. It is also found out that increasing numbers of educators are convinced of e-learning’s technology potential despite lack of precise ability to demonstrate clear gains from it.

The European Union (EU) as a whole is at an early stage of the process of integrating e-learning into its initiative Vocational Education and Training (iVET) systems. In addition, the overall picture that emerges from research shows that the use of e-learning in iVET varies greatly among the Member States, as some are still at the beginning of their development in this area while others have been working to implement e-learning in iVET for several years due to difficulty in delivery mode of instructional materials. Virtual learning may not be for every student. Some students don’t have the time-management skills, personal motivation or adult support to succeed in a virtual environment. Others may simply prefer the traditional approach. Nevertheless, virtual learning has become feasible for a growing number of students because of technological innovations and sophisticated instructional delivery programs. (DG Education and Culture, 2005).

The University of Copenhagen / Faculty of Life Sciences (UC/LIFE) –Denmark is among the leading universities in Denmark regarding e-learning. Approximately 95% of the teachers at UC/LIFE use ICT to communicate with the students and to plan their teaching. Around 14% mix in addition their face-to-face teaching with online exercises such as tests and online discussions, and UC/LIFE has moreover developed a number of complete online courses at Master level and as continuing education. E-learning is highly prioritized at UC/LIFE, and investments in development and support of e-learning have been made in the past five years. In 2009, the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation asked the e-learning unit at UC/LIFE (ITLC3) to analyze and document its experiences with the applied model for online learning (Monty, 2009).

The U.S. Department of Education in 2009 released the findings from a meta-analysis of empirical research on online learning conducted between 1996 and 2008. This meta-analysis screened more than 1,100 studies on the topic and reviewed studies of both blended learning and full-time online courses. Based on the studies that met their rigorous methodological criteria, they concluded, “on average, students in online learning conditions who utilize e-learning technology performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction” (Barbara, 2009). This is promising, since the most recent research suggests that online and blended learning can actually boost student achievement.

In 2001, the Virtual University of Quilmes in Argentina developed a three-year completely online degree program using learning system at the request of the Provincial Bank of Buenos Aires, which was concerned about the number of employees who had not completed their second education. Student enrollment had been increasing, and learner support provided by staff in the Bank’s training department. Currently the online program is only available in the Province of Buenos Aires, due to accreditation restrictions, but the University is applying to offer and use e-learning technology in other provinces, which have expressed a keen interest in the program, therefore unequal implementation of the technology and distribution of ICT infrastructure and e-learning technologies adversely affect academic of learners (Fletcher, 1997).

Numerous universities in Asia are implementing innovative strategies to ensure the success of e-learning for academic success but three issues that are critically important for the success of these initiatives relate to the design of learning tasks which is not well instituted which lead to variation in academic performance of the students, support and resources in the learning environment, and reorganization of methods of communication and mode of delivery of instructional materials. The inconsistency of these three issues brings a negative impact on academic performance (Lim, 2004). It is a view that the organizational structures and processes that constitute the educational environment have a major impact on how teaching and learning is conducted in that environment for academic performance of students. Consequently, suggestion that how a particular VLE or MLE is designed and constructed for the purposes of management can have a profound impact on how likely it is to constrain or facilitate the use of a variety of pedagogical approaches in academic (Conole, 2004).

Although the utilization of e-learning technologies in education and online learning is effective, there have been ambitious research and development efforts, but the use of ICT and e-learning technology have not been particularly appreciated at large numbers of schools in Japan because there is no well defined mode and technique of delivering learning materials, so students don’t understand what to do with the e-learning technologies. However, a project called E-Japan Strategies is now underway to emphasize the educational use of e-learning technologies and progress in the implementation of such technology in both private and public universities. Moreover, a new curriculum that puts emphasis on the use of e-learning technologies will have powerful inducements to educate students with a certain level of knowledge and skills (Fujitani, 2003).

