Energy Sources and Electrical Generation

Technical Report, 2011

17 Pages, Grade: A

Free online reading


1.0 Introduction

2.0 General Analysis

3.0 The institutional set up and the power problems in Nigeria

4.0 Energy Resources in Nigeria
4.1 Coal
4.2 Gas
4.3 Crude Petroleum product
4.4 Hydro electric Generation
4.5 Solar

5.0 Discussion

6.0 Recommendation

7.0 Conclusion

8.0 References



Electricity plays a very important role in the socio economic and technological development of every nation. The electricity demand in Nigeria far outstrips the supply and the supply also is epileptic in nature. The country is faced with acute electricity problems which are hindering its development, notwithstanding the availability of vast natural resources in the country.

The history of electricity in Nigeria dates back to 1896 where electricity was first produced in Lagos, fifteen years after its introduction in England. Despite the fact that its existence in the country is over a century, its development has been at a slow rate. In 1950, a central body was established by legislative council, which transferred electricity supply and development to the care of the central body known as the Electricity Corporation of Nigeria (ECN). Other bodies like the Native Authorities and Nigeria Electricity Supply Company (NESCO) have licenses to produces electricity in some locations in Nigeria.

There was another body known as Niger Dams Authority (NDA) established by an act of parliament. The Authority was responsible for the construction and maintenance of dams and other works on the River Niger and also generating electricity by means of water power, improving, production and promoting fish brims and irrigation. The energy produced by NDA was sold to the Electricity Corporation of Nigeria for distribution and sales at utility voltages.

In 1972 the National Electric Power Authority of Nigeria (NEPA) was established with the amalgamation of Electricity Corporation of Nigeria (ECN) and the Niger Dam Authority (NDA). NEPA was empowered to maintain an efficient coordinated and economically viable electricity supply in Nigeria (Sambo, 2008, Onwioduokit and Omoigui, 2000, ECN, 2004). In about 2005, the Power Holding of Nigeria gradually took over the functions of NEPA with little or no improvement to the power sector.


Within the particular conception of socio-economic processes which underscore every economic system, economic development globally revolves around the issues of the character, structure, pattern and evolution of desirable inter-personal relations of production, allocation and utilization of available resources in the country. In other to optimally develop and efficiently manage such available resources, equitably allocate and effectively utilize them and subsequently put economic development firmly on course, modern operational technologies with respect to production, allocation and utilization are designed and tied strictly to the use of energy in one form or the other. Thus, the quest to rapidly and firmly put the Nigerian economy on the course of economic development is technically, a function of adequate supply and distribution of energy, particularly electricity

In this regard, adequate supply and distribution of electricity constitute a central development issue which cannot be over-emphasized. Apart from serving as the pillar of wealth creation in Nigeria, it is also the nucleus of operations and subsequently the ‘engine of growth’ for all sectors of the economy. In recognition of the consolidating linkage between the energy sector and the other sectors of the economy, electricity development and utilization therefore have pervasive impacts on a range of socio-economic activities and consequently the living standard of citizens in the country.

From available data (Sambo, 2006 Nwankwo, 2000) about 40% only of the nation population of over 130 million have access to grid electricity. At the rural level, where 70 percent of the population lives, the availability of electricity is about 15 percent.

With the inadequate spread of power in the country, the National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) due to their inefficiency, electricity supply in Nigeria has been very unreliable so much that the demand on the so call available areas are not met. Indeed in most Nigerian towns hardly a day passes without an interruption in power supply and /or voltage and frequency variation. Sometimes, the outage last for hours. Some towns or part of towns experience complete blackout for days, sometimes months at a time. The incidence of Electricity outages, voltage and frequency variation in power system has become a rule rather than an exception in Nigeria. It has been observed that the problem centred on Nigeria’s inability to co-ordinate the power resources resulting in lack of adequate generating capacity and too little expenditure on distribution facilities and maintenance. Other problems include inefficient load distribution, low capacity utilization, shortage of technical manpower in critical areas of the power industry and shortage or complete lack of essential spare parts as at when required. For over twenty years prior to 1999, the power sector did not witness substantial investment in infrastructural development. During that period, new plants were not constructed and existing ones were not properly maintained, bringing the power sector to a deplorable state. In 2001, generation went down from installed capacity of about 5600MW to an average of 1,750MW as compared to a load demand of 6,000MW. Also nineteen out of seventy nine (Sambo, 2008, Komolafe and Omoigui, 2000) installed generating units were in operation. The real installed units, installed capacity and the available units are shown in table 1:

17 of 17 pages


Energy Sources and Electrical Generation
( Atlantic International University )  (Niger Delta University)
ESE 637
Catalog Number
ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
File size
691 KB
energy, sources, electrical, generation
Quote paper
John Tarilanyo Afa (Author), 2011, Energy Sources and Electrical Generation, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


  • No comments yet.
Look inside the ebook
Title: Energy Sources and Electrical Generation

Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free