Attitude of B.Ed. Students of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Barode towards continuous internal Assessment

Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2013
115 Pages






List of Tables

List of Graphs

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation
1.3 Present Examination System and Its Impact
1.4 Different Aspects of Assessment
1.4.1 Continuous Assessment
1.4.2 Internal Assessment
1.4.3 Continuous Internal Assessment Characteristics of Continuous Internal Assessment Advantages of the Continuous Internal Assessment Short Comings
1.4.4 Semester System
1.5 Present Status of Continuous Internal Assessment
1.5.1 Evaluation Scheme in The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
1.5.2 Evaluation Scheme in Faculty of Education and Psychology
1.5.3 Evaluation Scheme at B.Ed. Level
1.6 Attitude
1.6.1 Characteristics of Attitudes
1.6.2 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Abstracts of the Studies Reviewed
2.3 Observation and Implication for the present study

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Rationale
3.3 Title of the Study
3.4 Objectives of the Study
3.5 Hypotheses
3.6 Explanation of the Term
3.7 Operationalization of the Term
3.8 Methodology of the Study
3.8.1 Design of the Study
3.8.2 Population of the Study
3.8.3 Sample of the Study Characteristics of the Sample
3.8.4 Tools for the Study Personal Information Schedule Tools to measure Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment
3.8.5 Data Collection
3.8.6 Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Analysis of the Attitude Scale
4.3 Distribution of Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment
4.3.1 Section I: Analysis from the Attitude Scale
4.3.2 Section II: Content Analysis of the Open-ended Questions Analysis of Question 1 Analysis of Question 2 Analysis of Question 3
4.4 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with respect to Selected Variables
4.4.1 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with
respect to Gender
4.4.2 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with respect to Age
4.4.3 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with respect to Different Streams
4.4.4 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with respect to Medium
4.4.5 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with respect to Previous System of Study
4.4.6 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with respect to Marital Status
4.4.7 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with respect to Habitat
4.4.8 Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with respect to Category
4.5 Content Analysis of the Question 4
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Major Findings
5.3 Discussion
5.4 Implication of the Study
5.5 Suggestions for the Further Researches

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Observation and Implication from Review of the Related Literature
6.3 Rationale of the Study
6.4 Title of the Study
6.5 Objectives of the Study
6.6 Hypotheses
6.7 Explanation of the Term
6.8 Operationalization of the Term
6.9 Methodology of the Study
6.9.1 Design of the Study
6.9.2 Population of the Study
6.9.3 Sample for the Study
6.9.4 Characteristics of the Sample
6.9.5 Tools for the Study
6.9.6 Data Collection
6.9.7 Data Analysis
6.10 Major Findings
6.11 Discussion
6.12 Conclusion
6.13 Implication of the Study
6.13 Suggestions for the further Researches



Appendix A: Tool for the StudyAppendix B: List of the Experts


We take this opportunity to thank all those who spared their valuable time in making suggestions for improving the quality of work and helping me accomplish it. I owe gratitude to each one for the patronage.

Firstly, we would like to express my sincere gratification to Research guideProf. S. Kumar, Head, CASE, Department of Education; Dean, Faculty ofEducation and Psychology, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, forguiding me throughout the research. His in-depth knowledge about theexamination system and evaluation patterns stood me in good stead. I am reallythankful for his comments and queries about points he felt that I had not explainedproperly. His support, encouragement and moral boosting, coupled with his friendlyapproach were crucial in completing this study. I am also thankful to him forproviding all the possible facilities.

We wish to express profusely my sincere and deep gratitude to all myteachers whose guidance, support, point-in time correction, encouragement andaffection put me in a position to reach at this particular juncture. Their efforts wereincredible that help me to work on learning the fundamentals of research andsharpening my skills.

We extend our gratitude to all esteemed experts who helped me in tool preparation, without there guidance, support and expert comments tool for the research would not have been possible.

We are highly thankful to Mr. Y. K. Pandya, Librarian, CASE and the staff of Hansa Mehta Library for their kind support and help in finding books.We express our deep sense of gratitude to the B.Ed students for their cooperation during the data collection.

Above all we wish to thank almighty for giving us strength to withstand with all the situations; ebbs and tides.

January 2013

Vadodara Authors


3.1 wise distribution of sample

3.2 Group wise distribution of sample

3.3 of students with respect to Different Streams

3.4 of students With Respect to Medium

3.5 of students with respect to Previous System of Study

3.6 Status of the students

3.7 of students with respect to Habitat

3.8 of students with respect to Categories

3.9 of the statements according to the Components and Polarity

3.10 Procedure for the Attitude Scale

4.1 , Standard Deviation, Skewness and Kurtosis of attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment

4.2 of Favorableness of Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment

4.3 with respect to the Choice of Assessment System preferred by B.Ed. Students as Future Teacher

4.4 with regard to Combination of Internal and External Assessment System

4.5 to Internal and External Assessment combination given by the Students

4.6 with regard to misuse of Continuous Internal System by the Teachers

4.7 , Standard Deviation, Standard Error of Mean, t-value, degrees of freedom (df), and level of significance of the scores obtained from attitude scale with respect to variable-Gender

4.8 , Standard Deviation and Standard Error of Mean of attitude of B.Ed. students with respect to variable-Age.

4.9 for Attitude of B.Ed. students with respect to Different Age Groups

4.10 , Standard Deviation and Standard Error of Mean of attitude of B.Ed. students with respect to variable-Stream

4.11 for Attitude of B.Ed. students with respect to Different Streams.

