Effect of N-Management Practices and different organic Sources on Growth and Yield of Kharif Sesame (Sesamum indicum L) under middle Gujarat Conditions


Master's Thesis, 2009
105 Pages, Grade: 2nd
Patel Nileshkumar Ashwinbhai (Author)

Excerpt

Content

I. INTRODUCTION

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

III. MATERIALS AND METHODS

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

V. DISCUSSION

VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLES

3.1 Meteorological data recorded during crop season of the year 2008 (weekly mean)

3.2 Physico - chemical properties of the experimental soil

3.3 cropping history of the experimental plot

3.4 Salient characteristics of sesame gt-1 variety

3.5 Details of the treatment combinations

3.6 Calendar of cultural operations

4.1 Plant population (m2) of sesame as affected by different Treatments

4.2 Av. Plant height (cm) of sesame as affected by different Treatments

4.3 Av. Number of branches per plant of sesame as affected by Different treatments

4.4 Av. Number of capsules per plant of sesame as affected by Different treatments

4.5 Av. Length of capsules (cm) of sesame as affected by differentTreatments

4.6 Maturity days of sesame as affected by different treatments

4.7 Test weight (g) of sesame as affected by different treatments

4.8 Harvest index (%) of sesame as affected by different Treatments

4.9 Harvest index (%) influenced due to interaction between Nitrogen application and organic manure

4.10 Seed yield (kg ha-1) and stover yield (kg ha-1) of sesame as Affected by different treatments

4.11 Seed yield (kg ha-1) influenced due to interaction between Nitrogen application and organic manure

4.12 Oil content (%) in seeds as affected by different treatments

4.13 Available nutrient (npk) status of the soil after crop harvest As affected by different treatments

4.14 Economics of different nitrogen and organic manure Application

4.15 Gross realization, total cost of cultivation and net realization as influenced by different treatments

LIST OF FIGURES

3.1 Meteorological data recorded during crop season of the year 2008 (weekly mean)

3.2 Lay out plan of experimental site

4.1 Av. Plant height (cm) of sesame as affected by different treatments

4.2 Av. Number of branches per plant of sesame as affected by Different treatments

4.3 Av. Number of capsules per plant of sesame as affected by Different treatments

4.4 Test weight (g) of sesame as affected by different treatments

4.5 Seed yield (kg ha-1) and stover yield (kg ha-1) of sesame as Affected by different treatments

4.6 Oil content (%) in seeds as affected by different treatments

LIST OF PLATE

3.1 Front view of the experiment

5.1 Comparison of best nitrogen and organic manure treatment

5.2

LIST OF APPENDICES

I Cost of cultivation of sesame crop

II Detail cost of nitrogen and organic manure application

III Total cost incurred for different treatment combinations

IV Analysis of variance for growth parameters and yield attributes

V Analysis of variance for yield attributes, yield, quality and soil characters

I. INTRODUCTION

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) originated in south-western Africa, from there it might have came into India through Malayan and Indonesian regions probably before the Aryans came into this country. It belongs to order tubiflorae, family pedaliaceae, which consists of 16 genera and about 60 species. Sesame which is known variously as Sesame, Till Simsim, Beniseed, Gingelly, Gergelim etc and one of the most important oilseed crops grown extensively in India. Among the six major oilseed crops viz., groundnut, sesame, castor, rapeseed, mustard and linseed, sesame stands next to groundnut so far as production of edible oil is concerned. The oilseed crops play an important role in agriculture and industrial economy of our country.

The most important sesame growing countries in the world are India, China, Sudan, Burma and Mexico. India occupies the first place both in regard to acreage 23.9 lakh hectares and production4.9 lakh tones (Anon., 07). In India, its cultivation is largely confined to the states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Uttar Pradesh comes first in India with respect to both acreage and production. In Gujarat, sesame is cultivated in about 1.10 lakh hectares area with an annual production of about 23000 tones of seeds (Anon., 07).