In Singapore, government is actively working with private sectors to encourage technology based e-learning system to improve education and enhance learners’ understanding of abstract concept as well as to increase their interest in e-learning technology for example, a study conducted by Hui et al. (2008) showed that technology-assisted learning improves students’ acquisition of the kind of knowledge which requires abstract conceptualization and reflective observation, but adversely affects students’ ability to obtain knowledge which requires concrete experience. Technology-assisted learning is better for vocabulary learning than face-to-face learning, but it is comparatively less effective in developing listening comprehension skills. According to Master Plan for IT in education report 2001, majority of students state that IT helps to increase their knowledge (Lim, 2004).

Bangladesh is also initiating to step toward the same path with vision of integrating ICT into its education system. Government of Bangladesh initiated a pilot study of e-Learning of Math in Secondary Schools in Gazipur and Comilla from 2009 with the support of TQI-SEP (Teaching Quality Improvement in Secondary Education Project). Ministry of Education formally inaugurated Mobile ICT Lab of TQI-SEP on 23rd February, 2010 in order to provide e-Learning for the underprivileged secondary students of rural Bangladesh. A total number of 17 Mobile ICT Labs in 17 Cars (14 Microbuses & 3 Four Wheel Drive Pickups for hill tracks, haor areas and remote areas) will move all over the country to introduce e-Learning system with the teachers and students of one thousand schools by December, 2010. Each lab contains five laptops, five wireless internet modems, two digital cameras, multimedia projector, webcam, printer, pen drive, interactive board, e-Learning CD, speaker, generator etc. This initiative will ensure primary ICT knowledge as well as ICT based education for the students and also enhance the teaching capacity of the teachers. (The Daily Samakal, 2010)

The Use of technology to facilitate learning is accepted to be of value across educational institutions. Government of India has taken cognizance of the institutional support required for resources in e-learning and formulated the national mission on education through ICT. However, the focus is still largely on getting the infrastructure and creating the e-learning content. It is necessary to consider the individual factors that play an important role in the acceptance and utilization of e-learning technology. For example, attitude of students and teachers towards e-learning technology may affect their acceptance of the technology in the teaching-learning process. While there have been studies to understand the factors of the instructors (e.g release time for staff to engage in e-learning) and students (e.g. learning style) in acceptance of e-learning separately, a comprehensive view that considers both students and teachers in the same model is lacking (Jung, et. al., 2008; Nanayakkara 2007).

It is recognized that unless the individual factors of teachers and students are considered, potential of e-learning will not be fully utilised, thus lowering the return on investment (Yuen & Ma 2008). Developing countries like India which are in the infancy stage of e-learning adoption cannot afford to fail in the e-learning implementation. Hence, it is essential to take cognizance of the user (teachers and students) as the major factor in any technology-enhanced learning environment. Thus, it is important to consider both factors relating to the key players students, teachers and institution in the implementation of e-learning.

In African countries like Mali, the infrastructure of ICTs is very weak and thus, intensive use of e-learning technology in Distance Education (DE) is still a dream for their universities and institutes leading to poor performance in academic in e-learning modes, however few countries in the developing world are on the rise to use e-learning technologies in their universities. Recently, ICTs are rapidly expanding in some of the developing countries, and hence, it offers an opportunity to consider the use of ICTs in the promotion of DE. It offers students considerable benefits including increase access to learning, best learning opportunities, and convenience of time and place (Pierre, 1998).

A survey presented at the e-learning Africa conference held in Accra Ghana May 2008 established that training and human capacity building should be emphasized alongside developing infrastructure for the success of any e-learning programme and for academic for example, E-learning technologies offer educators a new paradigm based on adult learning theory, which states that adults learn by relating new learning to past experiences, by linking learning to specific needs, and by practically applying learning, resulting in more effective and efficient learning experiences thus better academic performance. So by enabling learners to be more active participants, and providing a well-designed e-learning technique and experience can motivate them to perform better in their academic. It is therefore crucial for researchers in this area to understand how virtual learning environments influence academic of students.

South Africa’s academic community’s interest in the use of e-learning technologies has climbed steadily over the last couple of years. The University of Zululand has been wrestling with the concept of “e-learning" for the last eight years before becoming steady due to poor infrastructure, proper e-learning technique and mode of delivery of instructional learning materials. At the University of Zululand it started with the supplemental use of technology in the classroom in 2000, mostly through blended courses consisting of a mixture of face-to-face and online course material (Boere and Kruger, 2008).