4.12 , Standard Deviation and Standard Error of Mean of attitude of B.Ed. students with respect to variable-Medium

4.13 for Attitude of B.Ed. students with respect to variable Different Medium

4.14 , Standard Deviation, Standard Error of Mean, t-value, degrees of freedom (df), and level of significance of the scores obtained from attitude scale with respect to variable-Previous System of Study

4.15 , Standard Deviation, Standard Error of Mean, t-value, degrees of freedom (df), and level of significance of the scores obtained from attitude scale with respect to variable-Marital Status

4.16 , Standard Deviation, Standard Error of Mean, t-value, degrees of freedom (df), and level of significance of the scores obtained from attitude scale with respect to variable-Habitat

4.17 , Standard Deviation and Standard Error of Mean of attitude of B.Ed. Students with respect to variable-Caste Category

4.18 for Attitude of B.Ed. students with respect to variable Caste-Category.

4.19 with respect to the scope for the improvement in the existing system of assessment at B.Ed. level


3.1 Gender wise distribution of sample

3.2 Age wise distribution of sample

3.3 Stream wise distribution of sample

3.4 Medium wise distribution of sample

3.5 Distribution of sample according to Previous System of Study

3.6 Marital Status wise distribution of sample

3.7 Habitat wise distribution of sample

3.8 Caste-Category wise distribution of sample

4.1 Distribution of favorableness of Attitude towards continuous Internal 40 Assessment

4.2 Choice of Assessment System preferred by the B.Ed. students as 42 future teachers

4.3 Responses with respect to the Combination of Internal and External 43 Assessment System

4.4 Weightage to Internal and External Assessment combination given 44 by B.Ed. Students

4.5 Misuse of Continuous Internal Assessment by the teachers

4.6 Gender wise Mean Attitude B.Ed. students

4.7 Age wise Mean Attitude of B.Ed. students

4.8 Streams wise Mean Attitude of B.Ed. students

4.9 Medium wise Mean Attitude of B.Ed. students

4.10 Mean Score of B.Ed. students studied through Annual and Semester 54 System

4.11 Mean Attitude of Married and Unmarried B.Ed. students

4.12 Habitat wise Mean Score of the B.Ed. students

4.13 Caste wise Mean Attitude of B.Ed. Students

4.14 Need of improvement in the existing system of assessment



“Doer and Manager too,Inspirer and Admirer, trueAre four partners equal all

In a good or ill work,all-in-all.”

-Shrimad Bhagwad Geeta

Education is a lifelong process. Educational objectives have seen a paradigm shiftfrom three R’s (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic) to four E’s (Economy,Efficiency, Effectiveness and Equality). In this continuously evolving knowledgesociety, with ever expanding frontiers of knowledge, knowledge is continuouslychanging its meaning. One therefore needs to develop new skills, open up newpaths, create new knowledge and explore new dimensions. These days, one mustrun fast not only for going ahead, but even for staying where one is. Education isnow a process of partnership between learners, administrators, teachers andparents. Each of the four has to play not only as per rule but also as per role. Thisera of knowledge demands a shift in the role of educational institutions, as also ofteachers from mere transmitters to generators and facilitators of knowledge. Thiswill demand a subsequent shift in the instructional system as also the pattern ofevaluation because in this tangible world even the intangible asset like knowledgeis quantified in terms of marks and grades. This even constitutes a vital componentof educational system.

It is probably inconvincible to have any instruction at any level without some sort of evaluation. In fact evaluation is an integral part of the teaching learning process. It provides feedback to the teachers and students and helps in systematizing the instructional process. An evaluation result brings sincerity in students and increases concentration of mind, which enhances learning. Evaluation results form the basis for grading and certification of students’ performance. It is used for admissions, promotions and selection of students for various jobs. As evaluation serves such important purpose,

it is essential to understand examination system meaningfully, discriminating it

from similar other terms.


The terms Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation are often used interchangeably but Panton (1985) observes “what evaluation, assessment and measurement have in common is tests, but none of them is synonymous with testing and the type of tests required for each of the process may be different.”

Measurement refers to observation that can be expressed quantitatively and answers the questions “how much”. Evaluation goes beyond the statement of how much to concern itself with the question, “What value”. It seeks to answer to the pupils’ and teachers’ question, “What progress am I making?”

The Dictionary of Education (1982) explains the concept evaluation andassessment as, “Evaluation is often used interchangeably with assessment. This isbecause there is considerable overlap in their meanings. Both involve measurementsdesigned to describe the amount of certain attributes. Both involve procedures forobtaining these measurements, which can involve tests as well as less objectiveinstruments such as rating scales. There is a tendency, however, for evaluation to beused in a more general way, involving a wide range of measures with a greatacceptance of subjective judgments. There is also a tendency for evaluation to be usedmore when the subject of the evaluation is not a person (or group of persons) but thesuccess of a course of teaching or method of teaching. Assessment is therefore usedmore usually in situations where the procedures involve more objective instrumentsand when these instruments are measuring personal attributes.”

Examination has pivotal role to play in this system of assessment. They areindispensable part of the educational process as some form of assessment is quitenecessary to determine the effectiveness of the dissemination of knowledge byteachers and its assimilation by students. This assessment may lead to refinement ofhuman society and may motivate, train and develop human potentiality. Thus thestrength and success of an educational system depends in the examination system.


Former American president John F. Kennedy once said that “Do not ask, mycountrymen, what your country can do for you. Ask, my fellowmen, what you cando for your country”. Reflecting an average Indian attitude, one British correspondent writes, “Indians do not ask what they can do for their country, they do not even ask what they can do for themselves; they always ask what the government can do for them?”