Gujarat is one of the important oilseed growing state in the country particularly for groundnut and sesame. Regarding the district wise production in Gujarat state, Amreli ranks first, where as Kheda stands fourth. The major sesame growing districts in Gujarat are Amreli, Bhavnagar and Kutch, however, sesame grown in almost all the districts, except Valsad and Dangs as a kharif and semi - rabi crop. Now sesame cultivation is also done during summer season as irrigated crop in south Gujarat. Variety, Gujarat till-1 is suitable for summer cultivation. The major reasons for low yield of sesame in the country are its cultivation on marginal lands under dryland conditions, without proper use of fertilizers, inadequate plant stand and lack of plant protection measures.

In India, it occupies an area of about 1773.80 thousand hectares with production of 803.00 thousands tones having the average productivity of 453 kg ha-1during the year 2004 – 05 (Anon., 2004). In Gujarat, it occupies an area of about 402.40 thousand hectares with an annual production of 240.80 thousand tones and average productivity of 598 kg ha-1during the year 2003 – 2004 (Anon., 2004).

Sesame is to be said as “The Queen of the oilseed crops” by virtue of the excellent quality of the oil, flavour, taste and softness. Sesame is usually rich in oil (50 %), protein (18-20 %), moisture (5%), carbohydrate (16%) and fibre (5%). Amino acids viz., arginine (12.5 %), histidine (2.1 %), lysine (2.9 %), phenylalanine (6.2 %) and methionine (3.6 %) are commonly found in the sesame seed. The quality of this components little bit differ with the varieties (Black and White seed) concerned. The oil consists of glycerides, fatty acids and constituents chiefly oleic and linolenic acids with small proportions of stearic, palmatic and arachidic acids. Over and above to this local uses of seeds, oil, oil less grains, oil cakes in various countries.

Nearly 78 % of the sesame seed produced in India is used for oil extraction, 21.5 % for sowing purpose and rest is used in confections and in religious Hindu ceremonies. Nearly 73 % of the oil is used for edible purposes, 8.8 % for hydrogenation, 4.2 % for industrial purpose in the manufacture of paints, pharmaceuticals and insecticides. Minor component of the oil is “sesamin” “sesamolin which have been found effective synergists for pyrethrin, a plant insecticides.

Seeds are eaten fried and mixed with sugar and several forms in sweet meats. Oil is an important cooking oil in south India. It is really the poor man’s substitute for “ghee”. It is also used as perfumed oil. Lower grade oil is used in soap making industries. Moreover, oil is used as hair oil, body lotion and fixative in the perfume industry in cosmetics and as an adulterant with olive oil and “Vanaspati Ghee”. It finds also a number of medicinal uses. The oil cake is an edible cake. It is eaten mixed with sugar by poor peoples. It is also used as a cattle feed especially for milch animals. It is also used as manure as the till cake contain 6.0-6.2 % with Gur (gajary) and crushed in bullock drawn locally made mill (Ghani) is used to feed the bullocks in rural areas. This product is locally known as kachariyu.

Among the various factors known to augment the crop production per unit area, fertilizer aided with suitable agronomic practices play a pivotal role to boost up the crop yield. The contribution of fertilizers in crop production is 41 per cent. On the basis of the nutrient requirement of plants, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potash are considered as major nutrients used in large quantities by the plants. As the sesame is valuable and important oilseed crop in relation to edible oil, it is necessary to decrease the use of chemical fertilizers by well established techniques of using balanced organic and inorganic sources of nutrients.

Among different essential elements, nitrogen is an important element which promotes vegetative growth. Its deficiency retards growth and root development, turns the foliage yellowish or pale green, hastens maturity. The older leaves are affected first. An excess of nitrogen produces leathery (and some times wrinkled), dark green leaves and succulent growth. Since, nitrogen induces vegetative growth; it is likely to influence the seed production also. Good crop yields depend on an adequate supply of nitrogen. Lacking sufficient nitrogen, plant usually become yellow and stunted with smaller than average flowers and fruits.

