Personality Dispositions of Participants and Non-participant adolescents with reference to some major physical activities


Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2012
97 Pages, Grade: A

Excerpt

CONTENTS

Abstract

1. Introduction

2. Review of Relevant Literature

3. Methods and Procedure

4. Analysis and Interpretation of the Data

5. Discussion of the Result

6. Summary, Conclusion and Suggestions

7. Bibliography

ABSTRACT

Throughout the ages attempts have been made to classify individuals on the basis of their physical characteristics. To a limited extent, these attempts have been found successful. However, individual differences are found to be so acute that, at times, generalizations have been of no avail in finding out a fool-proof way of classifying individuals or personalities. Kretschmer, Sheldon, Freud, Sysenck, Guilford and others have given us elaborate theories and explanations. Today we are fortunate to have numerous tests to measure and evaluate personality structure of each individual in an elaborate manner.

Some personality traits have been identified which predominate in an athletic personality. Social inter-course and interpersonal relationship will generally determine the degree of manipulation and manifestation of a particular trait in sportsmen, outgoingness, warm-heartedness, dominance, aggressiveness, emotional stability, conscientious, ventureness, tough-mindedness, group-dependence and relaxedness etc. are some of the traits which have been identified in the personality of sportsman in general Mahamood (1981), Talwar,(198l ), Thakur and Thakur (l980), Bushan and Agarwal (1978), Gruber and Perkins (1978) Bhullar (1974), Kane (1972), Chadwick (1972) Mushier (1972) and Werner and (Gottheil (1966). Researchers like Kane (1970), Brunner (1969), Singer (1969), Johnson (1966) and Tillman (1964) found outstanding sportsmen to be more extrovert, dominant, socialable , high self-esteemed and toughminded. On the other side of the fence there are some thinkers who find much less value in making predictions or drawing inferences on the grounds of body types or correlated studies. Alderman (1974) remarks that the personality profiles of athletes based on the measurement of personality traits do not increase, our knowledge on the dynamic tendencies which move people to action. They do not give us a picture of a whole person, just fragments. Hardman (1973) concluded that intelligence, dominance, surgency, ergic, tension, stability are associated with sports personality. Investigators like Merriman (1960), Booth (1958), La Place (1954), Thune,(1949) and Cavanaugh (1942) and others have found a close relationship between ‘physical prowess’ and ‘unique character and personality traits.

The major significance of present piece of research would be to find out most common personality characteristics of sportsmen. Among these would be such traits as are scaleable, measurable and finally trainable. This may help to have a tentative work plan for behaviour engineering in the field of physical education.

Objectives of the Study

The following objectives were formulated for the purpose of the present study.

1. To prepare personality profiles of participant and non-participant adolescents.
2. To compare participant and non-participant adolescents on their personality,
3. To search for differences on the basis of gender.
4. To compare personality features of sportsmen belonging to different game categories.

HYPOTHESES

1. The participant and non-participant subjects differ significantly so far as their personality dispositions are concerned.
2. There are no game specific personality profiles amongst the participant adolescents.
3. There is no sex-variation in the personality dispositions of participant adolescents.
4. Male and female participants playing different games do not differ in their personality dispositions.

METHOD AND PROCEDURE?

SAMPLE:

420 participant and 420 non-participant subjects served the sample for the present study. The subjects were in the age range of 6-18 years- the participant subjects were considered those who had taken part in different physical activities, on the other hand the non-participant subjects had not taken part in any physical activity. The participant group was identified on the basis of the recommendations of Director of Youth Services and Sports Jammu and Kashmir. The Director organizes inter-school tournaments and maintains a record of the same. The games which were identified from the Directorate Office are Badminton, Basketball, Cricket, Handball, Kabbadi, Kho-Kho and Volleyball in such games the subjects of both the sexes were available. 60 subjects (30 boys and 30 girls) were selected from each game. Students who demonstrated their capability and skill in the above mentioned games were included as participant group in the present investigation. The group of non-participants was drawn randomly from the available population studying in the 11th and 12th grades in various Higher Secondary Schools located in six districts of the Kashmir province. To select 70 students with an equal number of male and female students from Higher Secondary Schools located in each district, a systematic random samplying technique was employed.

Tools:

The main tool employed for the purpose of collection of data was Cattell’s 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form a). Since the subjects (participants and non-participants) belonged to Urdu population, therefore an Urdu translation of the personality factor Questionnaire was developed and administered on the subjects. The Urdu translation thus worked out was put to a validity test. This was done by administering both the forms English as well as Urdu versions upon 100 students (both sexes). The results were correlated and it was found that concurrent validity for all factors was high enough to trust the goodness of the Urdu version.

Procedure

The two groups (participants and non-participants) were administered Urdu translated form of Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form A). The test was administered in small groups strictly In accordance with the directions given the manual of the test. Majority of participant subjects were administered the test of personality at S,K. Indoor Games complex, Bakshi Stadium and also at certain selected play grounds of higher secondary schools, where they had come to participate in the tournaments. The non-participants however, were contacted in their respective schools and were administered the personality test.

