Master's Thesis, 2010
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Effect of cropping systems on
2.1.1 Growth and yield of rice
2.1.2 Total productivity of system including field crops
2.1.3 Total productivity of system including vegetables
2.1.4 Total productivity of system with intercrop
2.2 Effect of cropping systems on soil fertility status
2.3 Effect of cropping systems on weed dynamics
2.4 Water use efficiency
2.5 Economic viability
2.6 Employment generation, production and land utilization efficiency
III. MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Geographical Situation
3.2 Climatic condition
3.3 Weather condition during crop growth
3.4 Cropping history of the experimental field
3.5 Physico-chemical characteristics of soil
3.6 Experimental details
3.7 Test crops
3.7.1 Rice (Oryza sativa)
3.7.2 Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
3.7.3 Castor (Ricinus communis)
3.7.4 Lentil (Lens culinaris MediK.)
3.7.5 Mustard (Brassica juncea)
CHAPTER PARTICULARS PAGE No.
3.7.6 Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
3.7.7 Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraceum)
3.7.8 Onion (Allium cepa L.)
3.7.9 Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)
3.8 Experimental details and cultural operations
3.9 Seed treatment
3.10 Transplanting of rice
3.11 Cultural Schedule
3.12 Harvesting and threshing
3.13 Studies on crops
3.13.1 Pre-harvest observation
184.108.40.206 Plant population (No. m-2)
220.127.116.11 Plant height (cm)
18.104.22.168 Dry matter accumulation (g plant 1)
22.214.171.124 Leaf area index (LAI)
3.14 Weed studies
3.14.1 Weed density
3.14.2 Dry weight of weeds
3.15 Post harvest observations
3.15.1 Yield components
126.96.36.199 Panicles plant-1
188.8.131.52 Grains panicle-1
184.108.40.206 Panicle length (cm)
220.127.116.11 Test weight (g)
3.15.2 Biomass production
3.15.3 Grain yield (q ha -1)
3.15.4 Straw yield (q ha -1)
3.15.5 Harvest index (%)
3.15.6 Wheat equivalent yield (kg ha -1)
3.16 Chemical analysis
3.16.1 Organic carbon content
3.16.2 Available nitrogen
3.16.3 Available phosphorus
3.16.4 Available potassium
3.17 Economic analysis
3.18 System analysis
3.18.1 Productivity efficiency (PE)
3.18.2 Economic efficiency
3.18.3 Relative productivity efficiency (RPE) and relative economic efficiency (REE)
3.18.4 Irrigation water use efficiency
3.18.5 Employment generation efficiency
3.20 Statistical analysis
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Studies in rice
4.1.1 Plant population and plant height of rice
4.1.2 Dry matter accumulation of rice (g plant -1)
4.1.3 Leaf area index of rice
4.1.4 Yield attributing characters of rice (Number of panicles plant -1)
4.1.5 Grain and straw yield (q ha-1) and harvest index (%) of rice
4.1.6 Weed studies in rice
4.1.7 Available nutrient status at kharif harvest
4.1.8 Economics of rice
4.2 Studies in rabi crops
4.2.1 Grain yield in terms of wheat equivalent yield
4.2.2 Weed dynamics in rabi crops
4.2.3 Available nutrient status at rabi harvest
CHAPTER PARTICULARS PAGE No.
4.2.4 Economics of rabi crops
4.3 Total productivity and system Analysis
4.3.1 Total productivity in terms of WEY
4.3.2 Economics of the system
4.3.3 Production efficiency and economic efficiency
4.3.4 Relative productivity efficiency and relative economic efficiency
4.3.5 Employment generation efficiency
4.3.6 Irrigation water use efficiency and irrigation water requirement
V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH WORK
LIST OF TABLES
3.1 Physico-chemical properties of the experimental site
3.2 Treatment details of experiment
3.3. Details of original experiment
3.4 Experimental details of fertilizer doses, sowing and harvesting dates
3.5 Schedule of different cultural operation during kharif and rabi season. 36 –
4.1 Plant population of three rice varieties as affected by different cropping systems
4.2 Plant height (cm) of rice varieties as affected by different cropping systems
4.3 Dry matter accumulation plant -1 of three rice verities as affected by different cropping systems
4.4 Leaf area index (LAI ) of three rice varieties as affected by different cropping system
4.5 Yield attributing characters of three rice varieties as effected by different cropping systems
4.6 Grain yield, straw yield, and harvest index of three rice varieties as affected by different cropping systems
4.7 Total weed population and weed dry weight of weedsows and fenugreek (seed purpose as affected by different cropping systems
4.8 Effect of different cropping systems on organic carbon and available NPK content in soil at the time of kharif harvest
4.9 Cost of cultivation, net return and benefit: cost ratio of rice as affected by different cropping systems
4.10 Grain yield and wheat equivalent yield of rabi crops as influenced by different cropping systems
4.11 Total weed population and dry matter of rabi season weeds as affected by different cropping systems
4.12 Available N, P and K and organic carbon (OC) content of soil after rabi harvest as affected by different cropping systems
4.13 Cost of cultivation, net return and B:C ratio of rabi crops as influenced by different cropping systems
4.14 Total Productivity (TP) of the system in terms of wheat equivalent yield (WEY), total cost of cultivation, total net return and benefit: cost ratio of different rice-based cropping systems
4.15 Production efficiency, economic efficiency, relative productivity efficiency and relative economic efficiency as affected by different cropping systems
4.16 Employment generation efficiency, no. of labour employed, irrigation water use efficiency and irrigation water requirement as affected by different cropping systems
4.17 Total energy input, output, input: output ratio and energy use efficiency of different rice based cropping systems
LIST OF FIGURES
3.1 Weekly meteorological data during crop growth period (From July 01, 2009 to March 30, 2010)
3.2 The layout plan and other details of experiment
4.1 Leaf area index of three rice varieties as affected by different cropping systems
4.2 Grain yield of rice, rabi crops and total productivity of the system in terms of wheat equivalent yield (WEY) as affected by different cropping systems
4.3 Relative productivity and relative economic efficiency of different cropping systems
LIST OF PLATES
1 View of sunflower +lentil
2 View of wheat+ fenugreek
I Weekly meteorological data during crop growth period (From July 01, 2009 to March 31, 2010).