The increasing cost of nitrogen fertilizer and the widening gap between supply and demand of plant nutrients in the developing countries have placed a heavy burden on the farmers. A possible solution to tide over the present problem is exploitation of natural biological nitrogen fixing system through the use of biofertilizer and different organic sources. Keeping these consideration in view, an experiment was planned to study the “Effect of N-management practices and different organic sources on growth and yield of kharif sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under middle Gujarat conditions.” during the kharif season of the year 2008-09, at the College Agronomy Farm, B. A. College of Agriculture, AnandAgricultural University, Anand (Gujarat) with the following objectives:

To study the effect of N-management practices.
To study the effect of organic manures on growth and yield of kharif sesame.
To study the economics of different nitrogen sources.

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

One of the aims of agricultural research is to increase the crop yield per unit of land and time by judicious use of inputs without deteriorating the soil fertility. In order to achieve these objectives, it is required to ascertain the optimum levels of inputs such as use of high yielding varieties, nutrients, irrigation, insecticides etc., for a particular region.

Considerable amount of work on these aspects with regards to sesame crop has been carried out in different parts of India. In recent times, the fertilizer recommendation is an important component of improved production technology. In the over all concept of sustainable agricultural production, the concept of integrated nutrient management involves the use of organic manures, green manure and biofertilizers etc., to augment fertilizer use through cheap nutrient sources in gaining attention. Present investigation has been undertaken to find out the suitable integrated nutrient management for increased and sustainable productivity of sesame in this region.

2.1 Effect of nitrogen

Addition ofnitrogen and its uptake by plants has a considerable influence on growth and yield of sesame, both qualitatively and quantitatively. On the other hand, excess application of nitrogen is not only costly but may lead to insect, pest and disease problem. Therefore, use of optimum dose of nitrogen is of vital importance to exploit the full production potential of crop.

Nitrogen is one of the costly and expensive input for getting higher yields. High cost of nitrogen fertilizers with low yielding crop necessitated to find cheap and non-renewable alternate resource through suitable biofertilizers. These are low cost, non bulky agricultural inputs which could play a significant role in plant nutrition as a supplementary/ complementary factor. Azospirillum is a non-symbiotic associative micro-aerophilic nitrogen fixer.

2.1.1 Effect of nitrogen application on growth attributes

An experiment was conducted by Mondal et al. (1992) at Kalyani (West Bengal) during summer season of 1987 and 1988 on sandy loam soil to study the effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on growth and seed yield of sesame. From this experiment; they concluded that 90 kg Nha-1 significantly increased the plant height, yield components like branches per plant of sesame.

Singaravel and Govindasamy (1998) conducted an experiment at Annamudai University (TN) and reported that application of nitrogen @ 35 kg ha-1 registered the highest plant height at all growth stages of sesame.

To study the effect of nitrogen on the growth and yield of sesame, Kalaiselvan et al. (2001) conducted a field experiment at Regional Research Station, TamilNaduAgriculturalUniversity. They concluded that the application of N fertilizer resulted in significant increase in growth parameters with an increase in N levels up to 150 kg ha-1.

Tiwari et al. (2001) conducted a field experiment during kharif season of 1996-1997 at Tikamgarh (Madhya Pradesh) to evaluate the effect of nitrogen on growth, yield and quality of sesame. Nitrogen was applied at 15, 30 or 60 kg ha-1. Significant improvement in growth like plant height, number of primary branches, leaves was observed due to application of 60 kg Nha-1.

Imayavaramban et al., (2002) conducted an experiment at Annamalai University (Tamilnadu) and revealed that integrated nutrient supply system of FYM @ 12.5 tha-1 + recommended NPK of 35 + 23 + 23 kg ha-1+ Azospirillum seed inoculation and application @ 10 kg ha-1+ phosphobactrin @ 10 kg ha-1+ MnSO4 @ 5 kg ha-1improved growth of sesame and increment in yield was 49.2 and 44.6 over recommended application of NPK alone, respectively.

Thiruppathi et al., (2003) conducted an experiment at Annamalai Nagar (TNAU) and indicated that seed inoculation with Azospirillum and foliar application of ZnSO4 0.5 % was beneficial in increasing growth characters of sesame.

Effect of nitrogen application on yield attributes and yield

The result of an experiment conducted at TamilNaduAgriculturalUniversity, Coimbatore during the kharif seasons of 1978 and 1979 revealed that application of 20 kg n ha-1 in sesame influenced the No. of capsules per plant and seed yield compatively more over other source with different levels (Venkatesan et al., 1983).