Statistical treatment:

The statistical analysis of the data was done by applying ‘t’ test for testing the significance of mean differences between the participant and non-participant adolescents group to group and game to game comparison was also undertaken by applying profile similarity coefficient (rp) as recommended by Cattail,

Finding

The analysis and interpretation of data has revealed very interesting finding. Some of the major finding are reported as under:

1. The participants, in comparison to non-participants have been found to be outgoing, emotionally stable, happy-go-lucky, assertive, conscientious, venturesome, tough-minded, suspicious, practical, socially aware, experimenting, group dependent and relaxed. The non-participants, on the other hand have been found to be reserved, emotionally less stable, humble, sober, expedient, shy, tenderminded, trusting, imaginative, forthright, conservative, self-sufficient and tense.
2. No significant differences have been found between the participants and non-participants on factor B (low intelligence v/s high intelligence), factor O (self-assured v/s apprehensive) and factor Q3(undisciplined v/s controlled).
3. A significant dissimilarity has been found in the personality profiles of participants and non-participants (rp) = -.285 p < .05 level).
4. The male participants, in comparison to male non-participants have been found to be out-going, more intelligent, emotionally stable, aggressive, happy-go-lucky, conscientious, venturesome, tough-minded, suspicious, practical, socially aware, experimenting, group dependent and relaxed. The male non-participants, on the other hand have been found to be detached, low intelligent, affected by feeling, submissive, sober, expedient, shy, dtender-minded, trusting, imaginative, forthright, conservative, self-sufficient and frustrated.
5. No significant difference have been found between male participants and male non-participants on factor 0(self-assured v/s apprehensive) and factor Q3(undisciplined v/s controlled).
6. The female participants, in comparison to female non-participants have been found to be warm hearted, mature, competitive, happy-go-lucky, moralistic, socially bold, tough-minded, practical, socially aware, liberal, group dependent and unfrustrated. The female non-participants, on the other hand have been found to be detached, affected by feeling, submissive, sober, disregards rules, shy, tender-minded, trusting, imaginative, forthright, respecting traditional ideas, prefer own decisions and frustrated.
7. No significant difference has been found between female participants and female non-participants on factor B (low intelligence v/s high intelligence), factor F (sober v/s happy-go-lucky) factor 0(self-assured v/s apprehensive) and factor Q3(undisciplined v/s controlled).
8. A significant profile dissimilarity has been found between the male participants and male non-participants on their personality dispositions (rp= -.355p < .01 level).
9. A significant dissimilarity has been found between the female participants and female non-participants on their personality dispositions (rp = -.30 p < .05 level).
10. On the basis of game to game comparison, significant similarities have been found between the personality profiles of the following groups of players.
i. Badminton group v/s Kabbadi group
ii. Badminton group v/s Kho-Kho group
iii. Badminton group v/s Basketball group
iv. Badminton group v/s Handball group
v. Badminton group v/s Cricket group
vi. Basketball group v/s Handball group
vii. Basketball group v/s Kabbadi group
viii. Basketball group v/s Cricket group
ix. Basketball group v/s Kho-Kho group
x. Handball group v/s Kho-Kho group
xi. Handball group v/s Kabbadi group.
xii. Cricket group v/s Kho-Kho group
xiii. Cricket group v/s Kabbadi group
xiv. Kabbadi group v/s Kho-Kho group.
11. No profile similarity has been found in the personality of the following groups of players.
i. Badminton group V/B Volleyball group
ii. Basketball group v/s Volleyball group
iii. Cricket group v/s Handball group
iv. Cricket group v/s Volleyball group
v. Handball. group v/s Volleyball group
vi. Kabbadi group v/s Volleyball group
vii. Kho-kho group v/s Volleyball group
12. Out of 21 comparisons made on the basis of game to game, 14 comparisons have revealed significant similarity in the personality profiles of participating subjects playing various games.
13. The male participants, in comparison to female participants have been found to be warmhearted, more intelligent, emotionally stable, happy-go-lucky, conscientious, socially bold, tender-minded, socially aware, group dependent and controlled. On the other hand female participants have been found to be reserved^ low intelligent, emotionally less stable, sober, expedient, shy, tough-minded, forth-self-sufficient and undisciplined.
14. The male and female participants have been found not to differ significantly on factor E( humble v/s assertive), factor L( trusting v/s suspicious), factor L (Practical v/s imaginative) factor 0( Self -assured v/s apprehensive) factor Q1( conservative v/s experimenting) and factor Q4(relaxed v/s tense) .
15. The comparison of male and female participants on personality profiles has revealed some similarity in their personality profiles, but the value of rP could not reach any level of significance (rP = .180 N.S.).
16. The sub-group analysis was carried out in case of each group playing a specific game. It has revealed that:-
a) The male badminton group, in comparison to their female counterpart is warmhearted, emotionally stable sober, conscientious, tender-minded, practical, socially aware and conservative. On the other hand, the female badminton group has been found to be reserved, emotionally less stable, happy-go-lucky, expedient, tough-minded, imaginative forthright and experimenting.
b) The male basketball group, in comparison to female basketball group is outgoing, mature, sober, persistent, tender-minded, socially aware, apprehensive, conservative and group dependent whereas female basketball group has been found to be detached, affected by feeling, happy-go-lucky, disregards rules, tough-minded, forthright, self-assured, experimenting and self-sufficient.
c) The male cricket group in comparison to their female counterpart is warm-hearted, more intelligent, mature, assertive, happy-go-lucky, conscientious, venturesome, imaginative, socially aware, apprehensive, conservative and controlled . The female cricket group on the other hand has been found to be reserved, low intelligent, emotionally less stable, humble, sober, expedient, shy, practical, forthright, self-assured, experimenting, and undisciplined.
d) The male handball group in comparison to female handball group has been found to be outgoing, mature, persistent, tender-minded, practical, polished, experimenting, group dependent, controlled and relaxed, whereas female handball group has been found to be reserved, affected by feeling, expedient, tough-minded, imaginative, genuine, conservative self-sufficient, undisciplined and tense.
e) The male Kabbadi group in comparison to female Kabbadi group has been found to be easygoing, emotionally more stable, enthusiastic, conscientious, venturesome, tender-minded, practical apprehensive, conservative, group-dependent, controlled and tense. The female Kabbadi group on the other hand has been found to be reserved, emotionally lees stable, sober., expedient, shy, tough-minded, imaginative, self-assured, experimenting, self-sufficient undisciplined and relaxed.
f) The male kho-kho group in comparison to their female counterpart is warm-hearted, more intelligent, stable, humble, conscientious, tender-minded, socially-aware, conservative and controlled. The female Kho-kho group on the other hand has been found to be reserved, less intelligent, emotionally less stable, competitive, expedient, tough-minded, forthright, experimenting and undisciplined.
g) The male Volleyball group in comparison to female Volleyball group has been found to be warmhearted, more intelligent, emotionally stable, humble, happy-go-lucky, conscientious, venturesome, tender-minded, trusting, socially aware, self assured, liberal, self-sufficient, controlled and tense. The female Volleyball group en the other hand has been found to be reserved, less intelligent, emotionally leas stable, assertive, sober, expedient, shy, tough minded, suspicious, forthright, apprehensive, conservative, group dependent, undisciplined and relaxed.
On the basis of the above findings the following major conclusions are drawn as under:-
a) Certain personality traits have been identified which predominate in an athletic personality. Social intercourse, participation in sports and inter-personal relation generally determine the degree of manipulation and manifestation of a particular trait in Sportsmen. The traits which have been identified in the personality of the sportsmen are outgoing, emotionally more stable, aggressive, enthusiastic, conscientious, venturesome, tough-minded, suspicious, practical, socially aware, experimenting, group-dependent and relaxed.
b) The participants and non-participants show significant dissimilarity in their profile comparison. It indicates that participants and non-participants can have their distinct personality profiles.
c) The impact of sex as a source of variation in the personality profiles of participants to a great extent has been established.
d) After a thorough analysis of the data personality structure of participants (Sportsmen) emerged quite distinct from that of non-participant group, Bren game to game analysis has established the distinct personality profiles of sportsmen. In majority of the groups the participants hare been found to possess a similar personality profiles.