According to Reform Forum (2003) - Journal for Educational Reform in Namibia, Information Technology literacy is very different from being able to integrate technology into teaching to enhance learning and good academic performance in Namibia, the use of blogs, drop box, bulletin boards are needed in order to incline in academic performance of the students. In other words, being “digitally fluent” means not only knowing how to use the technological tools, but also knowing how to construct things of significance with those tools. Teachers do not need to learn about technology; they need to learn how to use technology to enhance their learners’ understanding and critical thinking skills. Enhancing basic information and communication skills like reading, writing, and speaking should be the focus of using e-learning technologies in education, not simply ICT literacy.

In Kenya like most developing countries, e-learning technology utilization is still limited to computer literacy training only without employing any e-learning technique and other related mode of delivery of instructional materials in e-learning. The present ICT curriculum merely deals with ‘teaching about computers’ and not how computers can be used to transform the teaching and learning in Kenyan schools. Integration should consider e-learning technologies, the pattern of student use of ICT, and the extent of use in teaching and learning programmes. A wide range of e-learning technologies should be selected and incorporated into the teaching and learning program (Muriithi, 2005).

In Uganda currently, Makerere University (MAK) is making a comprehensive analysis of the Learning Management System (LMS), the e-learning resources, and the connectivity pattern. Before 2008, MAK was using three different LMSs, but in 2008 they decided to harmonize the university use of LMSs and “Moodle” is chosen as the central and common platform. Today, about 675 courses, which is almost all courses, are transferred to the platform, however only 25 % have content. At the moment, the e-learning unit conducts training for the teaching staff in the use of the LMS, MS Office programs and e-portfolio; however additional funds are required to finalize the training for all faculties and this training is not well circulated to students. There are no “best practice” exemplars, and the training is focusing on conversion of content to fit the online format but the challenge is the implementation and equal distribution to the entire campus (Ndidde, Lubega, Babikwa and Baguma, 2009).

Shukuru (2011), the Education and Vocational Training minister, in his recent speech in the 6th International e-learning conference in Dar es Salaam said that the goal of e-learning project is to integrate and effectively use e-learning technologies in the delivery of basic education such as prompt mail, blog, drop box e.t.c which is the most common challenge in academic performance of students; harmonize and coordinate all ICT interventions in basic education to improve academic performance of students in Dar es Salaam and Tanzania at large.

The Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) is one of the universities in Dar es Salaam where e-learning activities are managed by the Computer Center (CC). E-learning is in the initial stage at SUA and the CC has just installed the Learning Management System (LMS) and is about to test it. Presently no e-learning courses have been developed yet at SUA because the appropriate mode of delivery of e-learning technology materials is not well developed and instituted. SUA has an Institute of Continuing Education (ICE), that conducts some distance education, but the institute has no experience with use of ICT in the teaching in e-learning (SUA, 2010)

Academic varies according to the techniques, mode and approaches used in delivering instructional materials in e-learning education. In Kampala International University, there is moderate utilization of e-learning technologies in teaching and learning especially for computer based students. There has been consistent progress in teaching and learning in recent years because of improved ICT facilities and other e-learning technologies which are the backbone of e-learning. However, students perform better in a good ICT environment as stated by Stepp-Greany (2002) that technology helps weak students by “redistributing teacher and classmate attention so that incapable students can become more active participants in the class”.

Statement of the problem

E-learning technology utilization was still limited to computer literacy training only without putting in practice of other e-learning technique and other related mode of delivery of instructional materials in e-learning. The present ICT curriculum merely deals with ‘teaching about computers’ and not how computers can be used to transform the teaching and learning in Kampala International University.

The mode and method of delivering instructional materials online was still a very big challenge as there was no well defined electronic library, e-learning technologies and inadequate ICT infrastructure to be utilized by students and their instructors. There are other universities and academic institutions that use very low interactive E-learning technologies which is not clear. E-learning technology consists of several components such as LMS, drop box, blogs and forum among others which when utilized and practiced wholly can offer significant impact in educational system especially academic performance of students. Unfortunately, in Kampala International University approximately only 20% of the e-learning technologies are being practiced based on only selected components, for example learning management system, it was experienced and practiced just as a component which is used in teaching, learning and communication.