While studying the effect of biofertilizer application with nitrogen on yield and yield attributes of sesame at Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, during 1981 and 1982, Arunachalam and Venkatesan (1984) observed that the seed yield of sesame were increased with nitrogen application 15 kg Nha-1 plus Azospirillum.

Subbian and Chamy (1984) from Bhavanisagar (Tamilnadu) reported that application of 22.5 kg Nha-1 with seed inoculation of Azotobacter or Azospirillum culture gave maximum yield of sesame. They also found that higher dose beyond 22.5 kg Nha-1 with microbial culture, however, had a dressing effect on seed yield.

Kadam et al. (1989) conducted an experiment at Parbhani (Maharashtra) on clayey soil in kharif season of 1986. They reported that the highest yield of 7.17 q/ha was noted due to an application of 50 kg Nha-1 and also observed the significant increase in yield attributing characters viz., number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant and test weight.

Deshmukh et al. (1990) conducted an experiment at MarathwadaAgriculturalUniversity (Maharashtra), Parbhani during kharif season of 1987 to study the effect of different levels of nitrogen. They revealed that the response of grain and test weight to nitrogen was significant up to 120 kg Nha-1, whereas, number of capsules per plant and weight of grain per plant responded up to 80 kg Nha-1.

Jadhav et al. (1992) conducted an experiment at Parbhani (Maharashtra) on black cotton soil during summer season of 1981. They reported that the highest seed yield of sesame (6.13 q/ha) was obtained with 120 kg Nha-1.

An experiment was conducted by Mondal et al. (1992) at Kalyani (West Bengal) during summer season of 1987 and 1988 on sandy loam soil to study the effect of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients on growth and seed yield of sesame. From this experiment; they concluded that 90 kg Nha-1 significantly increased the capsules per plant, seed weight per capsules, number of seeds per capsules, 1000-seed weight and seed yield of sesame.

At Raipur, Shrivastava and Tripathi (1992) conducted an experiment on clayey loam soil during summer season of 1990. They reported that nitrogen @ 90 kg ha-1gave the highest yield and yield attributes i.e., branches per plant, capsules per plant, seeds per capsule and stalk yield which were significantly superior to 60 and 30 kg Nha-1.

Roy et al. (1995) conducted an experiment during 1991, at Joydebur, Bangladesh on silty loam soil to study the effect of nitrogen (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1) and potassium on growth and seed yield of sesame. From the result they concluded that with an application of 80 kg Nha-1, significantly higher yield and better growth of sesame was observed.

While studying the effect of nitrogen on yield attributes and yield of sesame, on sandy loam soils during kharif seasons of 1992 at Tirupati campus of ANGRAU, Rajendranagar (Hyderabad), Hemalatha et al. (1999) found that nitrogen application increased the no. of capsules per plant, no. of seeds per capsules, Test weight, seed yield, Stalk yield and harvest index up to 90 kg N ha-1.

A field trial was carried out between 1993 to 1997 under rainfed conditions at five locations to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management on sesame in kharif season under different soil types. Duhoon et al., (2001) reported that seed treatment with Azospirillum or PSB inoculums and 100 % recommended fertilizer dose resulted in the higher seed yield.

To study the effect of nitrogen on the growth and yield of sesame, Kalaiselvan et al. (2001) conducted a field experiment at Regional Research Station, TamilNaduAgriculturalUniversity. They concluded that the application of N fertilizer resulted in significant increase in yield parameters and seed yield with an increase in N levels up to 150 kg ha-1.

A field experiment was conducted by Patra (2001) during rainy season of 1996 and 1997 on sandy loam soil of Chiplima, Orissa to evaluate the effect of N and P on yield attributes, yield and seed quality. The result revealed that the seed yield and yield attributes such as branches per plant, capsules per plant, sees per capsules, length of capsule and 1000-seed weight increased significantly with an application of 60 kg N ha-1.