In the same vein the researchers is tempted to say, “Because of presentexamination system, the students do not ask how their study will be useful to thesociety, they do not even ask whether what they study will be useful to them, butthey always ask whether what they study will be useful for examination?” It isblamed that the present examination has completely extinguished the fire ofimagination in the students. It has put their inquisitiveness to total rest and their desireto know more and more and ask questions has died long since. There are manydrawbacks of our examination system. It puts a tremendous burden on students’ mind.Most universities in India follow annual system, which is to a large extent externalwith mainly essay type questions and cent percent options. This promotes rotememorization rather than developing deep understanding, it also gives rise tomalpractices on the part of students as well as of teachers, the conduction ofexaminations also becomes more and more expensive and proves to be a nightmarefor administrators. The examination results also lack validity and reliability and thegrading and certification is largely used as an admit card/ eligibility criteria or labelrather being used for improving the instructions, understanding or knowledge. Thushighlighting only the product and paying no heed to process and input aspects. Thelist is endless. With all these shortcomings, evaluation system has corroded educationsystem that needs to be addressed urgently.

The University Education Commission (1948-49) rightly stated in its reportthat, “If we are to suggest a single reform in the system of education then it wouldbe that of examination” this was followed by recommendations by variouscommissions and committees viz. The Secondary Education Commission (1952),Dongerkery Committee on University Examination Reforms (1957), KothariCommission (1964-66), Examination reforms (1969), Ceylon’s Examination ReformsSeminar (1970), Madurai Workshop on Examination Reforms (1974) and Plan ofAction by University Grants Commission 1971,1973 and 1976, National policy onEducation (1986), and plan of action (1992). The review of the examination systemby these commissions and committees indicated reforms as listed below

- Internal assessment must be introduced.
- Assessment should be a continuous and comprehensive process.3
- Use of question banks and objective type questions.
- Universities should adopt the semester system.
- Grading in place of marking.
- National examination and open book examination.

Considering the recommendations of various commissions and committees theinternal assessment, semester system, continuous and comprehensiveness of theassessment process and grading emerged as the prime areas of concern in context ofexamination reforms. To overcome the drawbacks in the evaluation system and teststudents understanding, application, skill, analytical and synthesis abilities it isnecessary to understand the prevalent reforms in the system so as to be able to suggestimprovement measures. Few of the reforms adopted in Indian universities are theinternal assessments with semester system, continuous and comprehensive evaluationand grading instead of marking.



Continuous assessment implies a process of continuous effort to knowdesirable attainment/change/performance taking place in the learner in accordancewith the educational objectives. Continuous assessment seeks to spread the basis ofmarking/grading on a number of the tests with regular intervals instead of placingmarks/grade at the end of the course. Continuous assessment simply means a processof gaining more and better information about the learner over a period of time. For thepurpose of the study, continuous assessment was interpreted as the systematiccollection of marks or grades over a period of time and their aggregation into the finalgrade. The teachers may award these grades or marks for class work, homeassignments, practical work, assignment, oral work etc. by the use of objective oressay type examination or by the subjective judgment of the students.


The mode of the assessment is said to be internal when a person who is relatedwith the actual process of teaching makes judgment of the learner’s ability. Asassessment has to take into account two major factors, the instructional goals set upby the teacher and the learning experiences provided by him to the students accordingto the instructional goals. As both the instructional goals and learning experiences are set by the teacher, it is natural that he does the testing to find out whether the instructional goals are achieved or not. If achieved, whether fully or partially. Teacher can then diagnose the learning difficulties and devise a remedial program of teaching learning to realize the goals.


Continuous Internal Assessment represents continuous awareness of thedevelopment and knowledge of the students by the teacher, who is related with theactual process of teaching-learning. Continuous internal assessment is a process thatextends over a period of time and that provides to gradual build up of cumulativejudgment about the performance of the students. Raghavendra and Shangugam(1978) formulated set of principles to be followed in the Continuous InternalAssessment as follows

- Assessment is to be done by the teacher who teaches the course
- Assessment of a wide range of objectives may be made possible
- It is to be treated as a teaching and testing device
- It has to indicate the effectiveness of instructional method
- It has to accommodate individual differences.

The chief characteristics of the continuous internal assessment are as follows

- Continuous Internal assessment is continuous, internal and periodic.
- It does not necessarily replace the end examination.
- It does not mean only a few midterm examination in place of finalexamination.
- Continuous internal assessment demands that the outcomes of learning aparticular subject must be spelt out first and then the choice of suitable,meaningful, valid and reliable evaluation tool to match these abilities andskills are made.
- It is based on comprehensive, reliable and valid behavior evidence of progresscollected on all aspects of personality at appropriate time intervals.
- Continuous Internal assessment generates a lot of information to improvefurther teaching learning.
- In this system transparency in marks or grades can be maintained. ADVANTAGES OF THE CONTINUOUS INTERNAL ASSESSMENT

Continuous internal assessment helps

- To know the extent to which the student progresses regularly.
- To diagnose the weaknesses and strengths of the individual student.
- Providing feedback to the teacher and others connected with the education ofthe student.
- The teacher to organize effective and inspirational teaching-learningstrategies.
- The student himself who comes to know about his limitations, weaknesses andstrengths.
- Keeping the parents informed of the progress of their wards.
- Impressing upon the students that their regular attendance in the school isessential for their progress.
- Bringing to light the need for remedial instruction.
- Ascertaining the areas of aptitudes and interests etc. of the students.

- Regular guidance programmes. SHORT COMINGS

Along with the advantages, the continuous internal assessment has also its own set of demerits listed hereby

- It is a time consuming process.
- The teachers can misuse it. If the freedom is given to teachers to mark/gradethe students internally, the results would be biased, inflated, invalid andunreliable
- Continuous internal assessment can lead to Halo effect, that is a studentactively participating in class may be person best known to the teacher, mayscore higher marks compared to the a student’s suffering from shadow effect,who has more worth and scores lesser marks.
- Whatever a teacher teaches will be final, as whatever he/she has taught, hasbeen evaluated by the concern teacher.
- The teachers are already overworked and they cannot carry the additionalworkload.
- - It requires experienced and sincere teachers.
- Its reliability and validity are questionable in view of several elements ofsubjectivity.
- It cannot replace the external examinations but only supplement them.
- It requires a lot of time to understand several activities related to internalassessment.


