Stainless steal orthodotic brackets recycling (using micro–etcher)

Research Paper (postgraduate), 2007
5 Pages



Aims: To evaluate the effects of the micro-etching procedure on the bracket’s slot and base parameters and on the tensile bond strength of the recycled brackets. Materials and Methods: The sample was 20 stainless brackets grouped into; control brackets group(10) and de-bonded brackets group(10). The debonded brackets reconditioned with micro-etcher. the data subjected to the statistical analysis at 0.05 significant level. Results: demonstrated that the use of micro-etcher for recycling the de-bonded brackets do not affect the bracket’s slot and base parameters whereas affected the bond strength of the recycled brackets. Conclusion: The micro-etcher (sand basting) is recommended for recycling the de-bonded stainless steal brackets and reuse them in orthodontic treatments

Key words: Orthodontic brackets; micro-ether; recycling.


Recycling appears to be an effective method for cleaning brackets after acid- ental debonding and facilitating the reuse of accidentally debonded attachments.(1 ) Rec- ycling is considered as a solution for using the same bracket for another patient after sterilization.(2 ) Recycling has an economic and ecological benefit due to the cost of re- used bracket below the price of new brac- ket.(3 )

Micro-etching, this method used for removing the old adhesive from the base of de-bonded bracket in order to improve the retentive surface of the base or pad of the de-bonded bracket. This technique utilized a high speed stream of aluminum oxide pa- rticles propelled by compressed air, althou- gh initially reintroduced as a method for ro- ughing the surface of many dental materials (etch attachment for superior Maryland bri- dge, etch orthodontic band for rapid cement removal from internal surface of crown and bridge prior to re-cementation).(4 ) Another application of micro-etcher; etches all me- tals amalgam, composite, porcelain repa- ir.(5 ) Basudan and Al-Emran (6 ) studied the effect of sandblast on slot width and slot depth, inter-wing gap of reconditioned bra- cket, and found no effect of sandblast on them. Authers (7,8 ) showed that bond streng- th of recyclable bracket was not significant when compared with new brackets. Other researchers (9,10 ) disagreed with this finding, such as, Chung (9 ) who noticed the signific- ant difference in bond strength between re- cyclable bracket that etched by sandblast when compared with the new one. This co- ntroversy required more research to ensure the right findings. The aims of this study were planned to asses the bracket dimens- ions of the slot s, width, depth, inter-wings gape, labio-lingual angle and the bracket’s base curvature angle of the recycled stainle- ss bracket.


The bracket samples consisted 20 stain- less steal (SS) standard edge wise (0.018 x 0.0300 of the bicuspid bracket with a single layer mesh (foil mesh). The brackets grou- ped into two groups, 10 brackets for each. The first group used as control, the second group used for conducting the recycling tec- hnique. Twenty sound extracted human upp- er right first premolars utilized for testing the tensile strength for control and recycling groups. The teeth collected from orthodontic department in the dental school at College of Dentistry, University of Mosul. The teeth did not subjected to any pretreatment, with no detectable caries or enamel cracks and no visible hyper-plastic pits and intact buccal enamel.(11 ) The teeth stored in normal saline 0.9 NaCl.(12 )

The second brackets group bonded on glass via orthodontic composite adhesive. The bonding process performed under a sta- ndard force 500 gm,(6 ) excess resin flash ar- ound the base removed with dental explorer. The bracket de-bonded by using tweezers after one hour.

Micro-etching of the de-bonded brack- ets achieved with Micro-etcher. The micro- etcher is designed to be held like a pencil al- lowing the thumb to activate the finger butt- on control, the nuzzle holed 3 mm away fr- om the bracket base.(13 ) The tip of the nuzzle moves in a mesiodistal direction in sweep te- chnique by using a holder designed to make the nuzzle move for 6 mm mesiodistal direc- tion, and the base of the de-bonded bracket etched for 12 seconds with aluminum oxide 50 micron particle size.(9 )

The parameters (slot s; width, depth, in- ter-wings gap) of the bracket measured un- der the stereomicroscope at a constant qual- ity and then, converted to their original val- ues. The measurements of the slot’s width of the bracket which measured by reading the distance from the tope of the internal co- rners of the gingival and the occlusal of the mesial wings, the slot depth measured by reading the distance of the tangent line at the internal wall of the slot and the inter-wing gap measured by reading the distance betw- een two points at the internal corners of me- sieoocclusal and distoocclusal wings (Figure 1).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure (1): The stainless steal bracket’s dimensions: (A) slot width , (B) slot depth ,

(C) Inter-wings gap.