Tiwari et al. (2001) conducted a field experiment during kharif season of 1996-1997 at Tikamgarh (Madhya Pradesh) to evaluate the effect of nitrogen on growth, yield and quality of sesame. Nitrogen was applied at 15, 30 or 60 kg ha-1. Significant improvement in yield and yield attributes like capsules per plant, pod length, number of seeds per capsule and 1000-seed weight were observed due to application of 60 kg Nha-1.

Imayavaramban et al., (2002) conducted an experiment at Annamalai University (Tamilnadu) and revealed that integrated nutrient supply system of FYM @ 12.5 tha-1 + recommended NPK of 35 + 23 + 23 kg ha-1+ Azospirillum seed inoculation and application @ 10 kg ha-1+ phosphobactrin @ 10 kg ha-1+ MnSO4 @ 5 kg ha-1improved yield attributes and yield of sesame and increment in yield was 49.2 and 44.6 over recommended application of NPK alone, respectively.

Sarala and Jagannatham (2002) conducted a field experiment on sandy loam soil during kharif season at S.V.AgriculturalCollege, Tirupati (A. P.) to study the effect of nitrogen application on sesame. The result revealed that the higher values at no. of capsules per plant, no. of seeds per capsules and seed yield of sesame were recorded 60 kg N ha-1, which were at par with 45 kg N ha-1 + Azospirillum.

2.1.3 Effect of nitrogen application on quality

Patra (2001) conducted a field experiment on sandy loam soils during kharif season of 1996 and 1997 at Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station, O.U.A.T, Chiplima, Sambalpur (Orissa) to study effect of nitrogen fertilization on sesame. The results indicated the highest values of oil yield of sesame recorded under 60 kg N ha-1.

Ghosh et al., (2005) conducted experiment during the kharif seasons of 2000 and 2001 at Indian Institute of Soil Science, Nabibagh, Bhopal (M.P.) to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on quality. The observed that the increasing trend in oil yield was recorded with levels of inorganic fertilizer over control.

An experiment was conducted by Reddy et al. (2007) at Directorate of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A.P.) on sandy loam soil during the kharif season of 2005 to study the effect of different nitrogen through organic manure in sesame. The result indicated that the maximum oil yield was observed with 50 % NPK + 50 % FYM, which compared with the application of 100 % NPK. Lowest oil yield was observed with control.

2.1.4 Effect of nitrogen application on soil physical, chemical and

Bio properties

An experiment was conducted during summer of 1993 – 94 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Indira Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (M.P.) on sandy loam soil. From the results, Singh et al., (1997) observed that an application of poultry manure alone significantly increased the available N over all the treatments except N20 + poultry manure in available N uptake in the soil.

A field experiment was conducted by Aruna et al. (1999) during rabi season of 1995 – 96 at Department of Agronomy, AgriculturalCollege, Bapatla (A.P.) on sandy loam soil on study the effect of organic and inorganic sources on yield and uptake of nutrient of sesame. The observed that the biogas slurry at 18 tha-1 + 50 kg Nha-1 gave significantly higher seed yield with higher uptake of NPK in seed and haulms than other sources at corresponding level.

Reddy et al., (2007) studied the nitrogen requirement at sesame in sandy loam soils during kharif season 2005 at Directorate of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad (A.P.). The results revealed the significant differences in nutrient uptake were observed with the application of 100 % NPK.

2.1.5 Effect of nitrogen application on economics

Dwivedi and Namdeo (1992), at Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (MP), studied the effect of different levels of nitrogen viz., 0, 15, 30 and 45 kg Nha-1. They found that response to nitrogen was noticed up to 30 kg ha-1, with the maximum return.

Singh et al. (1997) conducted field experiment at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Indira Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur (M.P.) during summer season of 1993 and 1994. From the results, the found that net return was estimated to be highest with poultry manure.

A field trial was carried out between 1993 to 1997 under rainfed conditions at five locations to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management on sesame in kharif season under different soil types. Duhoon et al., (2001) reported that seed treatment with Azospirillum or PSB inoculums and 100 % recommended fertilizer dose resulted in net return and Increment Benefit Cost Ratio at all the locations.

