The effectiveness of teachers' performance appraisal in secondary schools in Kabale Municipality

Performance Appraisal

Master's Thesis, 2010

95 Pages, Grade: 3.0






1.1 Background
1.2. Problem Statement
1.3 Purpose of Study
1.4 Objectives
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Scope
1.7 Significance
1.8 Procedure

2.1. Introduction
2.2 Literature review
2.3 Conceptual frame work
2.4 Related literature
2.4.1. Feedback and implementation of appraisal scheme
2.4.2 Employees’ attitude to performance appraisal
2.4.3 Problems with performance appraisal
2.4.4 The role of performance appraisal design

3.1. Introduction
3.2. Research design
3.3. Area of Study
3.4. The Study population
3.5. Sampling techniques and sample size
3.6. Data collection instruments
3.6.1 Self –administered Questionnaires
3.6.2. Interview Schedule
3.6.3. Documentary analysis
3.7. Validity and Reliability
3.7.1. Triangulation of Methods
3.8. Data analysis

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Background Information

Discussions of the research questions




This book is dedicated to my wife and my parents for their care and love. My the Almighty richly bless them.


I would like to acknowledge the efforts of the following persons without which this book would not have been possible.

Special thanks go to my children; Agatha, Daisy, Esther, my parents and more especially my wife for their great support and prayers.

I would also in a special way want to recognise my supervisors Mr. Babimpa Nuwagaba Edwin and Mrs. Ogbedeagn Priscilla Ebere for their tireless effort to make me accomplish this great task in a reasonable amount of time.

Above all I thank the Almighty God for the gift of life and all the blessings that have enabled me to reach this point in time.


The study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of Teachers’ Performance in Secondary Schools. The methods used include qualitative and quantitative approaches to collect and analyse data. The research study was carried out in Kabale Municipality where it was found out that performance appraisal is not generally well conducted. There is poor feedback management, where appraisal results are not used for staff promotion, professional development or determining remunerations. Poor feedback has also bred into negative results like demotion, abuse and reduced salary.

All the above have therefore resulted into staff failing to fill appraisal forms or when filled they fail to submit them to the Ministry of Education to use the appraisal results for staff promotion, job improvement and counselling sessions to improve staff competence.


1.1 Background

Performance appraisal is the assessment of the performance of an individual in relation to the objectives, activities, outputs, and targets of a job over a given period of time. In organizational setting, performance appraisal is defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, that usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or semi-annual), in which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills development (McNamara, 1999).

Moorhead and Griffin (1992) describe it as the process of evaluating work behaviors by measurement and comparison to previously established standards, recording the results, and communicating them back to the employee. It is an activity between a manager and an employee. Performance appraisal is therefore the assessment of performance of an individual in relation to the objectives, activities, outputs, and targets of a job over a given period of time. Performance appraisal is a powerful tool for performance management. Okumbe (1998) asserts that performance helps in evaluating how a worker succeeds in his present job and this is important for estimating how well he or she will perform in the future. This therefore helps in determining the strengths or weaknesses of the individual workers to increase productivity.

In companies, performance appraisal systems (PAS) began as simple methods for deciding whether or not the salary of an employee was justified. Later on, empirical studies showed that pay rates were not the only element that had an impact on employee performance. It was found out that other issues, such as morale and self-esteem, could also have major influence. That resulted in progressive rejection of emphasis of performance appraisal on reward outcomes, and in 1950s, in the United States, its potential as a tool for motivation and development was recognized. The general model of performance appraisal, as it is known today, began from that time.

Armstrong (2003) notes that performance management has risen from the old-established but somewhat discredited systems of merit rating and management by objective and that many of the more recent developments in performance appraisal have been absorbed into the concept of performance management which aims to be a much more wider, more comprehensive and more natural process of management. Performance appraisal has too often operated as a top down and largely discredited bureaucratic system owned by the personnel department and this has limited its intended value.