The labiolingual angle measured by the intersection of the tangant lines of the inter- nal surfaces of the mesio-oclclusal wing and the occluso-gengival floor of the slot and the bracket’s base curvature angle found by the intersection of the tangent lines of the mesial and distal slops of the bracket’s base, these angles measured on the magnified ph- otographs (20X) (Figure 2).


1 Grabouski JK, Staley RN, Jakobsen JR. The effect of microetching on the bond strength metal brackets when bonded to previously bond teeth: an in vitro study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998; 113: 452-460.

2 MacColl GA, Rossouw PE, Titley KC, Ya- min C. The relationship between bond stre­ngth and orthodontic bracket base surface area with conventional and microetched foil- mesh bases. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Ort­hop. 1998;113:276-281.

3 Cacciafesta V, Sfondrini MF, Melsen B, Dc- ribante A. A 12 month clinical study of bo­nd failures of recycled versus new stainless steel orthodontic brackets. Eur J Orthod. 2004; 26: 449-454.

4 Brosh T, Strouthou S, Sarne O. Effects of buccal versus lingual surfaces, enamel cond­itioning procedures and storage duration on brackets debonding characteristics. J Dent.

Recycling of the brackets

2005 ; 33: 99-105.

5 Clark SA, Gordon PH, McCabe JF. An ex vivo investigation to compare orthodontic bonding using a 4-META- based adhesive or a composite adhesive to acid- etched and sandblasted enamel. J Orthod. 2003; 30: 51­58.

6 Basudan AM, Al-Emran SE. The effects of in-office reconditioning on the morphology of slots and bases of stainless steel brackets and on the shear/ peel bond strength. Bri J Orthod. 2001; 28: 231-236.

7 Tavares SW, Consani S, Nouer DF, Magn- ani MB, Neto JS, Romano FL. Evaluation in vitro of the shear bond strength of aluminum oxide recycled brackets. Braz J Oral Sci. 2003;2: 378-381.

8 Quick AN, Harris AM, Joseph VP. Office reconditioning of stainless steel orthodontic attachments. Eur J Orthod. 2005; 27: 231­236.

9 Chung C, Fadem BW, Levitt HL, Mante FK. Effects of two adhesion boosters on the she­ar bond strength of new and rebounded orth­odontic brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2000; 118: 295-299.

10 Schmage P, Nergiz I, Herrmann W, ozcan M. Influence of various surface-condition­ing methods on the bond strength of metal brackets to ceramic surfaces. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003; 123: 540-546.

11 Romano FL, Tavares SW, Nouer DF, Cons­ani S, Magnani MB. Shear bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets bonded to ena­mel prepared with self-etching primer. Ang­le Orthod. 2005; 75: 849-853.

12 Tavares SW, Consani S, Nouer DF, Magn­ani MB, Neto JS, Romano FL. Evaluation in vitro of the shear bond strength of aluminum oxide recycled brackets. Braz J Oral Sci. 2003; 2: 378-381.

13 Gaffey PG, Major PW, Glover K, Grace M, Koehler JR. Shear/peel bond strength of rep­ositioned ceramic brackets. Angle Orthod. 1995;65:351-357.

Excerpt out of 5 pages


Stainless steal orthodotic brackets recycling (using micro–etcher)
University of Mosul  (Dental college)
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Dr. Amer A. Taqa (Author)Hussain A. Obaidi (Author)Omar H. Al-Luazy (Author), 2007, Stainless steal orthodotic brackets recycling (using micro–etcher), Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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