Deshmukh et al. (2002) conducted a field experiment at Jawharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya Jabalpur (M.P.) during kharif season of 1999 and 2000. From the result, found that benefit cost ratio was estimated to be higher with the application of 50 % N Urea + 50 % N FYM through producing higher seed yield.

Effect of organic manure

An application of plant nutrients through organic sources like poultry manure, vermicompost and bio-fertilizers remains the alternate choice of the farmers for maintaining sustainable production.

Organic matter plays a prominent role in sustained productivity in tropical soils under continuous cultivations. Organic sources for incorporation into the soil are becoming scarce. Hence as an alternative, humic acid extracted from lignite was tried to find out this effect sesame.

Effect of organic manure on growth attributes

A field experiment was conducted by Chellaiah and Gopalaswamy during kharif 1993 on the clay loam soil of Srivilliputtur, to study the effect of foliar application of humic acid and nutrients on the rice fallow sesame. They also found that DAP 2 % + humic acid 0.5 % recorded significantly maximum plant height.

Singaravel and Govindasamy (1998) conducted a field experiment at AnnamalaiUniversity, Tamil Nadu to find out the effect of humic acid on the growth and yield of sesame. They noted that all the levels of HA application had exerted stimulating effect on plant height and dry matter of sesame as compared to control.

Reddy et al. (2007) conducted an experiment at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif season of 2005 to study the productivity and nutrient uptake of sunflower as influenced by site specific integrated nutrient management on alfisols. They reported that the 50 % NPK + 50% N (25 % N-GM + 25 % N-PM) significantly increased the plant height of sunflower.

Effect of organic manure on yield attributes and yield

A field experiment was conducted by Chellaiah and Gopalaswamy during kharif 1993 on the clay loam soil of Srivilliputtur, to study the effect of foliar application of humic acid and nutrients on the rice fallow sesame. They also found that DAP 2 % + humic acid 0.5 % recorded significantly maximum plant height and maximum number of primary branches per plant, capsules per plant, seeds per capsule, 1000-seed weight and seed yield.

Singaravel et al. (1993) conducted an experiment at Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu and indicated that the plant height at harvest and dry matter at different stages of sesame were increased with the combined application of N @ 35kg ha-1and humic acid 20 kg ha-1and also increase the capsules per plant and 1000-seed weight. The highest seed yield of 713 kg ha-1was observed with the combined application of N 2 35 kg ha-1and humic acid @ 20 kg ha-1, the increase being 21.2 % over N application alone (588 kg ha-1).

Singh et al. (1997) conducted a field experiment at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, Madhya Pradesh. The result revealed that application of N alone or in combination with poultry manure resulted in significant increase in seed yield over the control.

Devidayal and Agarwal (1998) conducted an experiment at Hisar during spring season on sandy-loam soil to study the response of sunflower to organic manures and fertilizers. They revealed that the vermicompost at 10 t ha-1 gave significantly higher seed yield, straw yield and biological yield of sunflower.

Singaravel and Govindasamy (1998) conducted a field experiment at AnnamalaiUniversity, Tamil Nadu to find out the effect of humic acid on the growth and yield of sesame. They noted that all the levels of HA application had exerted stimulating effect on dry matter of sesame as compared to control. HA and N application registered higher dry matter (2926 kg ha-1) over control (2118 kg ha-1) and also increased the numbers of capsules per plant and 1000 seed weight. The highest seed yield (839 kg ha-1) was obtained with HA application @ 20 kg ha-1and N at 35 kg ha-1.

A field experiment was conducted by Pattar et al. (1999) at Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad to find out the effect of organic manures and fertilizers levels on nutrient uptake, soil nutrient status and yield of groundnut. The result revealed that the highest pod yield 27.84 qha-1 was recorded in treatment receiving vermicompost @ 2 tha-1.

Chaithanya Devi et al., (2003) conducted trial at Department of Soil Science and Agril. Chemistry, S.V. Agricultural College, ANGRAU, Tirupati, to study the effect of inorganic fertilizers and organic manures on growth, yield and uptake of nutrients by groundnut. They reported that the increase the filled pods per plant over control, 100 pod weights and pod yield over control.