CHAPTER - I

INTRODUCTION

Biological Scientists emphasise that hereditary factors play a great role in determining what personality characteristics one is likely to have. Such traits as height, intelligence, agility, psychological functioning are directly inherited by an individual and cannot be modified or substituted (Kamlesh, 1983). The behaviour of a person at school, at athletic track and in general public is greatly influenced by these factors. The inherited tendencies like aggression, self preservation, pugnacity have far reaching consequences on an individual’s personality.

An effort to study body and behaviour goes back to Kretschmer (1925). He has classified personality into four types, asthenic: lean narrowly built individual, looks taller than he is, with a skin poor in secretion and blood, narrow shoulders, lean arms with thin muscles, long narrow and flat chest on which we can count the ribs, Athletic; a middle sized tall man with wide projecting shoulders, a firm stomach, magnificent legs, almost graceful and strong muscles, pyknic: a fat rounded figure, pronounced peripheral development of the body cavities (head, breast and stomach), dysplastic: includes the small group of cases where there are strong deviant aspects to the individual build. The athletic type of personality is attributed to the sportsman. Influenced by Kretschmer’s ideas, but finding the theoretical approach inadequate, Sheldon evolved a new concept. Sheldon (1940, 1942) proposed physical type as a matter of relationship within the individual physique, tendencies towards under or over development of certain physical components. These components designated as endomorph, mesomorphy and ectomorphy. When endomorphy predominates in an Individual he shows highly developed viscera, while somatic structures (bones, muscles) are relatively weak and under developed. When mesomorphy predominates, the structure is hard, firm, upright and relatively strong and tough. This is the athletic appearing individual. Ectomorphy is associated with limited developed either of viscera or somatic structure. Sheldon's theory of classification of physique takes an account of biological inheritance of traits and qualities which are less modifiable. Kretsehmer and Sheldon provided two classical examples of body build as related to different types of temperament. It is clear that athletics possess special body type. Comparatively a stronger, hard, healthy body structure with definite muscle power makes an individual an athlete.

