Evaluation of Retentive Ability and Some Properties of Modified Denture Adhesive Materials

Research Paper (postgraduate), 2010
7 Pages



Aims: To evaluate pH, viscosity and retentive ability of modified adhesive materials and compared it with commercially available adhesive materials. Materials and Methods: The pH-value of 0.25% denture adhesive materials were determined using pH meter. The viscosity was determined by Ostwald viscometer (Aldrich Company). The retentive ability was measured by specially manufactured reten- tion testing machine using an acrylic resin disc samples which have 6cm diameter and 3mm thickness prepared from a special mold. Results: The findings of the present study showed that the "Bonyplus" gave the highest pH values of all materials tested. Also, showed that the "CMC” gave the highest vis- cosity values, while "Bonyplus" gave the lowest one. The "CMC" gave the highest retention while the "Distilled water" gave the lowest one. Conclusions: All denture adhesive materials tested have a pH equal to that of neutral. The viscosity test showed that the newly prepared materials have a higher vis- cosity than commercial denture adhesive materials. The retention test showed that the newly prepared materials have a higher efficiency than commercial denture adhesive materials.

Key Words: Retentive ability, Properties, denture, adhesive material.


Improving retention and stability of dentures is of considerable interest in pros- thetic dentistry. Approaches to the prob- lem over the years have included overden- tures, implants, and denture adhesives (1 ).

Denture adhesives as aids to denture retention and stability are marked in many forms such as paste, creams, powders, semi - viscous liquids, thin sheets and wax impregnated adhesive cloths. However, the paste, liquid and powder forms are the most common formulations used by den- ture wearers (2 ).

Many studies have been published on the effect of denture adhesives on denture retention and stability, and on masticatory performance. It was found that the use of denture adhesive improves significantly denture retention and stability (3 -5 ).

Other studies have shown that, alt- hough the use of denture adhesives in- creased the denture retention, there was no significant increase in the masticatory per- formance (6,7 ).

The aims of the present study are to evaluate pH, viscosity and retentive ability of modified adhesive materials and com- pared it with commercially available adhe- sive materials.


In the present study, locally available denture adhesive material Sodium- carboxymethylcellulose (Natural product, India) was modified by addition of some additives in 2%. The additive materials used were thymol crystal (BDH Compa- ny), Sodium fluoride (SINAflor Avicenna LABs, Damascus) and Chlorhexidine (powder Iraq NDI). They were tested for toxicity by Silver Nitrate Test and Betten droffs test (8,9 ). These denture adhesive materials were tested in comparison with three commercially available denture ad- hesive materials Fittydent (paste) Fittydent (international GMBH, Austria): Bonyplus (paste) (Bonyf AG, Switzerland) and Cal- cident (powder) (Sofa Dental, Germany) (Table, 1).

Table (1): The main ingredient of denture adhesive materials used in this study

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1. pH Test: The pH-value of 0.25% den- ture adhesive materials was determined using pH meter (Philips Company, Japan). The test was carried out for each of the eight denture adhesive materials.
2. Viscosity Test: In order to evaluate the viscosity of denture adhesive materials the density of adhesive samples was deter- mined by measuring its mass per unit vol- ume using electronic balance (Mettler PM460, Germany) and volumetric flasks (10 ), then the viscosity of denture adhesive materials was determined by Ostwald vis- cometer (Aldrich Company)(11 ).
3. Retention Test: To control the diameter and the thickness of the acrylic resin disk samples, a standard metal mold was con- structed which has a dimension of 10mm in thickness and 6cm in diameter, the cover has a projected surface of 7mm thick- ness to fit inside the mold leaving a space of 3mm for the sample to be formed, in the middle of the mold a hole of 1.5cm in di- ameter placed in which a piston of same diameter inserted for packing the acrylic resin and removal of the sample after cur- ing.

In the upper surface of the piston a de- pression of 0.5cm was prepared that would gave the handle by which the sample was grasped during testing procedure, lower ring was constructed to fit over the piston with a lower cover (Figure,1):

Acrylic resin disks of 6cm in diame- ter and 3mm in thickness were made (Fig- ure 2).

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Figure (1): Metal Mold Used for Acrylic Resin Sample Discs Preparation

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Figure (2): Acrylic Resin Sample for Retention Test

The samples were prepared with heat- cured acrylic resin Dentures (Pink Color) (Major Prodotti Dentari S.P.A ITALY). The samples then packed directly into the metal mold and processed (according to the manufacturer's instruction) then sam- ples were removed and incubated in dis- tilled water at 37±1 °C for 48 hours (12 ), before testing; this was done for each test. The testing apparatus consist of an upper metal plate with window to hold the glass plate on which the acrylic sample was ad- hered; four stands of 40cm height were used to hold the upper metal plate with the lower metal plate for fixing the device. The system was connected to water flow with flow rate of 20ml/min to a weight bucket which was attached by a hook to the testing acrylic resin disk sample.

A stopper was designed to stop water flow when the required weight was reached and disk samples were separated from the glass plate (Figure 3).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure (3): Testing Apparatus for Retention Test

The method used for measuring the retention action of the denture adhesive materials was similar to that used by Panagiotouni et al., (13 ) and Muramatsu et al., (14 ). The adhesive action of disk speci- mens to a clean glass surface wetted with 0.05ml of distilled water was tested. A 0.2gm of the adhesive materials were placed on a wetted acrylic disc using glass rode to distribute the material evenly on the surface then a clean glass plate was placed on the top of acrylic plate so that the materials was sandwiched by the two plates. After applying a load of 3kg for 10 seconds, the resulting assembly was al- lowed to stand at a temperature of 37±3°C for 10minutes in water bath, and then in- cubated in portable incubator. The force necessary for separation of acrylic resin plate from the glass plate was measured using the testing apparatus (Figure 3).

A load was applied slowly at a rate of 20ml/min by the addition of water to weight bucket. After separation the total weight was measured. Each procedure was repeated seven times by the use of a dif- ferent disk sample each times; the glass surface was cleaned very carefully after each test by aqueous solution of detergent, rinsed with distilled water to remove the adhesive material and dried with clean absorbent tissue.

The overall experimental procedure was done at room temperature of 25±2°C. The statistical methods were used to ana- lyze and assess the results of the present study include: descriptive statistic which include mean, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in order to show whether there are significant differences among groups and Duncan's Multiple Range test was per- formed in order to compare between sig- nificant groups.


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9 Ali H.Kh. Evaluation of Retentive Ability of Modified Denture Adhesive Materials. M.Sc. Thesis, College of Dentistry, University of Mosul. 2008

10 Daniels F. and Alberty R.A. (1966) Physical chemistry. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Pp. 383.

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Evaluation of Retentive Ability and Some Properties of Modified Denture Adhesive Materials
University of Mosul  (Dental college)
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evaluation, retentive, ability, some, properties, modified, denture, adhesive, materials
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Dr. Amer A. Taqa (Author)Hala Khuder Ali (Author)Munter N. Kazanji (Author), 2010, Evaluation of Retentive Ability and Some Properties of Modified Denture Adhesive Materials, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/207693


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