Semester system is one of the major components of the suggested examinationreforms by various commissions and committees. Semester system is an implant fromthe west to the Indian universities. The word semester derived from a German wordmeans ‘half year’. It implies the division of an academic year into two periods ofinstruction.

The framework, structure and philosophy of the semester system are such thatstudents are familiar with the nature, substance and values of both internal andexternal assessment. In such a process the appropriate atmosphere is created where inthe students develops innate confidence in their own abilities to come to group withvarious course of study and at the same time instill in them courage to faceexamination in a positive frame of mind. There are at least two examinations in a year(each at the end of the semester), thus bringing a higher level of motivation in thestudents since they study, throughout the year, on a continuous basis.


Examination reforms were implemented either fully or partially in variousuniversities across the country at different point of time. The degree of acceptancewas also different. According to University Hand Book (2003), 216 universities wereexamined out of 340. Out of 216 universities, 144 universities had adopted internalassessment system with differential weightage to internal and external assessmentMany universities had implemented this system for few selected disciplines. Someuniversities have continuous internal assessment while other has annual system ofexamination. 102 universities have maintained continuous internal assessment while107 universities have continuous assessment with semester system. There were threeuniversities viz. Govind Ballabh Pant university of Agriculture and Technology, University of Calicut and Indian Agricultural Research institute had trimester system. About 65 universities are trying for these reforms.


The Maharaja Sayajirao University Of Baroda is one such university where these reforms were implemented. Out of thirteen faculties, six faculties viz. Home science, Education and Psychology, Law, Technology and Engineering, Social Work and Management, is having the semester system with continuous internal assessment. The seven other faculties also have internal assessment but without semester system and continuous evaluation also does not takes place. More over differential weightage is given to external assessment in different faculties.


Faculty of Education and Psychology had implemented these examination reforms as early as in 1967-68. The faculty adopted continuous internal assessment system, Semester and grading system with credit system.


The Bachelor of Education program of this institution undergoes a regularcourse of study for one academic year. The performance of students is assessed in twoperiodical tests and one comprehensive test in each semester and assessment is doneon an eleven-point scale. The performance of the students is judged in each semester,in the courses A501 to A508 (compulsory subjects), B501 to B516 (one subject has tobe selected), C501 to C525 (two subjects have to be selected), D501 to D504 (Practiceteaching), E501 to E504 (Practical work and Assignments). Apart from these there isInternal and External Viva Voce Test. Thus continuous internal assessment systemhas been followed at the graduate level. (Except the external viva-voce test and theexternal assessment in the final test lessons during practice teaching)

Thus different recommendations on examination reforms got implementeddifferently in different parts of the country with a motive to make education moremeaningful. Education is not about knowing all that you do not know but its meaningfulness is in behaving the way you do not behave. It is a disgrace thatcurrent examination system nurtures only dry intellectualism. Certified intellectualstend to believe that ideas are items that are manufactured in one’s mental factory andcan be patented by select few for the market price. Education which is supposed to bea joyful activity and achievement in which needs to be mapped in terms of one’scontribution to society, humbleness, humanitarian values and satisfaction of one’shonest investment of both material and mental resources is mapped in terms of marksand grades leading to a lopsided development of mind alone leaving the heart andhand aspect. The administrators, teachers, learners and the society all have an equalshare of blame for handicapping education. The society needs to change itsmaterialistic outlook, which forces quantification in all aspects. The administratorsneed to formulate changes accordingly and facilitate them, the teachers need tohonestly implement the changes and foster creativity while learners with utmostdedication need to work for satisfaction, then would education be meaningful andexamination a mirror.

Every university, the researchers believe, has a component of continuousinternal assessment. A teacher can use this component to test the students in anunconventional manner. The emphasis should be on the ability of student to raisegood questions, to come up with new ideas, suggest new approaches and to examinean argument critically. It is obvious that a teacher’s role is very important in makingeducation meaningful and this role performance will to an extent depends upon theattitude of the teacher towards the system, towards the profession, towards thestudents, towards the evaluation system or any other component of the education as awhole. Infact, a research has shown that the success or failure of any system, business,firm or institute depends upon the attitude, feeling, faith, or perception of all involvedin the system. Therefore, the researchers here has considered attitude as a construct.


Attitudes have been defined in a number of the ways. The simplest definition is that it is a feeling for or against something. (Remmers 1960)Allport (1935) defines it as a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individuals responsive to all objects and situation with which it is related.

Thurston (1946) defines attitude as the degree of positive and negative effects associated to some psychological object. By psychological object he means any symbol, phrase, slogan, person, institution or idea towards which the people can differ with respect to positive or negative effect. An individual who has associated positive affect or feeling with some psychological object is said to be like that object or to have a favorable attitude towards the object. An individual who has associated negative feeling with the same psychological object would be said to dislike that object or to have and unfavorable attitude towards the object.

English and English (1958) defines attitude as an enduring learned predisposition to behave in a consistent manner towards an object or class of objects, then it can be assumed that attitudes are reflection of need states.

Most definitions seem to agree that an attitude is a state of readiness, a tendency toact/react in a certain manner when confronted with certain stimuli. Attitude isreinforced by beliefs (the cognitive component) and often attracts strong feeling (theemotional component) that will lead to particular forms of behavior (the actiontendency component). Attitude have many attributes (positive and negative), someattitude are more enduring the others. For ease of understanding, social psychologistmake a rough distinction among these different levels, calling the most superficial onebeliefs, the next one attitudes, a deeper level values and a still deeper levelpersonality. These levels must not be thought as different layers of cake, there arerelationships and patterns of connections among these layers.