II a Cost of cultivation of rice (Rs. ha-1) system of rice cucultivation
II b Cost of cultivation of wheat ( Rs. ha-1)
II c Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) of wheat + lentil (1:1) skip/alternate row of 20 cm
II d Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) of wheat + lentil (1:1) skip/alternate row of 20 cm (Rs/ha) of castor + lentil (1:3)
II e Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha) of onion +coriander (3:1)
II f Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) (Rs/ha) of wheat+ Fenugreek (1:1) skip/alternate row of 20 cm
II g Cost of cultivation (Rs/ha) of mustard + lentil (1:2)
II h Cost of Cultivation (Rs/ha) of sunflower + lentil (1:3)
II i Prices of test crops
Cropping systems based on rice (Oryza sativa L.) are prevalent in the eastern part of India, which covers 43 per cent of rice area of the country. Rice-based systems are intimately connected with development of water resources. In the era of shrinking resource base of land, water and energy, resource-use efficiency is an important aspect for considering the suitability of a cropping system (Yadav, 2002). Diversification and intensification of rice-based systems to increase productivity per unit resource is very pertinent. The diversification of cropping system is necessary to get higher yield and return, to maintain soil health, sustain environment and meet daily requirement of human and animals (Samui et al., 2004).
Any modification to the existing system with a tendency to decline the productivity of rice crop will neither be sustainable nor acceptable to the farming community. Likewise, the importance of highly intensive crop sequence is also well recognized to meet the growing demand of ever-increasing population. An intensive cropping which must not only be highly productive and profitable but also be stable over the time and maintains soil fertility in present conditions (Ghosh, 1987). An intensification of cropping sequence is essentially depending on the need of the area. Oilseeds and pulses including vegetables are receiving more attention owing to higher prices due to increased demand. Inclusion of these crops in a sequence changes the economics of the cropping sequence. Furthermore, due to diverse agro-climatic conditions in the country, a large number of crops are grown. Nearly 66 percent of the total cultivated area is under food grain crops (cereals and pulses). Commercial agriculture not only catered to the domestic market, but has also been one of the major sources of earning of foreign exchange for the country. Moreover, diversification with inter-cropping can give higher yields than when grown as sole crops (Mandal et al. 1986 ). Thus, selecting compatible combination of crops is necessary for the maximum utilization of growth resources, viz. solar energy, and water per unit area per unit time that will also keep the soil in a better physical condition as well as improvement in yield. Hence, choice of the component crops needs to be suitably maneuvered to harvest the synergism among them towards efficient utilization of resource base and to increase overall productivity (Anderson, 2005).
Chhattisgarh is popularly recognized as rice bowl of the country, as it is the principle crop of this state and about 69-70 percent of the net sown area is covered in kharif rice, while, 16.00 lakh hectares are cultivated under rabi season. With the increase in area under minor and major irrigation projects in Chhattisgarh, a number of crops can profitably be grown during the winter (rabi) and summer season followed by rice under irrigated conditions. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is grown intensively during the rainy season, whereas, cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), mustard (Brassica juncea), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and castor (Ricinus communis) as oilseeds, coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), fenugreek (Trigonella foenugraecum) as spices and lentil (Lens culinaris) and chickpea, lathyrus as legume are the major rabi crops grown under irrigated conditions. Some of the districts of Chattisgarh have more than 35 percent net irrigated area. Therefore, to utilize the irrigation facilities in this area, there is need to diversify the existing cropping system and introduce some new high yielding profitable crops which can sustain and well suited under Chattisgarh agro-climatic conditions. This will not only enhance the socio-economic conditions of the farmers by providing employment for longer duration but also enable them to exploit the upcoming marketing and processing infrastructure in this area. Furthermore, development of improved technology with proper crop sequence plays a major role in getting maximum net return. Therefore, it becomes imperative to find the proper crop sequence. In order to generate useful information for such type of potential areas, an investigation was undertaken to study growth resource use and yield complementary of wheat-based intercropping system, viz. – wheat + lentil, mustard + lentil, sunflower + lentil, wheat+ fenugreek, onion + coriander, castor + lentil under irrigated condition.
Keeping these point in view, a field experiment on “The productivity and profitability of intercropping in rabi cereal, legume, oilseeds, and spices under rice (Oryza sativa L.) based cropping system” was undertaken at Research cum Instructional Farm, Department of Agronomy I.G.K.V., Raipur C. G. during kharif, rabi season of 2009-2010 with the following objectives.
1. To evaluate the production potential and economic viability of different rabi intercropping under rice based cropping systems.
2. To identify suitable/ remunerative rice based cropping systems with vegetables and oilseeds intercrops.
3. To calculate the energy requirement, energy output and energy use efficiency of different rice based cropping systems.
4. To assess the effect of bio-intensive crops like oilseeds and pulses on the soil properties.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In the era of shrinking resource base of land, water and energy, resource-use efficiency is an important aspect for considering the suitability of a cropping system. Since any modification to the existing system with a tendency to decline the productivity of rice crop will neither be sustainable nor acceptable to the farming community. Hence, Diversification and intensification of rice-based systems to increase productivity per unit resource is very pertinent. Choice of the component crops needs to be suitably maneuvered to harvest the synergism among them towards efficient utilization of resource base and to increase overall productivity. Research finding is available on the suitability of different cropping systems with high yielding varieties under rice-based cropping system are reviewed under the following heads.