The recent research also confirms that a sportsman has more complete personality structure (Kamlesh, 1983). Certain personality traits have been identified which predominate in an athletic personality. Social intercourse and inter-personal relationship will generally determine the degree of manipulation and manifestation of a particular trait in a sportsman. Outgoingness, warm heartedness, dominance, extraversion, emotional stability, conscientious, venturemeness, tough-mindedness, group dependence and relaxedness etc., are some of the traits which have been identified in the personality of sportsmen in general. (Mahamood,1981;Talwar,198l; Thakur and Thakur, 1980; Verma,1980; Tripathi, 1980; Mohan et al, 1979; Bushan and Agarwal, 1978; Gruber and Perkins, 1978; Verma, 1977; Yeater, 1977; Gupta and Sharma, 1976;

Bhuller,1974; Kane,1972; Chadwick,1972; Rusch,1972; Mushier,1972; Cooper,1969; Malumphy,1968; Ogilvie,1968; Peterson et al,l967; and Werner and Gottheil,1966). Researchers like Kane (1970); Brunner, (1969); Singer, (1969); Johnson, (1966); Tillman (1964), and Merriman, (1960) found outstanding sportsmen to be more extrovert, socially dominant high self-esteemed and tough-minded. On the other side of the fence, there are some thinkers who find much less value in making predictions or drawing inferences on the grounds of body types or correlated studies, Singer (1972) for instance, feels that non-emergence of a clear picture on this issue, probably rests on poor and inconsistent methodology used for investigation into the dynamics of athletes personality. Alderman (1974) conclusively remarks that the personality profiles of athletes based on the measurement of personality traits do not increase our knowledge on the dynamic tendencies which move people to action. They do not give us a picture of a whole person, just fragments. Hardman (1973) concluded that intelligence, dominance, surgency, ergic, tension, stability are associated with sports personality. Investigators like Merriman (1960); Booth (1958); La Place,(1954); Thune (1949) and Cavanaugh (1942) and others have found a close relationship between physical process and unique character and personality traits. Studies conducted on the intellectual and non-intellectual traits of athletes seem to be fragmentary in approach, merely suggestive in nature and are not supported by hard data, Geron (1979); Yoder (1968); Ray (1940); Hackensmith and Miller (1938); and Jones (l935) found thick relationship between performance in sports and intelligence whereas Fahruer, (1960); Johson (1942); Fuch and Tinkelman (1941); Reals and Rees (1939); Snoddy and Shannon (1939); Keeler (1933) and Hall (1928) found hardly any relationship between athletic performance and intelligence.

Even with an immediate understanding of all that has been reported regarding the possible confusion on proper relationship, it remain true that “there is a possibility that some discrete set of personality factors exists which is related to causing some people to select and participate in sport perhaps those possessing the strongest and most fortuitous combination of salient personality factors tend to persist in sports and become successful as outstanding athletes” (Kroll and Cranshaw, 1968). A possibility of sports personality should not lean to men only. Studies support the idea that sports personality can fairly be extended to women personality as well. "Female athletes were found to be less stable than male athlete (Kirkcaldy 1980; Morgan,1972) and likely to be more toughminded, dominant, aggressive, hostile and self sufficient (Sack,1975; Malumphy, 1968; and Warner and Gottheil, 1966).

A perusal of various theories and research studies has made it clear that sportsmen as well as sportswomen possess more or less distinct personality features setting them apart from normal population. Although consensus on the features is not so striking yet agreement on possessing certain commonalities is very close. The present study also intends to work out possible commonalities.

Need and Importance of the Study

Every society prefers the physical fitness of its members. More scientific ways and means are being applied everywhere not only to win Medals but also to test human efficiency both physical and mental. More important than physical fitness is the psychological conditioning of the sportsmen and sportswomen so that they can generate in themselves a will to fight.

The Secondary Education Commission (1952-53) has pointed out, The success of physical education depends upon the health of the student. It is an indispensable part of all health programmes. Its various activities should be so planned as to develop the physical and mental health of the students, cultivate recreational interests and skills and promote the spirit of team work, sports-manship and respect for others. Physical education is therefore such, more than mere drill or a series of regular exercises. It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of body and mind. The Education Commission (1964-66) has rightly remarked. “There has been a tendency in recent government schemes of physical education to emphasise only the physical fitness value of physical education and ignore its educational values’. Physical education must include both physical and mental development of an individual. National Policy on Education (1986) has aptly suggested, Sports and Physical Education are an integral part of the learning programmes, and will be included in the evaluation of performance. A nation-wide infrastructure for physical education sports and games will be built into the educational edifice.

The major significance of present peace of research would be to find out most common personality characteristics of sportsmen. Among these would be such traits as are saleable, measurable and finally trainable. A tentative work plan for behavior engineering can be made possible after considering the trait scheme.

It is against this background that the investigator selected the problem for empirical investigation.

Objectives of the study

The following objectives were formulated for the purpose of the present study:-

1. To prepare personality profiles of participant and non-participant adolescents.
2. To compare participant and non-participant adolescents on their personality.
3. To search for differences on the basis of gender.
4. To compare personality features of sportsmen belonging to different game categories.