A study of several definitions of attitude provide certain general characteristics of attitude that not only differentiate it from other constructs but also provide basic rationale useful for the study of attitude,

- Attitudes are socially formed (Stern, 1963), cultural experience and training ofan individual will affect the nature of attitude towards objects or situationshence they are relational.
- Attitudes serve as predispositions to respond overtly. As in the case of anymediating variable it is necessary to measure them indirectly.
- Attitudes are orientations towards other object. Individual holding the attitudebases this evaluative nature of attitude upon the conception of the object.
- Attitudes vary in quality and intensity on a continuum from positive through neutral to negative (Krech, 1962: McGrath, 1964: New Comb, 1965)
- Attitudes are purely learnt, rather than being innate or a result of constitutionaldevelopmental and maturation (Sheriff & Sherib, 1950; McGrath, 1964; Shawand Wright, 1967).
- Attitudes have specific references (Sherly and Sherib, 1956; New comb,1965) According to this view an attitude is a characteristic which implies atype of relationship between a person and specific aspects of his environment.
- Attitudes possess varying degrees of interrelatedness to one another ( 1962, McGrath, 1964)


Attitude towards continuous internal assessment can be defined as the sum total of the pupil’s inclination and feeling, prejudice and bias, ideas and conviction about a particular aspect(s) related to the continuous internal assessment By this definition the scope of the attitude study is limited to students’ attitude with regard to specific objects and events related to the continuous internal assessment.

Realizing the importance of attitude as construct, role of teacher and continuous internal assessment as a reform, the researchers were interested in studying the attitude of the future teachers who as learners would be undergoing the Continuous Internal Assessment and their attitudes will decide whether in future as part of the evaluation system, would they like to continue with the system, make appropriate changes or revamp the total system.

In the chapter to follow, a detailed discussion on the studies available in the area of the attitude towards continuous internal assessment has been carried out with a view to draw implications for the present piece of research.



“One who is not fully conversant with what has gone has little chance ofmaking a worthwhile contribution”. (Krishnaswami, 2005)Review of related literature is one of the significant aspects of research. Reviewing the related literature before and after selecting the problem is very important for planning and carrying out the study. It helps to establish the need for the study and limiting the scope of the study. It not only enables the researchers to know the amount of work done in the concerned area but also helps to explore the needs of research in unknown and unexplored areas. It is necessary that the researchers are aware of the knowledge generated and the ongoing process of knowledge generation in the area of research. The review of related literature develops an insight into the methodological aspects of the research. For any research, review of related literature forms the basis for the problem identification. It helps to find ways and means of studying problem, methods used in studying problem, tools, used to collect data and the ways of analyzing data to arrive at a solution. In nutshell it helps the researchers to arrive at the proper perspective of the study. Review also provides sound rationale to the investigators. In the present chapter the researchers has presented the review of literature related to the present study.


Considering the importance of it, an attempt has been made to present the review of the available research done, in the area of the present study, which is being presented chronologically as under Lele, et al (1962) found that combination of internal assessment marks with the external assessment marks did not significantly improve the prediction of further performance of students.

Lohani (1965) in a study of internal assessment in secondary schools observed that in this system pupil are made to work regularly. The pupils develop regular study habits instead of preparing at the last minute just before examination.

Kamat (1968) revealed that the coefficient of correlation between the internal and external assessment was not high; it was smaller in respect of arts subjects than the science subjects.

Shahastrabudhe (1977) studied about the implementation of the continuous assessment, grade system in the four faculties at the M.S. University of Baroda. Besides that the traditional type of evaluation is still in practice in more than half of the faculties was discussed.

Tong (1977) studied the attitude of the students and teachers towards semester system at M.S. University of Baroda. The study found that the attitude of students (60%) and teacher (65%) were favorable towards the semester system. According to the study the male teachers have more favorable attitude towards semester system in comparison with those of the other sex. The girl students and boy student’s attitude do not differ significantly towards the semester system. There is no difference of attitude among the male and female teachers who have got more experience. They have more or less the same attitudes towards semester system.

Reddi (1977) studied the attitude of students towards internal assessment. The studycovers the attitude of 120 student of university colleges where internal assessment isbeing tried. It was compared with that of 120 students of another university collegewhere the system was going to be introduced. The findings of the study were thatthose who had experience with internal assessment had slightly more favorableattitude towards the system than those who did not have any experience with it. Buteven then, those who had experienced the system felt that the influence of extraneous,non-academic considerations on evaluation was not insignificant. Neither thestudents of the traditional university nor those of the experimental university wantedcomplete internal assessment. A majority of them favored only partial internalassessment.

Narsian (1978) found all the twelve universities in India have accepted the change in educational system in principle. Internal assessment is in practice but nature of adoption differs in each university. Five universities adopted grading system while two universities adopted question bank.

Patel (1978) studied the evaluation procedure at B.Ed. and M. Ed. Programmed in theFaculty of Education and Psychology at The M S. University of Baroda. The findingsof the study were (a) Male M. Ed. Students offer the highest mean score to semestersystem followed by the faculty staff. Female B. Ed. Students, outsiders, female M Ed.