2.1 Effect of cropping systems on
2.1.1 Growth and yield of rice
2.1.2 Total productivity of system including field crops
2.1.3 Total productivity of system including vegetables
2.1.4 Total productivity of system with intercrop
2.2 Effect of cropping systems on soil fertility status
2.3 Effect of cropping systems on weed dynamics
2.4 Water use efficiency
2.5 Economic viability
2.6 Employment generation, production and land utilization efficiency
Quayyam and Maniruzzaman (1996) reported that rice-groundnut -green gram system resulted in maximum number of effective tillers in rice (362m-2), longest panicles (23.0 cm) and maximum number of grains panicle-1 (112), but the traits were similar to those of rice-groundnut-cowpea, rice-maize-green gram, rice-maize-cowpea and rice-sunflower- green gram systems. All these systems also produced higher grain and straw yields of rice, which may be attributed to the beneficial effect of legumes grown in summer season.
Singh and Sharma (2002) reported that the grain yield of rice showed significant variation under different cropping sequences and the maximum grain yield (16.51 t ha-1) was found when sequenced in wheat-mung green manure-rice sequence. The rice yield was comparatively low in wheat-rice sequence. Singh and Tuteja (2000) found that the rice-potato recorded maximum rice equivalent yield followed by rice-mustard and rice-wheat cropping system.
Bastia et al. (2008) reported that rice-groundnut-green gram system resulted in maximum number of effective tillers in rice (362 m-2), longest panicles (23.0 cm) and maximum number of grains panicle-1 (112). However, system productivity of rice-maize-cowpea was the maximum (15.98 t ha-1) which was on a par with that of rice-maize- green gram (15.30 t ha-1).
Parihar et al. (1995) reported that amongst different cropping sequences, rice – wheat cropping system gave the highest total grain production, followed by rice – rapeseed, under clay loam soils of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh.
Settee and Gouda (1997) reported that system productivity in terms of rice-equivalent yield (REY) of rice-maize-cowpea was the maximum (15.98 t ha-1), closely followed by that of rice-maize-green gram. Next in order was rice- field pea- sesame system. The winter crops mostly governed the REY of the systems, because rice was the base crop and contribution of summer crops was marginal. The contribution of winter crops to REY of rice-maize-cowpea, rice-maize-green gram and rice-field pea-sesame was 47, 48 and 44 percent, respectively. Other crops remaining the same, inclusion of summer cowpea as a vegetable crop increased the productivity of the systems and showed an edge over green gram and sesame.
Thakur et al. (1998) found that rice-sweet potato rotation recorded significantly better in terms of rice equivalent (52.6 q ha-1) and productivity efficiency (17.94) followed by rice-wheat cropping system. Parihar et al. (1999) found that the rice-groundnut was more productive followed by rice-rice and rice-wheat. The lowest rice equivalent yield was obtained in rice-mustard sequence.
Choudhary et al. (2001) also reported greater productivity by replacing wheat in rice wheat system with vegetables like radish and potato. Kharub et al. (2003) reported that the maximum yield was obtained from rice – potato – sunflower (23.92 t ha-1). The addition of short – duration potato crop between two main crops increased the productivity of the rice – wheat system. Kumar et al. (2005) observed that the rice-rice, rice-maize and rice-sunflower cropping sequences gave significantly higher rice equivalent yield (11616, 11553 and 10868 kg ha-1, respectively). Singh et al. (2005) reported that the rice equivalent yield (REY) was maximum in coarse rice-potato-sunflower (25.06 t ha-1) followed by coarse rice-potato-late wheat (24.98 t ha-1), basmati rice-potato-sunflower (17.71 t ha-1), basmati rice-potato-late wheat(13.12 t ha-1) as compared to traditional coarse rice-wheat (11.23 t ha-1) system.
Yadav et al. (2005) reported that the maximum yield of rice in rice-wheat green manuring, where green manuring was taken in summer after wheat followed by coarse rice-mustard-sunflower sequence.
Singh and Singh (2005) reported that rice-onion gave the highest yield (118.97 q ha-1) in the term of rice equivalent yield with maximum production efficiency (33.10 kg day -1 ha-1).
Saroch et al. (2005) also reported more productivity by replacing wheat in rice – wheat system with vegetables. However, Gangwar et al. (2004) also noted higher stability of field crops in cereal – cereal or cereal – oilseed cropping systems. Bastia et al. (2008) reported that rice-sunflower-green gram registered the minimum rice equivalent yield (REY) of 11.66 t ha-1 among the three-crop sequences and rice-toria-fallow (8.36 t ha-1) among the two-crop sequences.
Diversification of existing rice based cereal/oilseed/pulse cropping system with vegetables has got great success in irrigated conditions. Inclusion of vegetables can not only increase the total productivity and net return from whole system but is also opens gateways to enhance employment generation and fulfill the demand of fresh vegetables.
Yadav et al. (2000) and Singh and Tuteja (2000) revealed that the rice-potato-cowpea provided the highest rice grain equivalent yield of 22.55 q ha-1 than rice-potato-okra (20.02 q ha-1). Gangwar and Katyal (2001) found that the rice-potato-jute sequence yielded the highest during all the years, with mean yield of 16,936 q ha-1 year -1 having system productivity of 67.47 kg day -1 ha-1 at Kalyani (West Bengal).
Similarly, Yadav et al. (2000) and Singh and Tuteja (2000) reported that sequences involving rice-tomato-poi was distinctly better than those over the years with mean yield equivalents of 26,680 kg ha-1 year -1 at Bhubneshwar with the highest system productivity of (90.14 kg day -1 ha-1). While, the lowest productivity was obtained in rice-mustard-rice sequence and in rice-mustard-ridge gourd sequence.
Choudhary et al. (2001) also reported that inclusion of oilseeds, vegetables, ornamental or fodder crops to diversify the existing rice-wheat system also helped in achieving higher rice-equivalent yield than with sequences having cereals and pulse crops.