Ghosh et al. (2005) conducted an experiment at Bhopal, India during rainy season on deep vertisols to study the effect of integrated nutrient management on matter production, water use efficiency and productivity of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merill in vertisols of central India. They concluded that 75 % recommended NPK + PM @ 1.5 tha-1 was beneficial in increasing dry matter, water use efficiency, yield attributes and yield of soybean.

Reddy et al. (2007) conducted an experiment at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif season of 2005 to study the productivity and nutrient uptake of sunflower as influenced by site specific integrated nutrient management on alfisols. They reported that the 50 % NPK + 50% N (25 % N-GM + 25 % N-PM) significantly increased the leaves per plant and seed yield of sunflower.

Effect of organic manure on quality

Vaiyapuri et al. (2003) comducted an experiment at Annamalainagar (Tamil Nadu) during seasons of summer and kharif 2001, to study the effect of S levels and organics on seed quality and nutrient uptake of sesame. They observed that application of poultry manure @ 10 t ha-1 recorded the maximum oil content, oil yield and crude protein content.

2.2.4 Effect of organic manure on soil physical, chemical and bio properties

Chaithanya Devi et al., (2003) conducted trial at Dept. of Soil Science and Agril. Chemistry, S.V.AgriculturalCollege, ANGRAU, Tirupati, to study the effect of inorganic fertilizers and organic manures on growth, yield and uptake of nutrients by groundnut.

2.2.5 Effect of organic manure on economics

A field experiment was conducted at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar during the spring season to 1995 and 1996 to study the effect of organic manures, Devidayal et al., (1998). They reported more difference in net returns of sunflowers.

2.3 Effect of interaction

As the sesame is valuable of important oilseed crop, it is necessary to decrease the uses of chemical fertilizers by well established techniques of using balanced in organic and organic sources of nutrients in integrated way. The nutrients application in integrated way maintains soil fertility and gives higher production in a sustainable manner.

Chinnamuthu and Venkatakrishnan (2001) conducted an experiment during kharif seasons of 1994-1995 and 1995-1996 on sandy loam soils at TamilNaduAgriculturalUniversity, Coimbatore. The results revealed that seed yield was highest under application of 100 % NPK along with two tones vermicompost per hacters.

III. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The details about materials used, experimental methods followed and the techniques adopted during the course of investigation on “Effect of N-management practices and different organic sources on growth and yield of kharif sesame (Sesame indicum L.) under middle Gujarat conditions” are given below.

3.1 EXPERIMENTAL SITE

The field experiment was conducted during kharif season of the year 2008 at the College Agronomy Farm, B.A.College of Agriculture, AnandAgriculturalUniversity, Anand, Gujarat.

3.2 CLIMATE AND WEATHER

Geographically, Anand is situated at 22º- 35 North latitude, 72º- 55 East longitudes with an elevation of 45.1 meters above the mean sea level. It represents Middle Gujarat Agro climatic Zone, consisting of whole of Anand, Kheda, Ahmedabad, Panchamahals, Baroda and Dahod districts.

Climate of the Anand district is sub tropical .The winter is fairly cold and dry, while summer is fairly dry and hot. Monsoon is warm and moderately humid. Monsoon commences by the third week of June and ends by the second or third week of September with an average annual rainfall of about 864 mm received entirely from the South-West monsoon currents. Timely and sufficient rainfall in monsoon in this area is not sure. Partial failure of monsoon once in

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Title
Effect of N-Management Practices and different organic Sources on Growth and Yield of Kharif Sesame (Sesamum indicum L) under middle Gujarat Conditions
College
Gujarat University  (ANAND AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, ANAND)
Course
Agronomy (Genaral)
Grade
2nd
Author
Year
2009
Pages
105
Catalog Number
V231161
ISBN (eBook)
9783656475637
ISBN (Book)
9783656476153
File size
963 KB
Language
English
Notes
Tags
effect, n-management, practices, sources, growth, yield, kharif, sesame, sesamum, gujarat, conditions
Quote paper
Patel Nileshkumar Ashwinbhai (Author), 2009, Effect of N-Management Practices and different organic Sources on Growth and Yield of Kharif Sesame (Sesamum indicum L) under middle Gujarat Conditions, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/231161

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