TABLE OF CONTENTS
Common Types of Drugs
Origin of Drugs
Objectives of the Study
Organization of the study
2. DRUG ADDICTION EXCLUSION
Drug Addiction and Rehabilitation a Review of Literature
Drug use around the world
Drug addiction in Pakistan
Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts
3. ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE OF DOST WELFARE FOUNDATION
Partners Of Dost Welfare Foundation
The Staff Of Dost Welfare Foundation
Drug Addiction Treatment and Rehabilitation Programs
Drop-In Centre and Outreach Services for Street Drug Addicts In Peshawar
Faith-Based Drug Demand Reduction Services in Fata Regions of Pakistan
Drug Demand Reduction Services and Strengthening Local Community Organizations in Afghanistan
Community-Based Drug Demand Reduction Centre, Khazana
HIV Awareness and Voluntary Counseling Testing Services for Drugs Addicts
Fieldwork and Internship Program For University Students and Graduates
Training program for National and International Government Organizations and NGOs
Treatment Centre for Adults Shahi Bala
Day Care Centre for Children Haji Camp
4. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
First of all I am thankful to Allah to have given me the opportunity to study Master of Arts in Sociology at university of Peshawar and work in Dost Foundation. Thanks to my supervisor, Mr. Syed Owais. The supervision and support that he gave helped in the progression filed work report.
My thanks also go to Mr. Shamsuddin Vocational and Rehabilitation Coordinator, Shahi Bala Treatment Center and Mr. Azmatullah Focal Person of Drop in Center (DIC) Haji camp. A big contribution and hard work from both of you during the field work was great indeed. All work during the program would be nothing without the enthusiasm and imagination from both of you. Besides, this field work made me realize the value of working together as a team and as a new experience in work environment, which provided opportunity to learn. Great appreciation go to the rest of the staff of DOST Foundation who help me from time to time during the field work. The whole program really brought us together to appreciate the true value of friendship and respect of each other.
I would also like to thank the Coordinator Sociology at Institute of social work, sociology and Gender Studies (ISSG), Dr. Anwar Alam, Director of ISSG, Professor Dr. Johar Ali and all my group members Atta-ur-Rehman, Sahirullah, Sher Zada and Zahid Akram in helping me complete this filed work.
Special thanks to my brothers, Dr. Yaqoob Khan and Dr. Baber Khan, who are waiting for my bright future.
CHAPTER NO 1
Man’s desire to employ substances that provide pleasurable stimulation or narcotic effects upon the central nervous system has been expressed universally in ancient as well as in modern civilization. With the passage of time, excessive indulgence, in them, came to be considering as deprived or criminal behavior. In recent years, however, it has been recognized that drug addiction are psychiatric and social problems. This initially staggering cost to individual and society socially, psychologically and economically (Ramzan, 2007).
The very word “drug” means different things for different people. For some people, drugs are those substances, which are illegal and socially disapproved of associated with stereotypes images of “junkies” or solvent snuffers and not wish every day substances that ordinary people use, on other hand manly people increasingly refer to all medicinal preparations as drugs. Some useful definitions are (Dixon & Oro, 1987).
A drug, broadly speaking, is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal bodily function (World Health Organization, 1969). In pharmacology, a drug is "a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being (Middle English Drogges, 2007).
Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences to the addicted individual and to those around them. Although the initial decision to take drugs is voluntary for most people, the brain changes that occur over time challenge a person’s self-control and ability to resist intense impulses urging them to take drugs (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2011).
Some common types of drug are:
- Opiates and narcotics are powerful painkillers that cause drowsiness (sedation) and sometimes feelings of euphoria. These include heroin, opium, codeine, meperidine (Demerol), hydromorphone (Dilaudid), and oxycodone (Oxycontin).
- Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants include amphetamines, cocaine, dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, and methylphenidate (Ritalin). These drugs have a stimulating effect, and people can start needing higher amounts of these drugs to feel the same effect (tolerance).
- Central nervous system depressants include alcohol, barbiturates (amobarbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital), benzodiazepines (Valium, Ativan, Xanax), chloral hydrate, and paraldehyde. These substances produce a sedative and anxiety-reducing effect, which can lead to dependence.
- Hallucinogens include Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin ("mushrooms"), and phencyclidine (PCP or "angel dust"). They can cause people to see things that aren't there (hallucinations) and can lead to psychological dependence.
- Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active ingredient found in marijuana (cannabis) and hashish (Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Medical Encyclopedia, 2010).
Causes of drug addiction
Drug addiction is an overwhelming, uncontrollable need for drugs or alcohol despite the negative consequences that may follow. It can affect people of any age, sex or economic status, and while no exact cause has been determined, a variety of risk factors have been identified. However, a person's genes, the action of the drug, peer pressure, emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and environmental stress all can be factors. Peer pressure can lead to drug use or abuse, but at least half of those who become addicted have depression, attention deficit disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, or another mental health problem (Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Medical Encyclopedia, 2010).
Origin of drugs
No one really knows the history of drugs, and drug use for the origins of the association of humans and drugs are shrouded in the mists of time. Not much is known about early drug use no one knows who was the first person to smoke a joint or get high on the magic mushrooms or opiates (History of Drugs, 2011).
It has long been suspected that humans have an ancient history of drug use, but there has been a lack of proof to support the theory. Now, however, researchers have found equipment used to prepare hallucinogenic drugs for sniffing, and dated them back to prehistoric South American tribes. Quetta Kaye, of University College London, and Scott Fitzpatrick, an archeologist from North Carolina State University, made the breakthrough on the Caribbean island of Carriacou. They found ceramic bowls, as well as tubes for inhaling drug fumes or powders, which appear to have originated in South America between 100BC and 400BC and were then carried 400 miles to the islands (Jones, 2008).
Nevertheless, what we do know about the history of drugs is that no known society, culture or civilization has been entirely drug-free. In fact, every society has used some drug, usually many. Some commentators suggest that it is an intrinsic characteristic (may be even a need) of human beings to experience an altered state of consciousness (History of Drugs, 2011).
Objective of the Study
1. To investigate the factors of drug addicts based on age, sex, marital status, occupation, education, income, types of family, reason of using drugs.
2. To describe the type of reduction services provided by DOST Foundation to street drug users.
3. To understand the training and capacity building of DOST welfare foundation for serving the drug addicts.
The following methodology was adopted for the completion of the field work.
DOST is a not-for-profit organization that was formed in 1992 in Peshawar, Pakistan. Since its inception, it has been reaching out to people living on the margins of society, and bringing them back into the mainstream. DOST works with street children, drug addicts, destitute women, prisoners, refugees, youth and the general public.
DOST has four Treatment centers for drug addict’s treatment and rehabilitation and two Day Care Centers. The centers which were easily reachable for field work study were selected, i.e., Shahi Bala Treatment Centre (TC) and Day Care Center (DCC) Haji Camp.
In Shahi Bala TC, there were one hundred and twenty (120) drug patients in which seven were randomly selected for data collection. And in DCC Haji Camp there were more than twenty-five children in which four of them were drug addicts and selected for data collection.
Tools of Data Collection
The respondents participated in this study were the drug addicted patients of Shahi Bala TC and DCC Haji Camp. General questions were asked about the life and drug history of the responders. The medium of communication was generally Urdu. This study was conducted in May-June 2012.
Duration of the study
The duration of the study was one month (15.05.2012 to 15.06.2012).
Organization of the Study
The report is divided into five chapters the current chapter focus on the definition of drug, drug categories, drug use and drug factors where the word is left to be discussed which is important to understand the term drug because term drug is the center point of the field work report and many time used in report. And the objectives of the study and research method described for the field work report.
CHAPTER 2 DRUG ADDICTION AND REHABILITATION
In Chapter Two previous studies and research on the drug addicts and rehabilitation programs for drug addicts in the world countries discussed. Because a good literature review places a research project in a context and demonstrates its relevance by making connections to a body of knowledge.
CHAPTER 3 ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE
Chapter three show the Introduction to DOST Welfare Foundation, Donors of DOST Welfare Foundation, The staff of DOST Welfare Foundation, The programs of DOST Welfare Foundation and The details about Shahi Bala Treatment Center and Day care center Haji Camp. The research study was conducted in Shahi Bala TC and DCC Haji camp which are the two main centers of DOST Foundation in the area. For a good research study it’s important to know the organizational profile.
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
In chapter four the collected data during the field work in Shahi Bala TC and DCC Haji Camp is analyzed. By so doing help in understand the role of DOST Foundation in the drug addict’s treatment and rehabilitation in Shahi Bala TC and DCC Haji camp.
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS
Conclusions of the field work report based on objectives are described in Chapter Five.