Dhurandher et al. (2002) found that rice-cabbage-onion-jowar recorded the highest rice equivalent yield (283.40 q ha-1), production efficiency (82.04 kg day -1 ha-1). Sharma et al. (2004) also reported that maximum yield (26.94 t ha-1) was obtained from rice-potato-onion system followed by rice-potato-sunflower (23.92 t ha-1). Bohra (2005) reported that rice-potato-green gram sequence was significantly and distinctly better than other system, i.e., rice-lentil + mustard-cowpea (f), rice-wheat-green gram and rice-lentil- cowpea (f).
Manjunath and Korikanthimath (2004) observed that system productivity was highest with rice-brinjal system (11222 kg ha-1) followed by rice-cowpea system (7681 kg ha-1). Saroch et al. (2005) also reported more productivity by replacing wheat in rice-wheat system with vegetables. Due to high market price of mustard, rice-mustard-GM (81.96 q ha-1) was comparable with existing rice-wheat cropping system (93.10 q ha-1).
Urkurkar et al. (2008) found that the total productivity in terms of rice equivalent yield was significantly higher in rice-potato-cowpea cropping system (221.61 q ha-1) than other systems. It was at par but produced much higher total productivity over rice-brinjal-green manure (181.16 q ha-1) and rice-onion- green manure (160.63 q ha-1). Rice based systems with field crops viz. rice-wheat- fallow, rice-mustard- green manure and rice-table pea-maize (fodder) produced almost similar rice equivalent yield with each other and these cropping systems were remained significantly lower than those systems which included vegetables and cash crops follow rice.
Singh et al. (2010) found that inclusion of potato in any of the above crop sequences proved beneficial in enhancing the productivity and profitability of the system. This may be attributed to the deep hoeing of the field because of ridge planting and hilling up, as well as the digging of potato tubers, which caused better soil aeration and weed free conditions for the Japanese mint, green gram and onion crops. Apart from this, potato was given heavy doses of fertilizers and perhaps did not utilize all the applied fertilizers, and later on, the following crops of onion, Japanese mint and green gram might have utilized the residual fraction.
Improving resource utilization in time and space dimension is achieved through inter cropping. Singh and Singh (1983) reported that highest mean land equivalent ratio (1.27) was recorded in wheat and gram intercropping system, followed by wheat + pea (1.19) and wheat + lentil (1.10). Mandal et al. (1986) reported that intercropping of wheat and lentil generated a bonus yield that of wheat and chickpea gave an additional yield without any significant reduction in wheat yield.
Devi et al. (1997) studied that rice-chickpea-maize + cowpea fodder had highest productivity & net profit and the same may be recommended for sustainable cultivation under tarai region & alternative to rice – wheat sequence. Kumar et al. (2001) found that highest rice equivalent productivity (kg ha-1) was obtained in rice-potato + onion, mustard + black gram system having productivity of 53.1 kg day -1 ha-1. Similarly, Singh et al. (2001) found that rice- lentil-maize + fodder cowpea system gave significantly highest rice equivalent yield.
Singh et al. (2004) reported that the rice-lentil-maize + cowpea (f) sequence in flood-prone and rice-wheat-maize + cowpea (f) in semi-deep water situation gave significantly the highest rice equivalent yield (95.82 and 106.7 q ha-1, respectively). Ganvir et al. (2004) reported that among the treatments, castor + groundnut (1:2) gave the highest castor and intercrop yield, total productivity, castor grain yield equivalent and gross monetary returns. Thakur et al. (2004) studied that Sunflower + chickpea (1:1) gave the maximum plant height (100 cm) and land equivalent ratio (1.27). Sunflower + linseed (1:1) gave the highest head size (12.5 cm) and grain yield (1525 kg ha-1). Sunflower + niger (1:1) had the highest number of seeds per head (279) and relative crowding coefficient (3.33). Sunflower + pea (1:1) while, sunflower + pea (1:2) and sunflower + linseed (1:2) gave the highest seed chaffiness (9.2%), sunflower equivalent yield (1101 kg ha-1) and stem girth (5.0 cm), respectively.
Panwar and Rajbir (2004) found that the maximum Brassica napus yield equivalent (25.21 q ha-1) was observed in Brassica napus +chickpea. The yield equivalents obtained under Brassica napus +toria and Brassica napus + Brassica juncea combinations were significantly less (19.90 and 19.08 q ha-1, respectively) than sole cropping of Brassica napus (21.27 q ha-1).
Padmavathi and Raghavaiah (2004) found that the seed yield of castor (471 kg ha-1) was adversely affected due to intercropping when compared to the sole crop of castor (748 kg ha-1). The castor-equivalent yield was greater when castor was intercropped with cluster bean (1259; 2026 kg ha-1) and cucumber (1536; 2050 kg ha-1) either in 1 or 2 rows, respectively. Sharma et al. (2008) reported that among the 14 rice-based cropping systems tested, rice-potato–onion + maize relay cropping gave the highest mean rice-equivalent yield (30.66 t ha-1 year-1), followed by rice-garlic - maize (30.35 t ha-1 year-1) and rice-potato-onion (27.95 t ha-1 year-1).
Nambiar and Abrol (1989), Kumar and Yadav (1993) reported that continuously following the same system (rice – wheat sequence) has diverse effect on soil conditions, which ultimately reducing the productivity of the system. Singh and Prasad (1994) found that maximum nitrogen balance was recorded under rice-gram-green gram (128 kg N ha-1) cropping sequence, whereas maximum potassium balance was under rice-maize, black gram (184 kg ha-1). However, phosphorus-balance sheet showed a loss of in all the crop sequences with maximum loss under rice-potato-green gram (214 kg P ha-1) sequence.
Bharadwaj and Omanwar (1994) reported that the highest net gain of K was observed with rice-fenugreek (+97.5 kg ha-1) followed by rice-wheat (+76.2 kg ha-1). The maximum gain of K by rice-fenugreek might be attributed to the direct addition of K to the available K pool of the soil besides the reduction of K fixation and release of K due to interaction of organic matter with clay.