Hypotheses:

1. The participant and non-participant subjects differ significantly so far as their personality dispositions are concerned.
2. There are no game-specific personality profiles amongst the participant adolescents.
3. There is no sex-variation in the personality dispositions of participant adolescents.
4. Male and female participants playing different games do not differ in their personality dispositions.

Definition of the term and variables

a) Personality Disposition

Personality Disposition for the present study is a statistically dominant set of traits as measured by the Cattell’s 16 personality Factor Questionnaire.

b) Participant Adolescents

All those adolescent students who participate in the games of any kind or variety are participant adolescents. But in the present study a sample of such adolescent boys and girls are to be taken as participants who have played at inter-district and inter-state tournaments. The objective is to take only those students who have demonstrated their athletic talent. Such students were identified by the sports director and were in the age range of 16-18 years.

c) Non-participant adolescents

A group of adolescent boys and girls of 16-18 years, who have never exhibited any interest in games or played actually at some point in time.

They must have taken to some games just a child play but never continued with it or shown some merit in it.

d) Major physical activities

Director of Youth Services and Sports Jammu and Kashmir was approached to identify major sports in which youth is involved in a more consistent manner. A list of seven games was provided this included cricket, basketball, handball, badminton, volleyball, kho-kho and kabbadi.

CHAPTER-II

A REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

Sports psychology 13 relatively a younger field of enquiry and understanding. Although sports get their meaning and relevance only in a human environment, yet human understanding of sports remained casual and entertainment based. It is only in the recent past that people began to ask whether athletes, sportsmen, gymnasts, mountaineers, swimmers and others are born or made whether it is a gift of nature or a skill, trained and sharpened through an instructional modal.

Personality is a psychological question. Here we are not concerned with trainability or giftedness in sports, but how for sports condition personality dynamism. There is no personality except the one that expresses itself in a social milieu. In fact personality is largely a social phenomenon. Any and perhaps every social activity must be a personality activity as well. A relevant question can, therefore, be asked to what extent sports are related with the personality make up of the players, in other words is there any generalisation possible to lay down a list of personality traits meaningfully, connected with sports in general.

A survey of related literature shows that personality question can be related with sports in a number of ways. There are traits specific to particular games. Sex variation has remained the research issue with many researchers. The scholars have attended classy-room achievements of sportsmen and yet others have investigated basic personality differences in sportsmen and non-sportsmen.

In this chapter an attempt has been made to have a brief mention of all these different modes of interest in the field. The following account will make our point clear.

Debnath and Bawa (1986) revealed that a significant difference exists in sports competitive anxiety between junior and senior cyclists as well as between junior and senior gymnasts.

Uppal and Gill (1986) revealed that highly skilled male badminton players were more suspicious, neither less intelligent nor more intelligent and neither tough-minded nor tender minded as compared to poorly skilled badminton players who were less intelligent, tough-minded and neither trusting nor suspicious. Singh (1986) found athletic group to be more extravert than the hockey group, Shrestha (1983) Investigated long jumpers and basket ballers to compare their intellectual level revealed that basket ballers were better in immediate memory and discriminatory power, Giridhar & Usha (1981) found that the table tennis and badminton teams possess similar personality characteristics except on a few factors viz., B, I and 0, as the 16 PF Questionnaire in which the differences were found to be significant. Williams (1978) reported that the successful female competitor generally tended to be more assertive, dominant, self-sufficient, independent aggressive reserved and have average to emotionality than the unsuccessful female competitors. Singer (1969) revealed that non athletes scored higher than baseball group in autonomy, the tennis group was higher than baseball group on interaction. Further tennis players were higher in dominance than baseball players. Baseball players scored higher than tennis players in a basement. Kroll and Grenshaw (1968) found that football players and wrestlers were similar in their psychological profiles; both the groups differ significantly from gymnasts and karate participants. Gymnasts were found to be rather intelligent and relaxed, possessing weaker super ego strength and with a serious outlook towards life. Slusher (1964) investigated that a number of significant differences were found among the various sports groups. The least neurotic group was the swimmers while football players and wrestlers were similar in displaying strongly neurotic profiles. Basketball players were easily depressed and showed the greatest deviation from the other groups. Husman (1955) showed in his study of boxers and cross country distinguishing characteristics as for as their aggressive tendencies are concerned. The cross country runners tended to be extrapunitive than the boxers and the boxers possessed less overall intensity of aggression and had more super ego.