Students and male B. Ed. Students, where as outsiders give the highest means score to grade system followed by female M Ed. Students, Faculty staff, female B. Ed.Students and male B. Ed. Students. (b) The mean difference between the students andthe staff in the context of semester system is not significant. (c) The picture ofsemester system, grade system and internal assessment is not very clear to thestudents. (d) The 50% of the respondent have observed that the new schemes ofevaluation encourage favoritism and prejudice. Among the 50% B. Ed. Students holdmajority. (e) Majority wants the combination of objective tests and essay typequestions having the 50% weightage. (f) Again majority wants the combination ofinternal assessment and external assessment having the weightage of 50%. (g)T1+T2+C: 25+25+50 pattern of testing seems to be popular. (h) So far as the habits ofthe students teaching and evaluating habits of teachers are concerned. The newevaluation procedures do not yield bright results. (i) Viva-voce test is necessary. (j)So far as the course is concerned the picture was encouraging. (k) Teachers evaluatewhat they teach is the general opinion. But there are so solitary cases could holdcategory view. (l) Students do not carry with them the good image of the faculty whenthey leave the faculty. (m) External evaluation will bring useful and healthy contactsbetween the students and the staff members. (n) There are good as well as the badpoints of the new scheme of evaluation, good points should be epitomized and badpoints should be erased.

Gunasekarn and Jayanti (1979) had a comparative study which was designed tocompare the views of teachers of a university college where internal assessment wasgoing to be introduced from the next academic year with those of the teachers ofanother university college where the system was being tried out for a few years. Theresult of the study were (a) All the subgroups of the teachers except those belongingto the arts faculty of college C-1 were significantly favorable towards their system ofinternal assessment. (b) Discussion with the students and the teachers of college C-1revealed that the students depended mostly on lecture notes. This was also seen whenmore than half of the teachers felt that the students did not learn the subject in thissystem. (c) The teachers of the college C-1 felt that high hopes about the system ofinternal assessment were believed when the system was implemented in their college.Pillai (1979) with reference to the introduction of the semester system with internalassessment, urban and women students favour it more so the arts and commercestudents.

There was no significant difference in the opinion between students and teachers.

Reddy (1979) in his study revealed that teachers of the colleges where internal assessment had not get started did not differ in their attitude towards the internal assessment system from those of the colleges where the system was in practice. Most of the studies carried out in this area signify that there has always been liberal marking in internal assessment.

Akhtar (1980) studied mainly courses of study methods of teaching, evaluationprocedure, and academic improvement of the students, teachers’ difficulties and theirsuggestions under the semester system student’s agitation. Researchers had found thatteachers spelt out the purposes of introducing the semester system. According to themthe semester is implemented to assess the day-to-day performance of the students. Itgives flexibility to teaching and freedom to the teachers to assess the students. It alsogives freedom to teachers in framing the courses. Semester system again gives theopportunity to the bright and weaker students to make progress in their own way.

Roshach (1980) has found that in Tamilnadu, the teacher of University andautonomous colleges favored the semester system. Engineering, Medicine, Technicaland Veterinary Science students favored the semester system. Principals and studentsperceived it as group 31-50 years’ degree-holders and males favour the system.Rasool, Sarup and Sharma (1981) examined the characteristics of the distribution ofthe scores awarded by the external and the internal examiners, to find out the degreeof relationship between the external and internal marks and to find out the effect ofthe internal marks on the boosting of the overall result of students.The major findings were (a) The majority of the teachers preferred to maintain a lowrange in the marks of internal assessment, that is, the gap between the lowest and thehighest scores was narrow. The range of the external marks in the same papers wasdefinitely more than the internal marks. (b) The internal assessment proved to be abooster of the final result of almost all the students. The marks awarded under theinternal assessment helped the students in raising their aggregate percentage of marks.Dhabir (1984) analyzed the marks at the B. Ed. Examination for five consecutiveyears from the record of Nagpur University. An interview schedule was used as a toolto collect information from principals, lecturers and pupil teachers about the practicalaspect of this examination. The major findings were, (a) The general percentage ofpasses in theory was more than 90 for all the years. (b) There was an increasingtendency of passing and a diminishing tendency of failure. (c) The percentage of successful candidates in theory was remarkably higher in Government colleges for all the five years. (d) The ranking order was Government College as first, Private Collegeas second and University Colleges at third. (e) The increasing trend of admission inUniversity colleges was one of the causes of deterioration in the standard of theseprofessional courses. (f) There was wide disparity between the marks in the theoryand practical examination. (g) There were instances of students in private collegessecuring a high as 90 percent to 99 percent marks in the internal assessment.

Pillai and Mohan (1986) studied the working of semester system and found that theteachers used lectures, discussions, assignments and seminars as major instructionalstrategies. They used continuous assessment and assignments to help the studentslearn systematically. They felt that the ratio of 75:25 for external and internalassessment was adequate. Students were satisfied with the existing ratio of externaland internal assessment. They, however, were not in favour of many tests. About 40percent of students doubted the reliability of external assessment and suspectedsubjectivity in internal assessment.

Malhotra, Menon, Bedi and Tulsi (1989) studied the status of internal assessment ofstudents in the polytechnic of Haryana and found that the techniques used forassessing course work in respect of cognitive abilities practical skills and attitudeswere found to lack the validity. These were also not found to be helpful to students intheir progressive learning. Students expressed dissatisfaction with the techniques usedfor assessment. According to them, the assessment lacked objectivity, copying inhomework, assignments and class-tests and no opportunity for improvement.

Ravi (1989) studied the attitude of examiners towards internal assessment in relationto Gender, level and stream. The objectives of the study were, (i) To study the attitudeof examiner towards internal assessment. (ii) To compare the attitude of male andfemale examiners. (iii) To make a comparative study of examiner of the severalstream with those of the arts stream. (iv) To compare the examiners who work atintermediate level and those who work at degree level. (v) To study the interactioneffect of gender level and stream on the attitude of examiner. The major findings were

(a) The examiner did not posses favorable attitude towards the internal assessmentsystem. (b) Male had more favorable attitude than the female counterparts. (c) Theexaminers working at the intermediate level had more favorable attitude than thoseworking at degree level. (d) Science stream examiners were more favorably inclined towards the internal assessment system. (e) There is no interaction effect of gender level and stream on attitude of examiner. Kumari (1990) investigated the evaluation procedures of some of the faculties of M. S. University. Researchers had studied the problems of examination and evaluation system in relation to the validity and reliability of grading over marking had arrived at the conclusion that grading in the evaluation under the semester system is no improvement over the marking under the traditional examination system.Joseph (1993) evaluated the procedure being followed in the Faculty of Education and Psychology of the M. S. University of Baroda, found that the semester system and internal assessments shall be continued as at present, but grading and marking system needs further refinement and modifications.