Singh et al. (1996) and Setty and Gowda (1997) observed that the introduction of legume in the system increased soil organic carbon and available soil phosphorus. Singh et al. (1996) and Quayyam and Maniruzzaman (1996) found that the inclusion of legumes makes less demand on the soil resources and at the same time they have capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen in their root nodules and helped in increasing the yield of succeeding rice crop. While, Thakur et al. (1998) reported that cropping system involving pulse crops in the winter (rabi) season had better soil fertility (N, P and K) status than those involving winter cereals. On the other hand,
Kumpawat (2001) studied that productivity of rice – wheat system had shown consistently declining trend. Inclusion of pulses, oilseeds & vegetables in the system has the more beneficial effect than cereal – after cereals. Sharma and Sharma (2002) observed that rice-berseem cropping system resulted in negative balance of nitrogen (144 kg ha-1), phosphorus (23 kg ha-1) and potassium (416 kg ha-1). Rice-mustard-green gram cropping system also resulted in negative balance of 131 kg ha-1 N and 330 kg ha-1 K. Nitrogen and phosphorus balance was found positive in rice-wheat-green gram and rice-potato-green gram cropping system. Whereas, potassium balance was negative in these cropping systems.
Sharma and Sharma (2002) reported that the balance of P was positive in rice-wheat-green gram, rice-potato-sunflower, rice-garlic-maize, rice-marigold- maize + green gram, rice-fenugreek-maize and rice-sunflower-okra cropping system, and it varied from 6.30 kg ha-1 year-1 in rice- fenugreek-maize to 28.20 kg ha-1 year-1 in rice- marigold-maize + green gram cropping system. This shows that the P removed by the crops was less than that the applied to them. However, the other cropping systems showed a negative balance. The maximum deficit of P (31.40 kg-1 ha-1 year-1) was observed in rice-berseem maize + cowpea (f) cropping system, indicating that the quantity of P applied to fodder crops was less than that removal from the soil.
Singh et al. (2004) found that available nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was improved due to legume included in cropping sequence. However, cereal and oilseed included in cropping sequences reduced the content of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic carbon due to higher uptake and lower addition of nutrients in soil.
The phenomenon of shift in density and dynamics of weed species is the results of manipulation of environmental factors, crop rotation and weed control practices. The continuous adaptation of the same crop rotation coupled with the use of particular weed management practices lead to shift in weed flora in time.
Gill and Brar (1985) in Ludhiana found that rice-wheat, maize-wheat and maize-potato-wheat rotation indicated that continuous use of herbicide in the rice-wheat rotation suppressed the wild oat population in wheat and encourage Phalaris minor, similarly maize-wheat rotation showed gradual build up of wild oat in wheat. Tiwari et al. (1990) noticed that continuous cropping of rice-wheat-green gram resulted into more number of aerial shoots (270 m-2) and tuber count (953 m-2) of Cyperus rotundus as compared to rice-wheat cropping system.
Srinivasan et al. (1992) noticed the shifting of weed flora from annual (Echinochloa spp.) to perennial (Paspalum distichum and Massilea minuta) in rice-greengram sequence. Bhan and Kumar (1998) found that the changing sequence from rice-wheat and rice-potato to any other sequence not involving rice in kharif tends to reduce Phalaris minor population in wheat.
Gangwar and Ram (2005) revealed that population of Phalaris minor and dry weight was significantly less (53.6 %) in wheat under rice-vegetable pea-wheat-green gram sequence. It was closely followed in the system involving rice-mustard-green gram, rice-wheat-green gram and rice-wheat-green gram sequence managing reduction to the tune of 46.4%. Similarly in rice-berseem (fodder), rice-wheat, rice-wheat sequence, the weed control was up to 38.5% over continuous rice-wheat sequence. While, it was higher in rice-wheat sequence (24.6 gm-2). Singh and Singh (2005) observed that weed density rice under rice-wheat, rice-pea-rice cropping system, Echinochloa crusgalli was dominated after rice-wheat and rice-pea-rice sequence, where as Cyprus difformis was dominant after rice-pea-rice sequence.
Mandal et al. (1986) studied that growing of cereals with pulses & oilseeds endowed with different root systems and helped towards better extraction of soil moisture from different layers of the soil, increase water use & water use efficiency as well as intercepting more solar energy. They also reported that intercropping can give higher yield than when grown as sole crops.
Singh and Prasad (1994) recorded highest frequency of irrigation under rice-wheat-green gram with and minimum in rice-mustard-green gram. Parihar et al. ( 1999) reported that total water use was maximum in rice-rice crop sequence followed by rice-groundnut. The highest water expense under rice-rice system was mainly due to substantially high water requirement of summer rice. The lowest water use among the different cropping sequences was in rice –chickpea system (10.25 cm). The water use efficiency (WUE) was the highest in rice –chickpea system followed by rice-sunflower. The lowest WUE was obtained in rice-rice cropping sequence (45.78 grains ha-1 cm). Similarly, Kumar et al. (2005) reported that field water supply was higher in rice-rice cropping sequence (2,800 mm) and water use efficiency was lowest (4.15 kg mm-1). On the other hand, rice-maize and rice-sunflower cropping sequences recorded higher water use efficiency (7.22 and 7.30 kg mm-1), respectively.
Singh et al. (2001) reported that the WUE was significantly highest in rice-lentil-maize+cowpea (83.83 kg grain ha-1 cm) followed by rice-wheat-maize+cowpea (f). The lowest water use efficiency was recorded in rice-sunflower-maize+cowpea (f) cropping sequence. Singh et al. (2004) reported that WUE was invariably highest in rice-lentil-maize + cowpea (f) in both the situation i.e.83.8 kg ha-1 cm-1 in flood prone and 71.77 kg ha-1 cm-1 in semi-deep water situation, respectively.
