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The improper disposal of municipal waste has a serious and dangerous impact on a wide range of areas. Garbage thrown in the street or in open spaces creates a public health hazard, while waste dumped near rivers, lakes and streams contaminates the water supply. Rubbish that is burned in the open rather than disposed of properly creates pollution and releases toxic fumes into the environment. Non-biodegradable materials thrown into open drains make their way into the sewerage system, clogging pipelines and damaging infrastructure. The hazards posed by the dumping of untreated hospital and industrial waste are even greater, with the release of pathogens and toxic compounds posing a grave threat not just to human life but also to plants and animals. Garbage dumped in the countryside is not simply an eyesore; entire landscapes are ruined and unique habitats for flora and fauna are lost. All of these problems are common in Pakistan(home of natural Beauty), where vast quantities of solid waste remain uncollected in the streets, along major roads, in empty plots of land, down hill slopes and in illegal dumps.
Solid waste can be defined as material that no longer has any value to the person who is responsible for it, and is not intended to be discharged through a pipe. It does not normally include human excreta. It is generated by domestic, commercial, industrial, healthcare, agricultural and mineral extraction activities and accumulates in streets and public places. The words “garbage”, “trash”, “refuse” and “rubbish” are used to refer to some forms of solid waste.( Damodaran, N., Robinson, A., Dadid, E. and Kalas-Adams, N. 2003)
Functional Components of Solid Waste Management(SWM)
The six components of a successful solid waste management system are:
1) Source reduction, reuse, recycling, composting (3 R + C)
2) On-site storage.
4) Transport and transfer.
Present status of Solid Waste Management
- It is estimated that presently, 54,888 tons per day of solid waste is generated in Pakistan.
- No weighing facilities are installed at any disposal sites
- Hazardous hospital and industrial wastes are being simply treated as ordinary waste
- Open burning of waste or open disposal
- A lot of potential for recycling and involvement of private sector which is overlooked
- Collection 51-69 %
- No Disposal facilities
Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a proper solid waste management system right from collection of solid waste up to its proper disposal.
- Much of the uncollected waste poses serious risk to public health through clogging of drains, formation of stagnant ponds ,and providing breeding ground for mosquitoes and flies with consequent risk of malaria and cholera.( DoE (Department of Environment 2004)
Solid Waste Management SCENARIO
- Collection Efficiency is 51-69 %
- None of the cities has an integrated solid waste management system
- Hospital and industrial wastes are treated as ordinary waste
- Role of scavengers in separation of recyclables crucial
- Open burning of non-degradable components like plastic bags are adding to air pollution
- Much of the uncollected waste poses serious health Hazards
Sources of solid waste(SW)
-Houses: Appliances, newspapers, clothing, disposable tableware, food packaging, cans, bottles, food scraps, yard trimming. Commercial buildings: Corrugated boxes, food
wastes, office paper, and disposable tableware.
-Institutions:Office paper, cafeteria and restroom waste, classroom wastes, yard trimmings
-Industries:Corrugated boxes, lunchroom wastes, and office papers, wood pallets.
-Hospitals:Disposable syringes, body organs, plastic bottles lay astray in the open dumps of the hospital waste (Glawe, U., Visvanathan C., Alamgir, M. 2005)
Solid Waste GENERATION ESTIMATES
- According to NCS (1992) Pakistan generates 47,290 tones of solid waste per day
- Growth Rate is 2.4 % per year
- Present Estimate is 54,888 tones/ day
- Rate of generation of waste average from all type of municipal controlled areas varies from 0.283 kg/capita/day to 0.613 kg/capita/day
- No weighing facility at disposal sites, no tradition of waste sampling and analysis.
- Big difference exists in solid waste generated and amount reaching final disposal site (Government of Pakistan 2005)
MATERIAL & METHODS
Pakistan is comprises of four provinces including FATA & Gilgitbaltistan with northern areas, As the divisional system was abolished in 14 August 2001, there are 117 districts including capital district Islamabad, in which 35 districts in Punjab,24 in Khyber PukhtoonKhwa, 27 in sindh, 30 in Balochistan ,3 districts in federal capital, 7 districts in Northern areas and 8 districts in AJK. (Rajoka ,A.,Raza,W,H.,Numan,M,A,.2012)
Solid Waste COMPOSITION
- Plastic, rubber, metal, paper, cardboard, textile waste, glass, food, animal waste, leaves, grass, straws and fodder, bones, wood, stones and fines to certain extent
- Food Wastes: 8.4% to 21 %
- Leave, grass, straw, fodder: 10.2% to 15.6%
- Fines: 29.7 % to 47.5 %
- Recyclables: 13.6 % to 23.55 %
Environmental problems due to Solid Waste
Ground pollution:As water percolates through SW, it makes a leachate that consists of
decomposing organic matter combined with iron, mercury, lead, zinc, and other metals from rusting cans, discarded batteries and appliances. It may also contain paints, pesticides, cleaning fluids, newspaper inks, and other chemicals. Contaminated water can have a serious impact on all living creatures, including humans, in an ecosystem.
Air pollution:When waste is burnt heavy metals like lead, toxic gases and smoke spreads over residential areas. The wind also carries waste, dust and gases caused by decomposition. Putrefaction of waste in sunlight during daytime results in bad smells and reduced visibility. (Iftekhar, E., Sinha, A.H.Md. and Khan, S.S.A.(2005)
Health Hazard due to SW
-Skin and eye infections are common
- Dust in the air at dumpsites can cause breathing problems in children and adults
- Flies breed on uncovered piles of rotting garbage and spread diseases like diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, hepatitis, and cholera. Mosquitoes transmit many types of diseases like malaria and yellow fever
- Dogs, cats and rats living around refuse carry a variety of diseases including plague and flea born fever
- Intestinal, parasitic and skin diseases are found in workers engaged in collecting refuse.
- Arbeit zitieren
- Alam Zeb (Autor), 2012, Modern Issues & Prospects of solid waste Management in Pakistan 2012, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/207201