Bratton (1988), stressed that, performance appraisal is a continuous and flexible process that involves managers and those whom they manage acting as partners within the required results. After the Second World war, Cole (1997) notes that an alternative approach to people management emerged. This approach focused attention on people as a way of improving organisational effectiveness, and was based not on personal experiences but observation.

Writers like Drucker (1954), were enthusiastic about appraisal. They argued that appraising a subordinate is part of a manager’s job. Indeed unless he does the appraising himself, he cannot adequately discharge his responsibility for assisting and teaching his subordinates.

Hence managers must strive to achieve results from the management of human, material, and financial resources all of which should be motivated by setting standards, measuring performance and taking appropriate action to improve performance by means of training and helping.

Noe etal (1996), define performance management as a means through which managers ensure that employees’ activities and outputs are congruent with the organisational goals. They say that performance management is central to gaining competitive advantage. They argue that, performance management has three parts; defining performance, measuring performance, and feedback performance information. First, a performance management system specifies which aspects of performance are relevant to the organisation, primarily through job analysis. Second, it measures those aspects of performance through performance appraisal which is only one method for managing employee performance. Third, it provides feedback to employees through performance feedback sessions so that they can adjust their performance to the organisation’s goals.

Taylor (2002) asserts that performance management provides the mechanism by which an organisation can measure critical success factors. Performance indicators for performance planning include: Document the network management business objectives. This could be a formal concept of operations for network management or less formal statement of required features and objectives, create detailed and measurable service level objectives , provide documentation of the service level agreements with charts or graphs showing the success or failure in meeting these agreements over time, collect a list of the variables for the baseline including things like polling interval, network management overhead incurred, possible trigger whether the variable is used as a trigger for a trap, and trending analysis used against each variable, have a periodic meeting that reviews the analysis of the baseline and trends and have a what-if analysis methodology documented. This should include modelling and verification where applicable.

It should be also noted that performance appraisal is a part of a performance management which includes activities to ensure that goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient manner,(McNamara,1999). Performance management includes many other practices besides performance appraisal, like employee performance improvement, performance development, training, cross-training, challenging assignments, career development or coaching.

The system in the public service is not open to the extent that, staff does not participate in setting performance targets, and there seem to be a deficiency of teamwork where the staff are supposed to be fully involved in planning, and organising these appraisal programmes. However the factors that contribute to the low regard, with which appraisal is taken, have not been established. This stimulated the researcher into an investigation of Effectiveness of Teacher’s Performance Appraisal in Secondary Schools.

One of the most important and positive developments in the sphere of Human Resource Management in the recent years is the concept of performance management. For many years, the public service employees had to rely on a closed system of assessing individual performance- called Annual Confidential Report (ACRs).This instrument of managing performance fell far below the requirement of modern concept of performance management. The Public Review and Reorganisation Commission Report (1989-90) recommended a review of the appraisal instrument in order to provide a tool for effective assessment of staff performance. In their analysis they argued that assessment Part 11 of the analysis system (form) entitled Analysis and Assessment of Performance (ARC) was nothing but analysis of work habits for example; human relations, creativity, and judgement. The ARC did not measure the actual performance but only measured behaviour and personality of individual Public Officers. Although these behavioural and personality factors may be important, there was no guidance on how to assess these factors and what yardstick to use. Another criticism of the old system was that it was strictly confidential and it was kept a way from access of those who were assessed. This scenario inevitably caused suspicion of favouritism, corruption, discrimination, and tribalism when it came to promotions especially those who would not make it.

1.2 Problem Statement

To increase efficiency, Uganda Public Service introduced performance appraisal system in 2000 where workers and supervisors agree on what to be accomplished for effective delivery. Much as this has been in practice little attention has been put on Performance Appraisal Scheme; more often than not the Ministry officials, Education service and head teachers have complained of the effectiveness of this scheme. In some cases, some teachers have been promoted without basing on Performance Appraisal forms hence casting more doubt on the effectiveness of Teachers’ performance appraisal report forms. In worse circumstances, even seemingly hard working teachers have been left out while doing the promotions.