Prasad (2001) measured the attitude of B.Ed students towards the internal evaluationand found that the students had favorable attitude towards internal evaluation. Thedegree of favorableness was seen more in males and females of science stream andEnglish medium students liked the system most. Also the students who studiedthrough the annual system had more favorable attitude towards the continuousinternal assessment compare to those who studied through the semester system.


The review of all these related literature has however, elucidated the followingobservations, which further justifies the causes of taking up the present study.

- Majority of the studies were survey type. The Questionnaires, Opinionnaire,Interviews and Attitude scale were the common among the tools used by theresearchers.
- Studies like Lele (1962), Kamat (1968), Jhaveri and Patel (1968), Ravi (1989),Dhabir (1989) showed dissatisfaction towards the continuous internalassessment. Pillai (1986), Mohan (1986), Malhotra, Menon, Bedi and Tulsi(1989) showed dissatisfaction towards internal assessment system andquestioned the subjectivity of the internal assessment and found thatcombination of the marks with the external assessment marks did notsignificantly improve in the prediction of further performance of the students.
- There were also studies like Reddi (1977), Gunasekarn and Jayanti (1979),Rasool (1981), Sarup (1981), Sharma (1981), Ravi (1989), Prasad (2001) that favored the continuous internal assessment system with varying degree of the weightage to internal and external assessment.
- With respect to continuous aspect of evaluation, with semester system Tong (1977), Patel (1978), Akhtar (1980), Roshtah (1980) found that Semester system helps in maintaining the continuity.
- Continuous Internal Assessment supports regular study habits was reported by Lohani (1965), Akhtar (1980), Dhabir (1984), Pillai and Mohan (1986).
- Those who were having earlier experience with the system were more favorable towards the system was found by Reddi (1977)
- Male students as well as teachers had a favourable attitude towards continuous internal assessment compares to their female counterparts was found by Tong(1977), Patel (1978), Roshtah (1980), and Ravi (1989). But Pillai (1979)reported that degree of favorableness was more in female students than male.
- The findings emerging from Reddi (1979), Patel (1978), Gunasekarn andJayanti (1979), Rasool (1981), Sarup (1981), Sharma (1981), Ravi (1989),Pillai and Mohan (1986), Malhotra, Menon, Bedi, and Tulsi (1989), Prasad(2001) doubted the validity and reliability of the internal assessment. Kamat (1968), Gunasekarn and Jayanti (1979), Pillai (1979), Ravi (1989)found the significant difference in the attitude of students among the arts,science and commerce streams. Gunasekarn and Jayanti (1979), Pillai (1979)found that arts and commerce stream students were more favourable towardsthe continuous internal assessment than science stream. But Kamat (1968) andRavi (1989) reported vice versa.

Thus it could be concluded that varied studies were conducted in area of continuous internal assessment including teachers, students and student teachers with respect to number of variables.

It can also be concluded from above studies that continuous internalassessment conducted by individual institutions is of great significance and should begiven increasing importance. To assess the scholastic and non-scholastic aspects,continuous internal assessment is important. But at the same time there are manyfactors like teachers behavior, students attitude, several features of students andteacher like Gender, Stream, Previous System of Examination, Marital Status,Rural/Urban Habitat and Caste-Category could affects continuous internalassessment.

Therefore more research is needed to study the attitude of those involved, how their heterogeneity can influence the system and on that basis think of a path or improve the existing system. This provides the researchers a strong rationale for carrying out the present piece of research.



“To plan is to act with purpose, to choose the right alternative out of manyand choice is the essence of any educational activity. If one fails to plan, one plansto fail.”

- L. Robbins

Having reviewed related literature that helps in identifying the present studyand its methodology the next step is to plan out the present study. Planning is the mostimportant step in any research endeavor. The most polished procedures andsophisticated statistical analysis cannot salvage a study, which has been poorlyplanned. Thus, the formidable task of preparing a plan or research design isundertaken to bring systematization and economy of efforts. Research design is aconceptual structure within which the research is conducted, it constitutes theblueprints for the collection, measurement and analysis of data, as such the researchdesign includes an outline of what the researchers will do right from writing thehypotheses and its operational implications to the final analysis of data. A researchdesign is compared to a blueprint or a navigators’ map for the researchers. Thus in theabsence of a research design the researchers will be lost in a fog of his own making.Kothari (1990) reflects on the need of the research design as, “A research design isneeded because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations,thereby making research as efficient as possible yielding maximal information withminimal expenditure of effort time and money.”

The present chapter on methodology of the study includes rationale of the study, statement of the problem, objectives, hypothesis, and Operationalization of terms, population and sample, characteristics of the sample, tools used for data collection and techniques applied for the data analysis.


“Close the book and open your mind…” quipped a teacher to a studentfeverishly turning the pages of a book to find the answer in an open book examinationin one of the American universities. This is what the teachers need to teach. Teach students to open their minds instead of books. Helping the students to think is itself a challenge for the teachers and then to grade them according to their ability is an even greater challenge. What should be our evaluation patterns, grading systems so as to release the hidden potentials?