However if VLE was utilized and accepted as a whole in its broadest context, it would result in significant impact in academic of students at Kampala International University. Therefore, due to incomplete usage and acceptance of e-learning technologies in teaching and learning in Kampala International University Dar es Salaam College, the researcher was determined to carry out a research on this issue to find out the literacy of e-learning technology in Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to assess the level of utilization of e-learning technologies in Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam. The study also examined the challenges of e-learning technologies in Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam. Beneficial opportunities attained as a result of effective acceptance and utilization of e-learning technologies and its processes were also part of the study.

Research Objectives

The objective of this study was to assess the level of utilization of e-learning technologies in Kampala International University, and to determine challenges of and advantages of e-learning to students at Kampala International University Dar es Salaam.

1. To determine the factors influencing the acceptance of e-learning technology in Kampala International University.
2. To assess the level of utilization of e-learning technology in Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam.
3. To determine the opportunities provided by e-learning technology in Kampala International University.
4. To determine the challenges of e-learning technology in Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam.

Research Questions

1. What are the factors influencing the acceptance of e-learning technology in Kampala International University?
2. To what extent are e-learning technologies being utilized in Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam?
3. What are the opportunities provided by e-learning technology in Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam?
4. What are the challenges in e-learning technology in Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam?

Assumptions of the study

E-learning is one of the essential elements in education of the 21st century; therefore researcher has come up with the following assumptions in regards to e-learning pedagogy.

1. There is a big gap in implementation of e-learning in different universities across the world; however, to overcome the e-learning gap it is important, therefore, for university lecturers to articulate their personal theories and beliefs about teaching.
2. Lecturers should be practically able to implement e-learning in their mode of delivery of teaching materials and also make online assessment such that students can access their results online through a well designed system in order to improve students’ interactivities with their colleagues which help in their performance in academic.


Geographical scope

The study was conducted in Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam Constituent College, Tanzania. Tanzania is an African country located in Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique, with the total area of: 945,090 sq km (including the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar). Bordering countries are: Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, and Zambia 338 km. Tanzania's geography is one of the most varied and unique in the world; it contains Africa's highest point, Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895 m/19,341 ft), as well as lakes, mountains and many natural parks. Dar es Salaam is actually an administrative province within Tanzania, and consists of three local government areas or administrative districts: Kinondoni to the north, Ilala in the centre of the region, and Temeke to the south. The Dar es Salaam Region had a population of 2,497,940 as of the official 2002 census (United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2009).

Kampala International University is located in Gongolamboto a suburb of Ilala district, Dar es Salaam city situated along Nyerere – Pugu road, 7 km from Julius Nyerere International Airport.

Theoretical scope

The theoretical scope was based on Connectivism theory which was introduced as a theory of learning based on the premise that knowledge exists in the world rather than in the head of an individual. Connectivism proposes a perspective similar to the Activity theory of Vygotsky as it regards knowledge to exist within systems which are accessed through people participating in activities. It also bears some similarity with the Social Learning Theory of Bandura that proposes that people learn through contact. The add-on "a learning theory for the digital age", that appears on Siemens paper indicates the special importance that is given to the effect technology has on how people live, how they communicate, and how they learn.

Content scope

The variables to be covered are the level of utilization of e-learning technology, challenges of e-learning technology and the opportunities.

The study looks at the utilization of e-learning technology amongst students at Kampala International University. Effects of e-learning technology are also covered in this study.

Significance of the Study

The research would lead to the review of curriculum development that would involve the use of ICT for teaching and learning in education sector (e-learning technology).

The research can be used by the Government of the united Republic of Tanzania in its efforts to support the implementation of e-learning technologies and the related ICT infrastructure for teaching and learning in schools and universities. The research could also be applicable in the government for research institutes in regards to the development of ICT facilities for use in education sector.

The Ministry of Education and sports could use the project as a tool to investigating the effects of e-learning technology of both private and public universities in the country. This information could also be helpful to other education systems and some business institutions to help improve on the ICT infrastructural Development for teaching & learning.