Its implementation has remained a problem. Most employees do not participate, the filled in forms are not usually returned, and as a result the seriousness with which the appraisal is considered has reduced greatly. Some of the public staff takes it for granted and the information provided is incomplete. The system is not open to the extent that, staff members do not participate in setting performance targets and there seems to be a deficiency of teamwork. However the factors that contribute to the failure to embrace the appraisal system have not been explored. Yet if the situation remains unchecked, the use of appraisal may never be a reality, a situation that stimulated the researcher into investigating the effectiveness of teacher’s appraisal performance scheme in Secondary Schools.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to establish the effectiveness of Teacher’s Performance Appraisal in Secondary Schools.

1.4 Objectives

The study was carried out along the following objectives:

(1) To examine the effect of performance related feedback on implementation of the teachers’ appraisal results.
(2) To establish the effect of teacher’s attitude on appraisal scheme implementation.
(3) To examine the problems met in performance evaluation.
(4) To examine the role of appraisal in encouraging staff for a better performance.

1.5 Research Questions

(1) Does performance related feedback have an effect on implementation of teachers’ appraisal results?
(2) What effect do employees’ attitudes towards appraisal have on its implementation?
(3) What problems are faced during performance evaluation?
(4) What role does appraisal design play in encouraging staff for a better performance?

1.6 Scope

Basically the study was carried out amongst selected Schools in Kabale Municipality. The study aimed at gender sensitivity in the selection of participants given that Ministry of Education and Sports uses all categories of teachers both men and women.

The content scope will particularly investigate teachers’ attitudes towards appraisal schemes, the effect of feedback on implementation of the appraisal schemes, problems met while conducting performance appraisal and the role of appraisal design.

The time scope of the study covered the period between 2008 to 2009. This period was selected because the researcher feels that since the scheme was introduced in 2000, the time gap is enough to assess its effectiveness.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The research findings will help policy makers especially those of the Ministry of Education and Sports to adopt more realistic policies regarding the management of appraisal.

The researcher also hopes that the results of the study will be useful to future researchers who will be interested in undertaking a study in a related area.

The results will contribute to the existing theories on employee’s performance management.

There is also hope, that the study will be a source of great experience and a contribution to the academic career of the researcher.

1.8 Procedure

The researcher secured a letter of introduction from the Department of Post-graduate Studies Kabale University. Data was collected from the selected schools of Kabale Municipality, analysed and a research report written on the findings of the study. The researcher used the qualitative and quantitative approaches to collect, tabulate and analyse data.


2.1 Introduction.

This chapter presents the findings of other scholars on the subject under investigation. It presents the theoretical review, the conceptual framework and the views of other scholars presented in line with the objectives and research questions of the study.

2.2 Theoretical Framework.

This study was enshrined in many theories advanced by different scholars some of which include;

Maicibi, (2005), stresses that performance appraisal is an important technique that can be used by any management (organisation) if the organisation really wants to achieve its set objectives. According to Craig (1996), it has three main objectives, to measure performance fairly and objectively against job requirements, to increase performance by identifying specific development goals so that the workers may keep pace with the requirements of a fast placed organisation. In view of the above, Eliza (1996) argued that in many organisations, the appraisal system has been mishandled. She stresses that the worker should not walk blindly into performance appraisal. Past counselling sessions, feedback and proper design are crucial. The appraisal should be a joint effort because no one knows the job better than the person performing it.

Two categories of appraisal namely the formal and informal appraisal have been identified. (Cole 2000). According to Cole, informal appraisal is the continuous assessment of individual worker’s performance by his superior or manager in the normal course of work. He says this kind of assessment is of an adhoc nature and is as much determined by intuitive feelings rather than factual evidence of results. He adds that, it is a natural by- product of the day-to-day relationship between managers and subordinates.