The review of the related studies portrayed a picture of the evaluation systemin different universities, the reforms implemented and the differential weightagethereby. The studies also focused on the attitude of the students, teacher and thestudent teachers towards the system of the evaluation, how it differed with respect tovariables, why the difference, the shortcomings in the system and suggestions for thefuture. But the researchers came across only one study relating to the attitude of thoseinvolved and with the system, it means how favorability would or lack of it judge theworth of a system, could the opinion of those involved help in the improvement of thesystem, how attitude of different individuals differ towards the same construct on thebasis of their characteristics. The lack of research evidences in these areas, curiosityto fill in the gaps, and being a part of Continuous Internal Assessment with semestersystem, the proximity that the researchers had, made the researchers arrive at theproblem.

Assessing the student’s performance is an inevitable component of theteaching-learning process, since it is assessment that decides the quality of thelearning. If the evaluation system examines the cognitive aspect only, it is promotingdry intellectualism, if some unconventional methods are considered for evaluating allthree domains and the process it may result in the emergence of a knowledge society.If such being the importance of the evaluation and of course that of teacher, who isthe agent of change in the process, how important it is to know which system ofevaluation gives a true measure of the students’ capabilities, how attitude of teacher asexecutor is important if the system has to function flawlessly. The researchers arekeen on studying all these aspects through systematic research.

Students are an integral part of the teaching learning process and so of theevaluation system. For continuing any system effectively, a regular appraisal is a mustthat too by those involved in the system and those being made a party to it. TheFaculty of Education and Psychology, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda,has adopted the continuous internal assessment system since 1967-68 i.e. from lastfour decades. The students of the Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) program are party tothis system and in future, as teachers may be involved in the system. How do they perceive the system? , What is their attitude towards the system? Would it decide the future course of the system? Moreover, these students may have come from different institutes/faculties with different evaluation patterns, how that influence their attitude? which other factors can have an impact on attitude towards continuous internal assessment.

Further researches of Pillai (1986), Mohan (1986), Malhotra, Menon, Bedi and Tulsi (1989) showed dissatisfaction towards internal assessment system since it leaves more scope for subjectivity.

Lele (1962), Kamat (1968), Jhaveri (1968) and Patel (1968), Ravi (1989),Dhabir (1989) showed dissatisfaction towards the continuous internal assessmentwhile Reddi (1977), Gunasekarn and Jayanti (1979), Rasool (1981), Sarup (1981),Sharma (1981), Ravi (1989), Prasad (2001) favored the continuous internalassessment system. What then is the true picture? Except Prasad (2001) none of thestudies were recent ones.

Without billeting the importance of these studies it may be noted that few questions are remained unanswered viz.

- Can we say anything firmly about the attitude of the students who are alreadyin the system of continuous internal assessment?
- Can we say anything about the impact of different variables like Gender, AgeGroup, Different Streams, Medium of Instruction, Previous System ofExamination, Marital Status, Habitat and Category on attitude towardscontinuous internal assessment?

Therefore more research is needed in this area to find out the factors those are associated with it. In the present study an attempt has been made to seek the answers to these questions.

All these thoughts made the researchers to leading to the present piece ofresearch.


Attitude of B.Ed. students of The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda towards Continuous Internal Assessment


1. To construct a scale to measure the attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment.
2. To measure the attitude of B.Ed. students of The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda towards Continuous Internal Assessment.
3. To Study the attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment with respect to different variables like Gender, Age Group, Different Streams, Medium of Instruction, Previous System of Examination, Marital Status, Habitat and Category.


1. There will be no significant difference in the attitude of male and female students towards Continuous Internal Assessment.
2. There will be no significant difference in the attitude of students belonging to different age group towards Continuous Internal Assessment.
3. There will be no significant difference in the attitude of B.Ed. students with different streams viz. Science, Arts and commerce towards Continuous Internal Assessment.
4. There will be no significant difference in the attitude of B.Ed. students studied through different medium of instructions viz. English or Vernacular towards Continuous Internal Assessment.
5. There will be no significant difference in the attitude of B.Ed. students who
have studied through Semester system and/or annual system towards Continuous Internal Assessment.
6. There will be no significant difference in the attitude of B.Ed. students with respect to the marital status towards Continuous Internal Assessment.
7. There will be no significant difference in the attitude of B.Ed. students with urban background and B.Ed. students with rural background towards Continuous Internal Assessment.
8. There will be no significant difference in the attitude of B.Ed. students belonging to different category towards Continuous Internal Assessment.


- Continuous Internal Assessment: Continuous Internal Assessment is aprocess, that extends over a period of time, of continuous awareness of theknowledge and development of the students by the same teacher engaged inteaching learning process and gives cumulative and comprehensive judgmentabout students’ progress. The assessment involves tests (written, oral),assignments, projects, fieldwork, discussion, practical work, class-work etc.


- Attitude towards Continuous Internal Assessment: It is the sum total of thepupil’s inclination and feeling, prejudice and bias, ideas and conviction abouta particular aspect(s) related to the continuous internal assessment i.e. it is theperception, thinking, and feeling of pupils towards continuous internalassessment.

By this definition the scope of the attitude study is limited to students’ attitude withregard to specific objects and events related to the continuous internal assessment.


The methodology is the crux of any study. The detailed description of the procedure and plan used by the researchers is mentioned in this section.


It is a survey kind of descriptive study where the researchers attempts to find out reality.


The population of the study constituted all students in the B.Ed. programme of the year 2006-07, admitted in the Faculty of Education and Psychology of The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda.


Since the problem under study is mainly confined to the B.Ed. course of the Faculty of Education and Psychology of The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda alone, and the population i.e. 180 students of B.Ed. course, being too small, the entire population of the said course was taken for the sample.


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Attitude of B.Ed. Students of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Barode towards continuous internal Assessment
Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda  (CENTRE OF ADVANCED STUDIES IN EDUCATION )
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Avtar Singh (Author)Roshni Desai (Author), 2013, Attitude of B.Ed. Students of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Barode towards continuous internal Assessment, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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