Kumari et al (1988) found that university players were low in extra-version but high in neuroticism, whereas low achievers were slightly higher in extraversion but generally higher in neuroticism. Kamlesh (1986) revealed that in intelligence there was no significant difference between high and low performing athletes. High performing male athletes were significantly higher on extroversion than the low performing male athletes. The male high performer were significantly extroverted than the high performing female athletes. No clear cut anxiety level seemed to be visible in high and low performing athletes. Anxiety was also found to be unrelated with sex. Sharma and Toor (1986) concluded that in intelligence no significant difference was found between high and low performing groups. No relationship was found between playing ability and intelligence in any of the groups. Singh (1986) revealed that the cricketers of the inter-University level were found to be less intelligent, affected by feeling serious and shrewed with respect to factors B, C, I and N respectively, whereas with respect to other factors cricketers were found to be an average on each profile, Evans and Quarterman (1983) found that female basketball athletes both successful and unsuccessful were found to be tough minded than the non-athletes. The unsuccessful basketball players were found to be trusting than the successful basketball players. Williams and Perkins (1980) revealed that international players had significantly different profiles than the club players. The third group who had represented their province were not significantly distinguishable from either of the other two groups. They appeared to be more similar to the players at the highest level. Nangia (1980) revealed that high performers in sports were more intelligent, emotionally stable, dominant, suspicious, shrewed, self sufficient have high aggression and need for achievement than low performers in sports. Bushan and Agarwal (1978) came to the conclusion that high achievers were significantly higher in dominance and surgency than the low achievers, on the second order factors outstanding sportsmen and sportswomen were significantly more extraverted than their low achieving counter parts. No significant difference was found between high and low achieving sports persons in intelligence, ego strength tenseness and anxiety. Foster (1977) revealed that no significant differences were found between successful and un- successful football, handball and baseball athletes on their personality characteristics. The only difference was found between successful and unsuccessful track players.

Kane (1970),Singer (1969), Brunner (1969), Werner and Gotthell (1966), Johnson (1966), Tillman (1964), Merriman (1960) and Booth (1958) found outstanding sportsmen to be more extravert, dominating sociable, self esteemed and tough minded Hardman (1973) concluded that intelligence, dominance, surgency, and sociability were associated with sports participation. The relationship between athletic participation and extraversion interversion showed greater inter sport differences and with the exception of intelligence the personality trait scores showed greater deviation from the mean of 5.5 for less able athletes and game players than internationals. Havel (1958) on the study of low and high performing basketballers Kroll (l967) on Wrestlers, Kroll and Carlson (1967) on karate participants; Ogilvie and Tutko (1966) and Yound et al (1976) on swimmers found significant personality trait differences. Cooper (1969) found that personality factors to participation in competitive sports may well be different from general psychological needs related to ordinary physical activity. Murugesan and Rajamaniokam (1986) revealed that active vigorous and emotionally stable dimensions were essential to sports success. Shanker (1986) concluded that position holder and non position holder differ significantly from non sportsmen •lo were found to be neurotic as well as introverted. Daine (1985) found that tennis players scored higher in extraversion and will to win and lower on neuroticism, psychoticism, anxiety, obsession and depression than son-sports group. Shasi (1985) revealed that athletes were superior than non athletes in their social intelligence. Researchers like Sharma and Shukla, (1986), Singh (1986), Mahamood (1981), Verma (1980), Gupta and Sharma (1976) Bhullar (1974), Malumphy (1971), Ogilvie (1968), Peterson et al (1967), Werner and (Gottheil (1966) found that sportsmen were found to be outgoing, happy-go-lucky, aggressive, extrovert, emotionally stable, conscientious, experimenting group dependent and relaxed than the non-sportsmen. Thakur and Thakur (1980) studied personality characteristics of the athlete and non-athlete Indian College males using projective method of personality assessment and found that the characteristics associated with the athletes were happiness, cordial and affectionate relations, anxiety, achievement, dominance and superior organization capacity. Kroll and Peterson (1965) using 16 PF ascertained personality characteristics of winning and losing football teams and found that the functions which significantly discriminated of winning teams were, B, F, H, O and Q3Rushall (1968) however, in a similar study was unable to find support for the findings of the study reported Kroll and Peterson (1965).

The male athlete is characterised by extroversion and emotional stability and scores high on trait measures of dominance, social aggression, leadership, tough-mindedness, stability and confidence (Kane 1972).

He operates at a very low level of anxiety (Ogilvie, Jonsgard and Tutko (1971), Sportsmen Show more masculinity of interest on the MMPI Scale and older athletes score lower on the anxiety and social responsibility scale (Booth 1958). High school athletes show more socially desirable traits than non-athletes, but college comparison have yielded the opposite results Schendel,1965), Sportsmen of contact sports were found to be outgoing, warm-hearted, easy-going, participating and less intelligent as compared to sportsmen of non-contact sports, who were found to be reserved, detached, more intelligent and free thinking (Verma,1977). College female athlete and monathete show significant difference in intelligence, radicalism, self sufficiency and control (0 Connor and Webb, 1976). Female athletes also tended to be emotionally more aloof and serious than average female (Peterson, Webb and Trousdale 1967).

Kane (1964), Hardman (1968), Mischel (1968) Vaughan (1970), Carr (1971), Tattersfield (1975) and Cohen (1973) found certain traits to be predominantly present in sportsmen than in non-sportsmen. Most of these studies have been conducted on athletes vs non-athletes and high achievers vs low achievers.