Writers like Maicibi (2005) argue that informal appraisal is a system in which subordinates go into informal discussions with the superodinate; with the good aim of assessing habits and qualities of subordinates. He says that through this method, the management can collect a lot of information that is useful for purposes of promotion, advancements, transfers, termination or lay offs or training and development of staff. Formal appraisal on the other hand is a system set up by the organisation to regularly and systematically evaluate employees’ performance. Cole (2000) says this type of appraisal involves assessment of an employee’s performance in some systematic and planned way. It serves to determine how well an employee is working and decides on ways to improve performance. It therefore calls for an intermediate feedback in order to be effective. Armstrong (2003) emphasizes that the importance of giving a timely feedback to an employee is to develop and maintain a motivated workforce.

In 2000, more detailed appraisal form was introduced by the Ministry Of Public Service and all staff were sensitised on how to use the instrument. According to the appraisal instrument that is purported to be used now, areas that are measured include; personality behaviour, performance and achievement of goals. This is in line with Taylor (2002), who argued that these are measured either quantitatively or qualitatively. Therefore if it were really done, Taylor’s view indicates that it is a way of ensuring adequate performance.

Noe etal (1996), define performance management as a means through which managers ensure that employees’ activities and outputs are congruent with the organisational goals. They say that performance management is central to gaining competitive advantage. They argue that, performance management has three parts; defining performance, measuring performance, and feedback performance information. First, a performance management system specifies which aspects of performance are relevant to the organisation, primarily through job analysis. Second, it measures those aspects of performance through performance appraisal which is only one method for managing employee performance. Third, it provides feedback to employees through performance feedback sessions so that they can adjust their performance to the organisation’s goals.


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: self developed (2010)

The figure represents the appraisal as a Human Resource Management tool. The appraisal scheme has to be applied to achieve performance results. Workers are evaluated against job knowledge, quantity and quality of work, cooperation, loyalty, attendance, honesty and initiative. Performance appraisal is affected by feedback on appraisal, employees’ attitudes and other factors. Appraisal implementation is associated with timely performance reviews, employees’ re-direction performance briefings, employees expressing their job disturbances, feelings and examination of employees’ challenges.

The feedback that is made during and after appraisal and the employees’ attitude has a big bearing on the whole process of appraisal implementation. In addition, once the appraisal is not properly handled or abused by any of the stakeholders, problems will arise and this greatly affects the management of the organisation. On the other hand, if performance appraisal is done properly it will have very positive effects on the employees and thus the performance of the organisation.

2.4 Related Literature Review.

These are written information that could have a relation or relevance to the topic of research the effectiveness of teachers’ performance appraisal in secondary schools in Kabale Municipality.

2.4.1 Feedback and Implementation of Appraisal Schemes.

The concept of feedback in performance management was highly internalised by performance data on an individual in group derived from a number of stakeholders on their performance. They argued that, data is usually fed back to employees in form of ratings against various performance dimensions. According to Ward, performance data in a feedback process can be generated for individuals from the person to whom they report, their direct reports, their reports, their peers or colleagues in other parts of the organisation.

Handley et al (1996), expressed that for performance measures to be effective, it is important for employees to have feedback on what is measured and the possible effects of measures. He concluded by saying that, feedback may be presented direct to individuals or to their supervisors or both. However, he warned, that expert counselling and coaching for individuals as a result of feedback may be provided by a member of human resource department or an outside consultant.

Research conducted by the Ashridge management research group in Handley et al (1996) found that one of the reasons why feedback is important is to support a number of Human Resource processes such as appraisal, resourcing and succession planning. This has a bearing to the research conducted by Armstrong (2003), where they found that the 51 organisations covered by the research used feedback to help in assessing development needs.

London and Beathy (1993), offers three important roles for the need to give employees feedback on their performance appraisal. They argued that, feedback is a powerful organisation intervention to increase “awareness” of the importance of leader behaviour, work unit results and customer expectations, as well as increasing employee participation in leadership development and work effectiveness. All of which are results of a successful appraisal system. They also stressed that feedback on the appraisal, recognises the complexity of management and the value of input form various sources and also that feedback calls attention to important performance dimensions which may hitherto have been neglected. Armstrong (2003) on the other hand, notes that, feedback is often synonymous and may be presented to the individual (most commonly), to the individual’s manager (less common), or to both the individual and the manager. Some organisations do not arrange for feedback to be anonymous; it depends on the organisation’s culture. The more open the culture, the more likely is the source of feedback to be revealed.