Gangwar and Ram (2005) opined that if the total irrigation water requirement of different system is concerned, higher irrigation water of 117.4 ha-1 cm was required in rice-berseem fodder (one year)-rice-wheat-rice-wheat sequence while, it was lowest and similar in sequence viz. pigeon pea-wheat-rice-wheat-rice-wheat, and rice-mustard-green gram-rice. Wheat-green gram-rice-wheat-green gram required about 100 ha-1 cm of irrigation water.While, Kumar et al. (2008) observed that rice – potato – green gram sequence was the most efficient with respect to water-use efficiency, followed by rice - onion. Berseem may be taken as a break crop successfully for reducing the weed problem effectively. Sharma et al. (2008) reported that the highest water-use efficiency (37.01 kg rice-equivalent yield ha-1 mm-1) was recorded with rice–garlic–maize system.
Connor et al. (2003) observed that rice - vegetable pea – wheat - green gram sequence produced 27.91% higher wheat equivalent yield than rice - wheat system. Diversification or intensification of rice - wheat system, once in 3 years, improved the net returns when all the crops (except rice) were grown on raised-bed in a system approach.
Jat and Singh (2003) observed that furrow-irrigated raised-bed planting of wheat with 2 rows bed-1 and simultaneous sowing of berseem in furrows with multiple cuttings gave the highest wheat-equivalent yield (7.03 t ha-1) and per day productivity (57.07 kg ha-1 day-1). This system also recorded the highest net returns (Rs. 33265 ha-1).
Nayak et al. (2003) found that the highest rice equivalent yield (14116 kg ha-1) and gross returns (Rs 74815 ha-1) were recorded from rice-tomato-okra, followed by rice-indian mustard-groundnut (11776 kg ha-1 and Rs. 62423 ha-1). However, the highest net returns were recorded with rice-indian mustard-groundnut (Rs 35539 ha-1), followed by rice-tomato-okra (Rs 32031 ha-1) with benefit: cost ratio of 2.32 and 2.05 respectively. Rice-chili, a two-crop system, also gave comparable net returns of Rs 27524 ha-1 with high benefit: cost ratio of 2.13, although land uses efficiency was lowest.
Prasad et al. (2003) reported that the highest chickpea equivalent yield (31.19 q ha-1), land equivalent ratio (1.15), gross income (Rs. 43572.4 ha-1) and net profit (Rs. 29 216.4 ha-1) were recorded with intercropping of chickpea and mustard cv. Urvashi.
Bhagat and Dhar ( 2003) studied that the enhancement in the productivity and economics of the traditional rice-wheat system by modifying it to maize-wheat, groundnut-wheat and soyabean-wheat system. Among the 3 modified systems. The highest net return (Rs. 20533 ha-1) was recorded from groundnut-wheat system with 112% increase in yield over the traditional rice-wheat system.
Sharma et al. (2004) found that among the different rice-based crop sequences, the rice-potato-onion fetched the highest net returns (Rs 65573 ha-1) and production efficiency (81.6 kg ha-1 day-1), followed by the rice-potato-sunflower having corresponding values of Rs. 61533 ha-1 and 80.6 kg ha-1 day-1. The highest benefit:cost ratio of 1:47 was noted in rice-berseem-maize + cowpea both grown for fodder. Rice-maize+green gram system had the highest land-use efficiency (96.8%). Gangwar and Ram (2005) also reported higher benefit: cost ratio (2.4) by this crop sequence compared with other crop sequences.
Sarkar et al. (2004) found that an intercropping of 100% lentil+25% linseed in 5:1 ratio gave as high intercrop lentil yield (1050 kg ha-1) as sole lentil (1300 kg ha-1) with additional yield of linseed (820 kg ha-1) and had the highest lentil-equivalent yield (1767 kg ha-1), net return (Rs 17632 ha-1), land-equivalent ratio (1.66), and benefit: cost ratio (2.65), and proved the most productive intercrop stand among all the systems.
Padmavathi and Raghavaiah (2004) found that the net returns were greater when castor was intercropped with cluster bean (Rs.6548 and Rs.12611 ha-1) and cucumber (Rs.8791 and Rs.11186 ha-1) either in 1 or 2 rows, respectively. Seed or vegetable yields of the intercrops were greater in their pure stands, followed by when these crops were sown in 2 rows and 1 row as intercrops with castor.
Kumar et al. (2005) found that among the 8 cropping sequences, rice-rice, rice-maize and rice-sunflower cropping sequences gave significantly higher rice-equivalent yield (11616, 11553 and 10868 kg ha-1, respectively) and gross returns (Rs. 51745, 51464 and 48291 ha-1, respectively). However, net returns and benefit: cost ratio were higher in rice-maize (Rs. 21884 ha-1 and 1.74, respectively) and rice-sunflower (Rs. 21321 ha-1 and 1.79, respectively) cropping sequences. Similarly, these cropping sequences also recorded higher energy use efficiency (6.4 and 5.1, respectively), energy productivity (227 and 238 g MJ-1, respectively) and water use efficiency (7.22 and 7.50 kg mm -1, respectively) and were more sustainable than rice-rice and other rice-based cropping sequences.
Kumar et al. (2008) observed that rice - wheat (normal sown) and rice - berseem, gave significantly higher net returns than rice - oat and rice - wheat (zero till) sequences. They also observed that the highest net returns of Rs. 43,100 ha-1 year-1 was provided by rice – potato – green gram sequence, followed by rice - onion (Rs. 36,400 ha-1 year-1), and both the sequences gave significantly higher net return than other crop sequences.
Bastia et al. (2008) also reported that returns per Re invested were the highest for rice-field pea-sesame system (Rs 1.94), which were on a par with that of rice-maize-cowpea and rice-maize-green gram systems (Rs 1.85 and 1.83, respectively). Sharma et al. (2008) reported that the highest net return of Rs 96,581/ha/year were realized from rice-garlic-maize, which were on a par with that of rice-potato-onion + maize relay cropping (Rs 92,837 ha-1 year-1). However, the benefit: cost ratio was highest (1.73) in rice-berseem– maize + cowpea, both grown for fodder.
