Impact of Europeanization on Economic Policies: Convergence or Divergence or both?

Hausarbeit, 2006
23 Seiten




1 Definitions of Europeanization
Ladrech (1994)
Börzel (1999)
Hix and Goetz (2001)
Risse, Cowles and Coparaso (2001)

2 Top-down Approach & Bottom-up Approach

3 Discussing Europeanization
Domestic Impact
Presence of “Misfit” factor
Facilitating Actors

4 Logic of consequentalism vs. Logic of Appropriateness

5 Europeanization and Economic Integration

6 Five Faces of Europeanization (Olsen)
Change in Geographical boundary of Europe
Creation of a system of governance at supranational level
Domestic impact of single point governance
Exporting European system of governance beyond EU borders
Intensifying political unification of Europe

7 Three Levels of Europeanization of economic policies

8 Europeanization and Globalization
Europeanization not regional prototype of Globalization
Europeanization as Protective Element
Benefits to member states through common European Economic Policies

9 Impact of Europeanization on European Economic Policies
Germany, Britain and France
A European Monetary Integration
B Environment Policy Area
C Financial Services Sector
D Telecommunication Sector
E Electricity Sector
F Air Transport Sector

10 Convergence or Divergence or both?

11 Europeanization of Economic policies: An Interactive Approach



Earlier studies about Europeanization were based on bottom-up approach. These studies were all about Europeanization as a process itself.

Recently scholars are making attempt to adopt another method i. e. top-down method. I think one can understand Europeanization better with top-down perspective.

In this work my discussion and opinions are based on top-down method.

Europeanization is not same as European Integration. However there are lots of similarities between them. Various emerging images of Europeanization are described before I proceed to discuss impact of Europeanization on economic policies of member states.

In order to provide a systematic account of impact of Europeanization on economic policies of member states, my work focuses on responses in three countries namely France, Germany and Britain. This work explores mechanics of adjustment in several economic areas such as monetary policy, financial services, telecommunications, electricity, transport and the environment.

In concluding part an attempt is made to analyze and describe various patterns that emerge from impact of Europeanization on Economic Policies of member countries.

1 Definitions of Europeanization

Europeanization doesn’t have single and precise meaning. It has been often used to describe various aspects and changes. Various scholars have made various attempts to define Europeanization in various ways. Here I would like to narrate some of them.

Ladrech defines Europeanization as

„…an incremental process reorienting direction and shape of politics to the degree that EC political and economic dynamics become part of the organizational logic of national logic of national politics and policy making.”[1]

Risse, Cowles and Caporaso define Europeanization as

“the emergence and development at the European level of distinct structures of governance, that is, of political, legal and social institutions associated with the problem solving that formalize interaction among actors, and of policy networks specializing in the creation of authoritative European rules.”[2]

Hix and Goetz define Europeanization as

“a process of change in national institutional and policy practices that can be attributed to European Integration.”[3]

Börzel defines Europeanization as

“a process by which domestic policy areas become increasingly subject to European policymaking.”[4]

Hence we can define Europeanization for the time being and very briefly as domestic change caused by European Integration.

2 Top-down Approach and Bottom-up Approach

Earlier European studies were making attempts to explain European Integration and Europanization as processes. The discussion centered on the question how to account for European polity. Hence these discussions were based on bottom-up approach. In this approach outcomes of these processes were dependent variables.[5]

Recently there are studies, which analyses the impact of European Integration and Europeanization on domestic political and social process and beyond. This new top-down approach is more advisable in order to understand how Europe and European Union matter.

In this term paper entire work is based on top-down perspective. I attempt to analyze how Europeanization affects economic policies of member countries. European Integration generally affects domestic policies of member states and beyond.

3 Discussing Europeanization

As discussed above Europeanization can be understood as domestic impact of European Integration process.

Two conditions must be fulfilled, when we expect domestic change. They are:

Europeanization must be inconvenient.[6] There must be certain degree of “misfit” between process at European level and process at domestic level.

Nature of ‘fit’ or ‘misfit’ factor determines adaptation pressures.

Existence of ‘misfit’ factor alone is not sufficient and per se it does not lead to Europeanization. Hence second condition is about presence of facilitating factors, which respond to adaptation pressures.[7] These factors are actors as well as institutions.

4 Logic of Consequentialism vs. Logic of Appropriateness

There are two ways of understanding adaptation process.[8]

1 Rationalist institutionalist perspective: based on logic of consequentialism.


The “misfit” between European and domestic processes, policies and institutions provides leads to new opportunities and constraints. Capacity of these actors to exploit these opportunities and avoid constraints determines degree of domestic distribution of powers.

Two factors, which influence these capacities, are:

a Existence of multiple veto points in a member country's institutional structure can enable actors with diverse interest to avoid constraints may lead to increase in resistance to changes.[9]

b Formal institution environment might provide actors with material ideational resources to exploit new opportunities.

This logic suggests that Europeanization leads to domestic change through empowerment of actors resulting from a redistribution of resources at domestic level.

2 In contrast a sociological institutionalist perspective is based on " logic of appropriateness" and process of persuasion.[10] They suggest that Europeanization lead to domestic change through socialization and collective learning process resulting in norm internalization and development of new identities.

These two logics are not mutually exclusive. Sometimes they occur simultaneously during different phases in adaptation process.

5 Europeanization and Economic Integration

Europeanization could be conceptualized as the process of downloading European Union directives, regulations and institutional structures to domestic level.[11] In other areas Europeanization has also been interpreted as uploading to the EU common beliefs, informal and formal rules, discourse, identities and vertical and horizontal policy transfer.


[1] Ladrech, R: Europeanization of Domestic Policies: The case of France.

Journal of Common Market Studies (1994) P.70

[2] Risse, Cowles and Caporaso: Europeanization and Domestic Change

In: Transforming Europe. Europeanization and Domestic Change

Cornell University Press, Ithaca (2001) P.3

[3] Hix and Goetz: Europeanized Politics. European Integration and National Political System

Frank Class, London (2001) P.27

[4] Börzel: Toward convergence in Europe?

Institutional Adaptation to Europeanization in Germany and Spain

Journal of Common Market Studies (1999) P.574

[5] Börzel, TA and Risse, T: When Europe Hits Home: Europeanization and Domestic Change

European Integration Online Papers Vol. 4 No 15, 2000 P.1

[6] Börzel, TA and Risse, T: When Europe Hits Home: Europeanization and Domestic Change

European Integration Online Papers Vol. 4 No 15, 2000 P.1

[7] Ebd. 6, P.1

[8] Börzel, TA and Risse, T: When Europe Hits Home: Europeanization and Domestic Change

European Integration Online Papers Vol. 4 No 15, 2000,P.7

[9] Ebd. 8, P.8

[10] Ebd. 8,P.8

[11] Vink, Maarten: What is Europeanization? and other Questions on a New Research Agenda

University of Bocconi, Milan, 22-23 November 2002, P. 3,4

Ende der Leseprobe aus 23 Seiten


Impact of Europeanization on Economic Policies: Convergence or Divergence or both?
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impact, europeanization, economic, policies, convergence, divergence
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Jitendra Jain (Autor), 2006, Impact of Europeanization on Economic Policies: Convergence or Divergence or both?, München, GRIN Verlag,


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