Feedback on performance appraisal has been many times mishandled and has tended to reduce the meaning of performance appraisal, (Nayarana et al 1997). Areas on which it has been mishandled include; management not going frank or giving honest feedback, people being put under stress in receiving the feed back , lack of action following the feed back and too much bureaucracy. He commented that these can be minimised and if not avoided completely by careful design, communication training and follow up. This is often achieved by making feed back anonymous and getting the third party facilitator to deliver the feedback and that bureaucracy should be minimised.

Robbins (2008), notes that managers are often uncomfortable discussing performance weaknesses directly with employees. Given that almost every employee could stand to improve in some areas, managers fear a confrontation when presenting negative feedback. He (Robbins) adds that many employees tend to become defensive when their weaknesses are pointed out. Instead of accepting the feedback as constructive and a basis for improving performance, some employees challenge the evaluation by criticising the manager or redirecting blame to someone else. A survey of 151 area managers in Philadelphia for instance found out that 98% of these managers encountered some type of aggression after giving employees negative appraisals. Also employees tend to have an inflated assessment of their own performance.

2.4.2 Employees’ Attitudes to performance appraisal and its implementation

An attitude is an internal state of a person that is focused on objects, events, people that can exist in the people’s psychological world (Nayarana et al 1997). He stresses that, in organisations employees have attitudes towards job security or uncertainty, prestige of the product and so forth. This affects all the performance evaluation actions because they are not certain of consequences. The current researcher views this idea as not an exception to the issue of appraisal schemes. He concludes by saying that managers in organisations need to know and understand employees’ attitudes towards their actions for effective management and administration.

Performance appraisal schemes have come to the fore in recent years as a means of providing a more integrated and continuous approach to the management of performance than was provided by previous isolated and often inadequate merit rating. Nayarana, (1997) further believes that performance appraisal is based on the principle of management by agreement or contract rather than management by command. It can in fact play a major role of providing for an integrated and coherent range of human resource management processes which are mutually supportive and contribute as a whole to improving organisational effectiveness.

An attitude is defined by Chandan (1996) as a perception with a frame of reference. It is a way of organising a perception. In other words, it is more or less a stable tendency to feel, think, perceive and act in a certain manner towards a situation. Empolyees’attitudes towards appraisal has three elements in that it leads to measurable outcomes. These are employees’ feelings about appraisal, their thoughts and behaviour on the implementation of the scheme. He stresses that some people may have a positive attitude towards appraisal which is good but in most cases, the attitudes are characterised by complaints and dissatisfaction. The actual experience with performance appraisal is not encouraging. People’s perceived feelings about the intention and the likely results of appraisal have always limited its implementation, (Chandan, 1996). As such employees have always evaluated their superiors less favourably and as a result typical managers have limited their contact with subordinates. This view coincides with Bailey (1993) who argued that managers always resist conducting performance appraisals because of the following perception towards the appraisals. They do not like giving negative feedback because of fear of employees’ reactions and fear of not being able to defend the rating. They usually feel that, the use of appraisal schemes tend to interfere with the work of coaching.

As already noted from Chandan, the structure of a persons’ attitude comprise three vital components; affective component, cognitive and overt. Affective component refers to the emotions associated with the attitude object. According to him, it is an emotional component that develops as a conditioned response by association with stimuli that have either punishing or rewarding effects. The cognitive component represents the beliefs of a person about an object.

The belief may be based on a variety of learning experiences, rumours misunderstandings or any other information. Therefore the cognitive component is very important and consists of the individuals’ perception, beliefs and ideals about the project.


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The effectiveness of teachers' performance appraisal in secondary schools in Kabale Municipality
Performance Appraisal
Educational Management
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ISBN (Book)
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kabale, municipality, performance, appraisal
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Akampurira Abraham (Author), 2010, The effectiveness of teachers' performance appraisal in secondary schools in Kabale Municipality, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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