Shaffer (1931) found athletes to be superior to non-athletes in motor ability and alertness but inferior to the latter in arithmetic ability, precision in language and general information. Carter and Shannon (1940) found athletes slightly superior in adjustment and significantly superior in personality traits to non-athletes. Cofer and Johnson (1960), Kane and Warburton (1966), Olsen (1966) and Gupta and Sharma (1976) also sided with these findings. Ogilvie (1968), Davidson (1970), Mc Donald (1970), Bhullar (1974) and Menoff (1975) supported the premise that high and low performers in sports significantly differ from each other as a group, significant personality differences also seem to have been found by Ismail (1972) & Elsayed (1976).

The personality structure of women athletes has been studied in the various sports of fencing (Williams et al (1970), basketball, golf (Johnson 1972), Lacrosse (Mushier 1970), swimming (Ibrahim 1967, Kane 1966, Ogilvie 1968), track and field (Kane, 1966) and field hockey (Acampora 1971, Johnson 1972). These research strategies involved comparing personality traits across sport games, as well as comparing team with individual sport participants, (Hein,1954, Malumphy 1968, Niblook 1960), studying outstanding athletes (Neal, 1963) or comparing the women athletes with non-athletes (Foster, 1969; Kane, 1966). Many of the studies agree that a few similar traits were being projected by women athletes in various sports. Women in athletic competition appear to be more achievement oriented (Neal, 1963, Ogilvie,l968); Tough minded (Bird 1970, Malumphy, 1968; Mushier 1970; Ogilvie 1968; Peterson et al. 1967 ; Ramsey 1962), intelligent (Bird 1970; Johnson 1972, Mushier 1970), Creative (Mushier 1970, Peterson, 1967), Self-sufficient (Bird 1970, Peterson 1967, Williams 1970), aggressive (Poster 1969; Heal 1963, Ogilvie 1968) dominant (Mushier 1970, Ogilvie 1968, 1973, Ramsey, 1962, Williams 1970) and somewhat more anxious (Kane, 1966, 1972, Ramsey 1962) as compared to intramural participants or a non-participant (norm group). Niblock (1960) found that female athletes to be more energetic, enthusiastic, efficient, possess more leadership potential and were optimistic and more extroverted. In addition, the individual and team sport participants scored higher on ascendency than the non-participants ( Niblock, l960). In a study of women field hockey players at the high school, college and club level (Aoampora 1971) found that the higher the level of competition the more favourable the score on traits such as self confidence, determination, emotional control, conscientious, trust and leadership. Kane (1972) found that women physical education majors to be more anxious and to possess less confidence than a norm group as well as male physical education teachers. The same review revealed that the women majors scored lower on emotional stability, were significantly more tense as compared to male physical education majors and a norm group, Duggan (1935) found women physical education majors to be less neurotic more dominating and extraverted than non majors. When comparing female athletes with physical education majors, it was found that the athletes were more relaxed, scored higher on ascendency and had lower feelings of inferiority (Ibrahim, 1967). In a more recent study (Widdop and Widdop 1975) it was found that female physical education teachers differed from other female education teachers on a number of traits. The physical education majors scored higher on traits of warm heartedness, mental capacity, enthusiasm, perservence, venturesomeness, imagination, shrewdness, self-sufficiency, self-image, exhibitionism and dominance.

Researchers like Seegers and Postpichal (1936), Digiovanna (1337), Ray (1940), Hacfcensmith and Miller (1938), Yoder (1968) Budevari (1974) and G (1979) conducted studies on intellectual and non-intelleotual traits of athletes and found thick relationship between performance in sports and intelligence whereas Hall (1928), Keeler (1938), Amano (1938), Snoddy and Shannon (1939), Reels and Rees (1939) Fuck and Tinkelaan (1941), Johnson (1942) and Fahruer (1960) found hardly any relationship between athletic performance and intelligence.

Cattell's theoretical views on ‘state’ and trait anxiety are well known all over the world. In the early stages of motor skill acquisition, athletes seem to be more anxious and tense but as the performance waxes, anxiety waxes. Cooper (1969), 0’Conner and Webb (1976) found athletes to be less anxious than non-athletes. Harris (1963), Knapp (1965), Duthie and Roberts (1970) and Hammer (1975), found no relationship between athlete performance and anxiety. Most sports psychologists and researchers claim that athletes are extroverts, outgoing and uninhibited, whether the out-goingness’ in athletes is an inborn trait or is developed through participation in sports still remains an unresolved tangle. Studies conducted by Sperling (1942), Tillman (1964), Ruffer (1965), Whiting and Stembridge (1965) Werner and Gottheil (1966), Brunner (1969), Kane (1970) Ikegami (1970) showed extraversion to be one of the dominant and highly related traits of athletes. Heidhrader (1926), Bending and Eigenbrode (1961), Ragsdale (1932), Morgan (1968), Burdeshaw (1971) and Mohd (1975) supported the above findings. However, Vanek and Hosek (1974) contradict the above claim, and draw researchers attention, above all, to the psychological differences between outgoing athletes and minor ones, between men and women, between younger and older sportsmen. They found high introversion1 in best athletes,

Merrimen (I960), Werner (1960), Tillman (1964), Johnson (1966), Brunner (1969), Singer (1969), Tutko (1969) and Watts (1971) found strong relationship between ascendance (dominance) and athletic performance. Ciccokella (1978) found men athletes to be more ascendant and aggressive than female athletes.