The study would also be used as the future reference for the evaluation of the status of ICT and e-learning technology implementation in universities across the globe. In addition, universities can also use this research as a tool to acquire grants from donors to improve ICT infrastructure in Universities especially in the developing countries.

Operational Definitions of Key Terms


Dillon and Morris (1996) defined students’ acceptance as “the demonstrable willingness within a user group to employ information technology for the tasks it is designed to support”. Another definition of acceptance has to deal with positive welcome; favor and endorsement. In which, a person could like something and, have acceptance for them due to their approval of that thing.


E-learning can be referred to as the design, development and delivery of instructional materials by electronic devices, such as computers and CDs via the Internet. In e-learning interaction between the learner, the instructor and the learning content is mediated by use of ICT (Daniel and Mackintosh, 2009).

E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems, whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process.


Utilization is referred to the extent to which people are making use of whatever services are already available in the community or at an organization.


An opportunity is a favorable or advantageous circumstance or combination of circumstances. It is a favorable or suitable occasion or time, a chance for progress or advancement.



This chapter addresses issues such as the utilization of e-learning technology in education system and corporate environment, opportunity and challenges of e-learning. The researcher focuses at Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam college; the findings from the literature study served as an essential role in supporting or opposing the findings from this research.

Concepts, Opinions, Ideas from Authors/ Experts

The followings are different ideas as of e-learning according to different personalities.

Some studies indicated that the usage of e-learning technology had an effect on all aspects of teaching and learning leading to variation in academics. When educators integrate technology into a lesson, it requires new learning approaches, mode and techniques to the curriculum in that it develops the ability to look at and explore information in new ways (Cohen, 2001).

Other studies also showed that the acceptance of e-learning technology could help by allowing learners to take a more active role in their learning through different instructional modes or methods for example blogs, blackboard, drop box and other interactive e-learning technologies (Kussmaul and Dunn, 1996).

To determine the factors influencing the acceptance of e-learning technology

Although, e-learning is increasingly used in tertiary distance learning institutions, the question of how well learners accept e-learning as a learning medium has not been well-researched. Hong, Lai and Holton (2003) investigated a web-based course at Universiti Malaysia Sarawak and reported that more than half of their participants had high level of acceptance with the web-based course. The students who had high level of acceptance indicated that the web-based course was convenient and flexible. Nonetheless, some students faced difficulties with the web-based learning environment. They found the web-based course to be a new learning experience and felt that they needed more guidance and time to adapt to the learning environment.

Meanwhile, Poon et al. (2004) studied web-based learning environments at several local universities in Malaysia and reported that their participants were not fully comfortable with e-learning. Likewise, one possible reason was that the students were unfamiliar with the e-learning medium. On the positive side, He reported that students generally agreed that e-learning helped in their studies. However, past research showed that a number of factors such as students’ and instructors’ characteristics (Ndubisi, 2004), technology support and system, institutional support, course content and knowledge management (Selim, 2005), and online tasks and discussion groups could influence learners’ acceptance of e-learning.

Technology support and system

Other factors contributing to the acceptance of e-learning are the infrastructure of technology and technical support of e-learning system (Folorunso et al., 2006). It is important to look into the reliability and quality of the system as it plays an important role in the acceptance of e-learning. To create e-learning acceptance, the technology and the e-learning system must be well maintained and up-to-date. The system must have minimal technical problem and support various platforms and applications.

Rafaeli and Sudweeks (1997) reported that if the technology and communication technology used were reliable, students studied better in e-learning environment and had higher e-learning acceptance.

Interactive application

Well-designed course content provides students with better learning experiences and help students access information easily. The self-instructional materials or learning packages available on the course website should include a variety of support services for students (Selim, 2005), linked to additional learning materials available in other websites, and multimedia presentation or animation and narration rather than just text-based materials. Rosenberg (2001), on the other hand, stated that knowledge management could support creativity and information sharing between

Institutional support

To improve e-learning acceptance, institutional support should not be neglected. Educational institutions should provide better technology facilities, copyright system, accreditation system and human and technical support (Poon et al., 2004). He asserted that students’ satisfactions and progress in e-learning depend on institutions providing adequate facilities and infrastructures of technology and support.