Urkurkar et al. (2008) reported that the maximum productivity was obtain under rice-potato-cowpea system but amongst all the systems, rice-brinjal-GM was identified to be distinctly superior and more economically viable in terms of net return (Rs. 83482 -1 ha) and benefit:cost ratio (3.09) than other systems based on four year mean data. The higher cost involved in potato seed and other intercultural operations increased the cost of cultivation of rice-potato-cowpea system. Thus, rice-potato-cowpea system was in second rank in order of economic merit closely followed by rice-onion-GM. These systems also showed higher value of relative economic efficiency and have potential to replace existing systems i.e. rice-wheat or rice-mustard.
While, Singh et al. (2010) found that the rice-potato-japanese mint and rice–potato–onion crop sequences are more productive and economically viable as they also fetched more net returns per unit area for time invested, and can be a better option for the farmers of the Central Plains Zone of India. These two cropping sequences were also judged as most sustainable by the farmers in their local agricultural production system.
Chauhan et al. (2001) obtained the highest production efficiency in rice – wheat crop sequence (46.95 kg ha-1 day-1), followed by pigeon pea - wheat , rice – wheat (46.31 kg ha-1 day) and lowest in maize - vegetable pea – wheat , rice – wheat – green gram and rice – wheat – green gram (41.6 kg ha-1 da).
Dhurandher et al. (2002) found that among the various cropping sequences, rice-cabbage-onion-jowar recorded the highest production efficiency (82.04 kg ha-1 day-1) and land use efficiency (94.66%).
Sharma et al. (2004) also reported that intensification through inclusion of vegetable and leguminous crops increased the production and land use efficiency. The increase in employment generation in rice - potato – green gram and rice - onion system improved the profitability, but in rice - wheat (transplanted) system it did not give monetary advantage over the existing rice - wheat system. The highest economic efficiency (Rs.152 ha-1day-1) and water-use efficiency (20.3 kg-1 ha-1 mm-1) were obtained in rice - onion system. Rice - berseem sequence was found most efficient in terms of N-use efficiency (80.21 kg grain -1 kg N) and third in production efficiency and land use efficiency. Late sowing of wheat after long-duration rice showed lower values of nitrogen and water-use efficiencies, which were very close to the respective minimum values obtained in rice-oat system. They found that the production efficiency was maximum in rice-potato-cowpea (70.4 kg-1 ha-1day-1) cropping sequence whereas, the lowest production efficiency (27.5 kg-1 ha-1day-1) was noted in rice-mustard-green manure as well as in rice-table pea-maize (fodder) sequence mainly due to less total productivity of former cropping sequences with rather longer duration.
Dungani et al. (2005) reported that the highest (9689 kg ha-1) total production in terms of paddy equivalent yield and production efficiency (26.35 kg day -1 ha-1) was obtained under rice-wheat-green gram sequence. The next best sequence was rice-sorghum (f)-groundnut with equivalent of 9609 kg ha-1and production efficiency 26.3 kg day -1 ha-1. While the lowest total production (6537 kg ha-1) and productivity (17.91 kg day -1 ha-1) was recorded in paddy-pigeonpea sequence.
Sharma et al. (2006) found that the rice-potato-onion + maize relay cropping have the highest rice equivalent yield (32.19 t ha-1 year -1) and production efficiency (88.2 kg day -1 ha-1) followed by rice-potato-onion having corresponding values of 29.08 t ha-1 year -1and 79.7 kg day -1 ha-1, respectively. Rice-garlic- maize was third in order, which produced rice equivalent yield of 27.35 t ha-1 year -1 and production efficiency of 74.9 kg day -1 ha-1.
Kumar et al. (2008) reported that rice-potato-greengram sequence was found the most efficient for production (18.1 t-1 ha-1 year-1), employment generation (1.18 man days-1 ha-1day-1), monetary return (Rs 3,180/ha/year) and water-use efficiency (20.1 kg-1 ha-1 mm-1), followed by rice-onion. Berseem may be taken as a break crop successfully for reducing weed problem (weed-control efficiency 88.7%) in continuous rice-wheat system without any monetary loss. Rice - berseem sequence was also found the most efficient in terms of nitrogen-use efficiency (80.2 kg grain-1kg N).
Kumar et al. (2008) also observed that rice – potato – green gram and rice-onion sequences gave 57.4 and 55.9 kg-1 ha-1 day-1 higher production efficiency compared with 45.1 kg-1 ha-1 day-1 in rice - wheat sequence. The land-use efficiency (86.3%) and employment-generation efficiency (Rs.1.18 days ha-1 day.) was found highest in rice – potato - greengram sequence due to intensification of this system.
Bastia et al. (2008) reported that Cropping systems having maize as a component crop expressed higher production efficiency (Rs. 124 to 128 ha-1 day-1), water-use efficiency (Rs 203 to 213 ha-1cm) and energy intensiveness (11.23 to 12.56 MJ Re-1) in economic terms. Rice-maize-cowpea was the most productive, sustainable, resource-use efficient and remunerative cropping system. Further they also reported that production efficiency (50.73 kg REY ha-1 day-1), employment generation (550 man days/ha) and net returns (Rs 40,415 ha-1) were maximum in rice-maize-cowpea followed by rice-maize-green gram system.
Singh et al. (2010) studied that production efficiency values in terms of kg ha−1 day−1 was highest under the rice–potato–onion cropping sequence crop (87.25), closely followed by rice-potato-japanese mint (79.76), as compared to the lowest value of 41.16 under the rice–wheat–japanese mint cropping sequence. Land utilization efficiency values under different crop sequences was highest (94.5%) in the rice–wheat–japanese mint cropping sequence as compared to 90.7% and 91.5% under rice–potato–onion and rice–potato–japanese mint crop sequences, respectively.