CHAPTER - III

METHOD AND PROCEDURE

Sample

420 participant and 420 non-participant subjects served the sample for the present study, the subjects were in the age range of 16-18 years. The details about the procedure of selecting the sample are given as under:

The participant subjects were considered those who had taken part in different physical activities on the other hand the non-participant subjects had not taken part in any physical activity. The participant group was identified on the basis of the recommendations of the Directorate of Youth Services and Sports Jammu and Kashmir. The Directorate organizes inter school tournaments and maintains a record of the same. The games which were identified from the Directorate Office are Badminton, Basketball, Cricket, Handball, Kabbadi, Kho-kho and Volleyball in such games the subjects of both the sexes were available. 60 subjects (30 boys and 30girls) were selected from each game. Students who demonstrated their capability and skill in the above mentioned games were included as participant group in the present study. The group of non-participants was drawn randomly from the available population of students studying in the 11th and 12th grades in various higher secondary schools located in six districts of the Kashmir province. To select 70 students with an equal number of male and female students from Higher Secondary Schools located in each district, a systematic random samplying technique was employed.

Break-up of non-participant subjects N=420 Sex-wise).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Description of the tool

The main tool employed for the purpose of collection of data was Cattell’s 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form A). Since the subject (participants and non-participants) belonged to Urdu speaking population therefore, an Urdu translation of the personality Factor Questionnaire was developed and administered on the subjects. The Urdu translation thus worked out was put to a validity test. This was done by administering both the forms English as well as Urdu upon 100 students (both sexes). The results were correlated and it was found that the concurrent validity for all factors was high enough to trust the goodness of the Urdu version.

Coefficient of correlation between original English Version and Urdu Version on 16 Personality, Factors.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Thus it can be safely said that Urdu translation is only an equivalent form or parallel form of the original English version scale. And hence norms and other requirements can be safely adopted from the English version. The details of such version are therefore given below.

Consistencies of the 16 PF Scales

The consistencies of the 16 PF Scales, that is, the agreement of the factor score with itself under some change of conditions, are given in all relevant ways.

The first type of consistency to consider is reliability or the agreement of the factor score over time. Reliability may be further subdivided into (a) dependability, i.e. short-term test retest correlations and (b) stability, i.e., re-test after a longer interval.

Table 1.0 shows dependability estimates for 16 PF (Form A). Re-testing was done within one week after the first administration Table 2.0 show stability estimates, the time Interval ranges between 2 and 48 months. As will be seen in Table 2.0 the consistency in factor scores is quite good even over a four year Interval.

Table 1.0

16 PF dependability coefficients, test retest with 2 to 7 day intervals.

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a Canadian subjects: N = 243 high school males and females

b American subjects: N=146; 79 employment counselors and 67 undergraduate students.

Note: Decimal points have been omitted.

Table 2.0

16 PF stability coefficients; test retest with 2 to 48 month intervals.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

b Two and one half month Interval , N=44 from La Forge (1962).

c Four year interval, N = 432, from Nichols (1965).

d Four year interval, N = 204, from, (1965).

Note: Decimal points have been omitted.

The equivalence coefficients between single parallel forms and a certain combination of parallel forma that might be most frequently encountered are given in Table 3.0 These values are about as high as tests typically reach for the number of items.

Table 3.0

Equivalence coefficients of test form for each trait.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Note: Decimal points have been omitted.

The coefficients given here, however, are those which the test administrator will be considered with most frequently. As is evident in all three of these tables substantial increase in consistency are possible by using more than one form of the test and we again urge that such combinations to be used in all cases where maximum precision is needed.

Validities

The items in these final forms are the survivors from several thousands of items originally tried, and constitute only those which continue to have significant validity against the factors after ten successive factor analyses (Catell, 1973) on different samples. These analyses have both verified the existence and natural structure of the sixteen factors, and cross validated the test items in their correlation with the factors on different adult samples.

The validity of the test itself is meant to be a concept (or “construct”) validity. That is to say, the test questions (or items), as stated above are chosen as being good measures of the personality factors, as these factors are represented in search analysis. The concept validity of the scales can be evaluated directly by correlating the scale score with the pure factor. It was designed to measure. Table 4.0 gives these concept validity values. As with consistency, it is evident that substantial overall Increases in validity are possible by using more than one form of the test.

[...]

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Details

Title
Personality Dispositions of Participants and Non-participant adolescents with reference to some major physical activities
College
The University of Kashmir  (University of Kashmir, India)
Course
Physical Education
Grade
A
Author
Year
2012
Pages
97
Catalog Number
V207215
ISBN (eBook)
9783656361749
ISBN (Book)
9783656362319
File size
907 KB
Language
English
Tags
personality, dispositions, participants, non-participant
Quote paper
Mohammad Yousuf Ganai (Author), 2012, Personality Dispositions of Participants and Non-participant adolescents with reference to some major physical activities, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/207215

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