To assess the level of utilization of e-learning technology in Kampala International University

Poon et al. (2004), Folorunso, Ogunseye, and Sharma (2006), Selim (2005) and Volery and Lord (2000) reported that students’ characteristics such as their satisfactions with time and place flexibility of the system; students’ involvement and participation; students’ cognitive engagement; students’ level of selfconfidence; students’ technology self-efficacy; students’ initiative and motivation and students’ anxiety could influence acceptance of e-learning among students.

Increasingly, a number of universities worldwide including some in Africa are making positive attempts to implement and use e-learning strategies in order to enhance equity, quality, share instruction technology resources, compete in global environment of higher education and meet the rising demand for tertiary education. The problems that bedevil Africa’s tertiary education sector are compelling for the implementation of e-learning strategies (Stephen M. Mutula, 2003).

Hong et al. (2003) and Shea, Swan, Fredericksen and Pickett (2001) believed that lecturers played an important role in successful e-learning experience. Lecturers must ensure an optimum level of interactions and discussions with students to enhance the e-learning experience. Moreover, lecturers could influence and motivate students to accept e-learning environment (Ndubisi, 2004; Ndubisi & Chukwunonso, 2004; Selim, 2005). According to Salmon (2000) and Abouchedid and Eid (2004), instructors’ characteristics such as confidence, positive behaviours, facilitation, knowledge sharing and creativity could promote interactions and motivate students to learn in an e-learning environment.

Brusilovsky et.al (1998) describe an approach for developing adaptive electronic textbooks and present Inter Book, an authoring tool based on this approach that simplifies the development of adaptive electronic textbooks and e-library on the Web. Web-based education is the online education with technological change, which not only permits new activities but also enhances good academic and makes those new activities superior in many important ways over the previous method of operation, creates long lasting innovations in society . Therefore use of web-based applications enables students to easily interact with course content (Franklin and Peat, 2001).

In problem based learning, students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their performance and experiences. The students learn how to analyze the problem given among the students and sharing classroom knowledge into practice [Halizah and Ishak (2008)]. Afolabi Folashade and Akinyemi(2009) concluded that problem-based learning technique exposed to students more to realities of life, their academic performances and tend to work as scientist and acquire knowledge by themselves which the teacher only correct their misconceptions, therefore resulting in better academic performance of students.

In another study, Drennan, Kennedy, and Pisarski (2005) found that student satisfaction and academic is influenced by positive perceptions and utilization of technology and by an autonomous learning mode for example, using learning management system for communication and exchange of learning materials. They also found that the personality characteristics that the student brings to the course, such as an internal locus of control, can have a direct effect on academic performance and satisfaction with the course.

The internet has significantly changed the way lifestyle is delivered and facilitated in both educational and non-educational settings. The proponents of e-learning technology are largely positive and optimistic about its potential. Education is inherently a social endeavor. It therefore becomes essential to understand the various effects of space - geographic, temporal, and psychological between educators and learners. ICT offers tremendous potential that influences education (Williams, 2002).

Numerous studies have concluded that student performance is not an entirely reliable indicator of the quality of student learning. As a result, perceptions of the need for collaboration, physical meetings, synchronized meetings, asynchronous meetings, and critical thinking skills in the learning mode are all used to evaluate the quality of the student learning experience as an intermediate outcome (process) in the model. This method complements the approach of Cybinski and Selvanathan by using enjoyment and assessment anxiety as process variables (Cybinski and Selvanathan, 2005).

Norris and Conn (2005) report on the wide range of response rates of term-end course and instructor evaluations for the DE delivery; these return rates range from zero to 95% of student participation and utilization in e-learning technology. In addition, the base of research on end-of-term course and instructor evaluations for DE course work is quite narrow. The evident scholarship parallels much of the academic indicator research in that it tends to be action-research with the intent to improve response rates in one particular setting or application (Harrington and Reasons, 2005).


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E-learning Technology acceptance, utilization and opportunity at Kampala International University Dar Es Salaam College
Kampala International University  (Computer Science)
Master of Science in Information System
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e-learning, technology, kampala, international, university, salaam, college
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Adum Joseph (Author), 2012, E-learning Technology acceptance, utilization and opportunity at Kampala International University Dar Es Salaam College, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/206345


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