Padhi (1993) found that the maximum energy was utilized under rice-potato-okra system due to two high-energy use crops like potato (28.22 MJ x 103 ha-1) and okra (15.66 MJ x 103 ha-1), whereas rice-garden pea-cowpea utilized minimum energy due to inclusion of two low energy use crop like garden pea (8.26 MJ x 103 ha-1) and cowpea (7.55 MJ x 103 ha-1). Rice-garden pea-okra recorded the lowest energy output and energy input : output ratio due to minimum energy production by the component crops like rice (44.98 MJ x 103 ha-1) and garden pea (9.31 MJ x 103 ha-1 ). Whereas, among different intercropping systems, Malik et al. (1993) reported that wheat + lentil and wheat + mustard gave 20 and 30%, respectively more energy output than wheat alone. Significant improvement in energy productivity under wheat + lentil was because of more grain production and that under wheat + mustard intercrop system was owing to much higher energy density within a unit mass of mustard compared to wheat and grain legumes.
Parihar et al. (1999) reported that rice-rice system required the highest energy input (27.35 x 103 MJ ha-1) while, it has lowest in rice-chickpea (17.7 x 103 MJ ha-1). However, rice-rice system produced the highest output energy followed by rice-groundnut.
Gangwar and Katyal (2001) in Kalyani (W.B.), observed the highest energy production (31.45 x 106 K cal ha-1) on actual crop basis in rice-wheat-green manure, while at Bhubaneswar rice-potato-sesame (36.16 x 106 K cal ha-1) sequence recorded the highest energy production. While, Singh et al. (2001) reported that rice-pea-maize + cow pea (f) system gave the highest energy output (907.75 MJ x 103 ha-1) and energy use efficiency (29.52) were obtained in rice-mustard-maize + cow pea (f) sequence.
Singh et al. (2004) reported that rice-mustard-maize + cowpea (f) recorded the highest energy output (907.08 and 950.0 x 103 MJ ha-1) and energy use efficiency (29.52 and 33.37). The lowest energy output and energy use efficiency were recorded with rice- pea-maize + cow pea (F) cropping system. Sharma et al. (2004) reported that rice-potato-onion required the highest energy inputs (6990 x 103 MJ ha-1) resulting in the lowest energy use efficiency (2.46), whereas rice-potato-sunflower production recorded the highest output energy (205.71 x 103 MJ ha-1).
Kumar et al. (2005) reported that rice-rice cropping sequence required higher energy input (75.036 MJ ha-1) but the energy use efficiency and energy productivity were lowest (4.2 and 155 g MJ-1). On the other hand, Yadav et al. (2005) reported that maximum calorific value was found in maize-potato-sunflower crop sequence followed by maize-potato-wheat and rice-wheat-green manuring.
Sharma et al. (2008) reported that the maximum energy output (61,155 K calories ha-1 year-1) was found in rice-potato-onion + maize relay cropping system, followed by rice-maize + potato intercropping (57,996 K-calories ha-1year-1), rice-potato-sunflower and rice-potato-onion systems. This indicates that these cropping systems have high value of high-quality produce. The cropping systems in which potato and onion crops were not included i.e. rice-wheat-maize gave lower energy output with lowest energy output under rice- cabbage- okra cropping system.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This chapter deals with the concise description of the materials used and the techniques adopted during the course of investigation. The present investigation entitled “Productivity and profitability of intercropping in rabi cereal, legume, oilseeds and spices under rice (Oryza sativa L.) based cropping system” was conducted at the Research cum Instructional Farm, I.G.K.V., Raipur (Chhattisgarh) during the kharif and rabi season, 2009-10.
The experiment was conducted at the Research cum Instructional Farm, I.G.K.V., Raipur (Chhattisgarh). Geographically, Raipur is situated in the centre of Chhattisgarh and lies between 21°4’N latitude and 81°39’E longitude with an altitude of 314 metres above the mean sea level.
The general climate of the experimental site is classified as sub-humid with hot summer and mild winters. It comes under the Chhattisgarh plains Agro-climatic sub zone of seventh Agro Climatic Region of India i.e. Eastern Plateau and Hills. It has an annual average rainfall of 1320 mm (based on 80 years mean), nearly 85 per cent of the annual rainfall is received from third week of June to mid of September. The maximum temperature raises upto 450C during summer season, whereas the minimum temperature falls to 5-6 0C during winters. Relative humidity is normally higher from June to September and thereafter declines in winters.
The rainfall was favorable and well distributed during kharif season 2009. The total rainfall was 1054.6 mm. Out of this, rice crop received 962.6 mm during its growth period
illustration not visible in this excerpt
and 92.0 mm rainfall was received by the rabi crops. The weekly maximum temperature ranged between 28.70C to 43.30C in kharif and between 25.60C to 39.70C during rabi. The minimum temperatures faced by the rice crop were 15.30C to 30.90C. While, the rabi crops enjoyed the minimum temperatures from 8.60C to 210C.
The monthly average maximum relative humidity for different months varied from 52.3 to 93.0 % whereas, the monthly minimum relative humidity varied between 19.7 to 80.0 %. Weekly averages of meteorological observation recorded during the course of investigation are presented in Appendix-I and depicted through Fig.3.1.
The experimental field was under cultivation since many years and from 2003-04 to 2008-09, rice based seven cropping systems were taken in the same field since last 6 years.
In order to evaluate the nutrient status of soil, ten samples were collected randomly up to 20 cm depth from five places to determine the physico-chemical properties of the soil. The procedure adopted for analysis and values obtained are given in Table 3.1. The soil of the experimental site is characterized by Silty clay (Inceptisols) in texture and locally known as “Matasi”. The soil was neutral in reaction and medium in fertility having low nitrogen, medium phosphorus and potash.
Table 3.1: Physico-chemical properties of the experimental site
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During kharif, rice was taken as base crop with three varieties and eight different cropping systems were followed during rabi. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 3 replications. Details of the treatments are presented in Table 3.2 and layout plan is depicted through Fig. 3.2.
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